Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology

H. Holt, 1914 - 439 páginas

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Página 1 - Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness.
Página 165 - Again, it may be asked, how is it that varieties, which I have called incipient species, become ultimately converted into good and distinct species, which in most cases obviously differ from each other far more than do the varieties of the same species...
Página 165 - ... we see beautiful adaptations everywhere and in every part of the organic world.
Página 165 - ... offspring. The offspring, also, will thus have a better chance of surviving, for, of the many individuals of any species which are periodically born, but a small number can survive. I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection, in order to mark its relation to man's power of selection.
Página 155 - The many converging lines of evidence point so clearly to the central fact of the origin of the forms of life by an evolutionary process that we are compelled to accept this deduction, but as to almost all the essential features, whether of cause or mode, by which specific diversity has become what we perceive it to be, we have to confess an ignorance nearly total.
Página 12 - What gives me hope that the behaviorist's position is a defensible one is the fact that those branches of psychology which have already partially withdrawn from the parent, experimental psychology, and which are consequently less dependent upon introspection are today in a most flourishing condition. Experimental pedagogy, the psychology of drugs, the psychology of advertising, legal psychology, the psychology of tests, and psychopathology are all vigorous growths. These are sometimes wrongly called...
Página 252 - Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur...
Página 165 - Owing to this struggle, variations, however slight and from whatever cause proceeding, if they be in any degree profitable to the individuals of a species in their infinitely complex relations to other organic beings and to their physical conditions of life, will tend to the preservation of such individuals and will generally be inherited by the offspring.
Página 7 - The time seems to have come when psychology must discard all reference to consciousness; when it need no longer delude itself into thinking that it is making mental states the object of observation.
Página 28 - This suggested elimination of states of consciousness as proper objects of investigation in themselves will remove the barrier from psychology which exists between it and the other sciences. The findings of psychology become the functional correlates of structure and lend themselves to explanation in physico-chemical terms.

Acerca do autor (1914)

John B. Watson, an American psychologist, was the founder of behaviorism, an enormously influential orientation that had an impact on sociology and political science as well as psychology. His own early research was experimental, in animal psychology and in child behavior, but in 1913 he published a startling polemical paper entitled "Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It." In it he enunciated the doctrine that psychology is strictly the science of behavior. Mentalistic concepts, images, the study of consciousness, and introspection must all be abandoned, he said, to be replaced by the objective observation of the organism's response to controlled stimuli. Watson taught for 12 years at Johns Hopkins University, where he founded a laboratory for animal experimentation and did the research and writing on which his reputation rests. Then a sensational divorce in 1920 forced him to leave the academic world for a career in advertising. He later published a semipopular book, Behaviorism (1925), which made him the second best-known psychologist of his time (after Freud). For many people, Watson's claims that there are no hereditary traits and that behavior consists of learned habits constituted the core of psychology. There are no pure behaviorists in the social sciences today, but Watson's work---which led, for example, to the use of rooms with one-way glass walls for studying behavior---survives in many direct and indirect ways.

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