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general, and in 1786 he returned to Poland. In 1789, the Polish army was formed, and the diet appointed him major-general. In 1791, he served under Prince Joseph Poniatowski, and in the campaign of the next year, he distinguished himself against the Russians. At Dubienka, under cover of some works which he had thrown up, he, with four thousand men, repulsed three attacks of the Russians, who amounted to thirteen thousand men, Kosciusko was obliged to retire, but he retreated without severe loss, while the Russians lost four thousand men.
When King Stanislaus submitted to Catherine, Kosciusko left the army, and retired from Poland. He went to Leipsic, and the legislative assembly of France at this time gave him the rights of a French citizen. The Poles becoming impatient under the oppression of Russia, some of Kosciusko's friends in Warsaw determined to make an effort for the liberation of the country. They chose him for their general, and made him acquainted with their plans. He imparted them to the counts Ignatius Potocki and Kolontai, in Dresden, who thought the enterprise injudicious. He, however, went to the frontier, and sent General Zayonezeck and Dzialynski into the Russian provinces of Poland to prepare everything in silence.
But when the Polish army was merged, in part, in the Russian, and the remainder reduced to fifteen thousand men,
the insurrection broke out before the time fixed upon. The people new to arms, and Kosciusko was everywhere proclaimed as generalissimo. The troops took an oath of allegiance to him, and by deed appointed him dictator, in imitation of the Ro
man custom, on occasions of emergency. His power was absolute. He had the command of all the armies, and the regulation of all affairs, political and civil. Never was confidence so fully and unscrupulously reposed by a nation in a single individual never were expectations better grounded. On the 1st of April he left Cracow at the head of four thousand men, armed mostly with scythes, and, on the 4th of the same month, encountered a body of Russians, more than thrice his own number, near the village of Raclawice. The battle lasted for five hours, and victory declared for the brave Poles; three thousand Russians being killed upon the spot. This success confirmed the wavering patriots, and accelerated the develop
of the insurrection throughout the kingdom. Wilna and other cities threw off the yoke. The patriots, however, suffered a defeat near Chelm, and Cracow soon after fell into the hands of the
enemy. By this time the Russians and their allies began to approach Warsaw. Three leagues from that city, at Praca-Wola, Kosciusko was encamped.
It was here that one of his brothers in arms found him sleeping on straw. The picture he draws of this extraordinary individual in his camp, is an interesting view of the hero who upheld the fate of Poland. “We passed,” says Count Oginski," from Kosciusko's tent, to a table under some trees. The frugal repast made here, with a dozen guests, will never be effaced from my memory. The presence of this great man, who had excited the admiration of all Europe; who was the terror of his enemies, and the idol of the nation; who, raised to the rank of generalissimo, had
no ambition but to serve his country and to fight for it; who always observed an unassuming, aflable and mild demonnor ; who never wore any distinguishing mark of the supreme authority with which he was invested ; who was contented with a suit of course, gray cloth, and whose table was as plainly furnished as that of a subaltern oflicer; could not fail to awaken in me every sentiment of esteem, admiration and veneration, which I have sincerely felt for him at every period of my life." The enemy
continued to advance towards Warsaw, but the city resisted all their attacks. At length Wilna yielded to the soldiers of Catherine, and the rest of the province soon shared the same fate. On the 10th of October, Kosciusko fell upon Fersen. The battle was bloody, and fatal to the patriots. Victory was wavering, and, the expected reinforcements not appearing, Kosciusko, at the head of his principal oflicers, made a furious charge, and plunged into the midst of the Russians. He fell, covered with wounds, and all his companions were killed or taken captive. The general lay senseless among the slain. At length he was recognised, notwithstanding the plainness of his uniform, and was found still brenthing. His name now commanded respect, even from the barbarous Cossacks--some of whom were about to plunder him. They instantly formed a litter with their lances, and conveyed him to the commander-inchief, who ordered his wounds to be dressed, and treated him with the consideration he deserved. As soon as he was able to travel, he was conducted to Petersburg, where Catherine condemned this highminded patriot to end his days in prison. The news of his captivity spread like lightning to Warsaw. Every one received it as the announcement of the country's fall. “ It may appear incredible,” says Oginski, “but I can attest what I have beheld, and what a number of witnesses can certify with me, that many invalids were seized with burning fevers; some fell into fits of madness, which never left them; and men and women were seen in the streets, wringing their hands, beating their heads against the walls, and exclaiming in despair, Kosciusko is no more; the country is lost!'” In fact, the Poles seemed paralyzed by this blow. Warsaw capitulated in a short time after; and the soldiers and generals of the revolution were either killed or dispersed, immured in the prisons of Petersburg, or sent to Siberia.
The death of Catherine, on the 17th of November, 1796, delivered the Poles from a detestable tyrant. Her successor, the Emperor Paul, commenced a new era in Russian history, that of cleinency. Ilis behavior to Kosciusko was almost heroic. He visited him in prison, embraced him warmly, and told him he was free. He even presented him with his own sword, but the Polish hero declined it, saying, “ I no longer need a sword, since I have no longer a country.” To the day of his d ith, he never again wore a sword. Paul also proposed to present him with a high military post: but this was declined. He then gave him fifteen hundred serfs and twelve thousand roubles, as a testimony of regard. But Kosciusko determined to go to America, and returned these presents. He then proceeded, by way of England, to the New World. He was received with marks of the greatest kindness in the United States; and, as his fortune was small, he had been allowed a pension from our government. On his arrival in France, in 1798, his countrymen, in the Italian army, presented him with the sword of John Sobieski, which had been found at Loretto. He now settled near Fontainbleau, where he resided several years.
It was in 1797, that he touched at England, on his passage to America. Dr. Warner, who saw him at the house of the consul at Bristol, says: “I never contemplated a more interesting human figure than Kosciusko, stretched on his couch. His wounds were still unhealed, and he was unable to sit upright. He appeared to be a small man, spare and delicate. A black silk bandage crossed his fair and high, but somewhat wrinkled forehead. Beneath it, his dark, eagle eye sent forth a flame of light, that indicated the steady flame of patriotism which still burned within his soul, unquenched by disaster and wounds weakness, poverty and exile. Contrasted with its brightness was the paleness of his countenance, and the wan cast of every feature. He spoke tolerable English, though in a low and feeble tone; but his conversation, replete with fine sense, lively remark, and sagacious answers, evinced a noble understanding and a cultivated mind. On rising to depart, I offered him my hand: he took it. My eyes filled with tears; and he gave it a warm grasp. I muttered something about brighter prospects and happier days!' He faintly smiled and said, “Ah! sir,