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he who devotes himself for his country must not look for his reward on this side of the grave.'”

When, in 1806, Napoleon felt what powerful allies the Poles, fighting for liberty, would be against Russia and Prussia, he used many arts to engage them in his cause. There was one man then living, near Fontainbleau, whose name alone would have raised the whole population of Poland-Kosciusko. Bonaparte made him the most pressing invitations to share in the campaign, and urged him, again and again, to address his fellow-countrymen, and call upon the Polish nation to embrace the present opportunity of regaining their liberty. But Kosciusko was not dazzled by the splendor of Napoleon's career; and he divined that a military despot might be as treacherous as hereditary tyrants. He seemed, too, to share, in a degree, the feelings of those who, being set free and mildly treated by Paul, imagined it would be an act of ingratitude to appear in arms against him. He never ceased, however, to hold the welfare of his native land most dear to his heart. On the 9th of April, 1814, after the allies had entered Paris, he sent a letter to Alexander, in behalf of the Poles. The emperor returned an autograph answer, promising that his wishes should be accomplished. He again wrote to Alexander, on the 10th of June, 1815, at Vienna, calling upon him to fulfil the promises he had made to him. To this no answer was given, and Kosciusko, certain that his apprehensions were well founded, on the 13th of June announced his intention to retire to Switzerland. This design he soon put into execution, and went to reside at Soleure, where

he ended his illustrious life, on the 16th of October, 1817.

His body is deposited in the cathedral of Cracow, in the same chapel where Sobieski and Joseph Poniatowski had been laid before him; and on the summit of the artificial mountain, Bronislawa, national gratitude has erected a monument to his immortal memory

The materials for preparing the memoirs of Kosciusko are scanty, but enough is preserved to show that his character was one of the finest in history. As a general, his rank is among the first, and his achievements altogether wonderful. During the war of 1794, with a regular force of twenty thousand men and four thousand peasants, he maintained himself for a long period against four hostile armies, amounting together to one hundred and fifty thousand men, and led by the greatest generals of the time. In the discharge of the dictatorship conferred upon him, he displayed the integrity of Washington and the activity of Cæsar. He attended to procuring supplies, superintended the raising and payment of money, prevented plundering and fraud, and was equally active in the council and the field. His days and nights, and all his powers were devoted to his country. He secured the administration of justice, abolished bondage, and finally restored to the nation, in the supreme national council which he established, the great power which had been delegated to him.

The amiableness of Kosciusko's private life has given a beautiful finish to his fame, so exalted as a general and a patriot. A single anecdote will illus

trate his character. He once wished to send some wine to a clergyman at Solothurn; and, as he hesi'tated to trust it by his servant, lest he should take some of it, he gave the commission to a young man of the name of Zeltner, and desired him to use the horse which he himself usually rode. On his return, young Zeltner said that he would never ride his horse again, unless he gave him his purse at the same time. Kosciusko inquiring what he meant, he answered,—“ As soon as a poor man on the road takes off his hat and asks charity, the horse immediately stands still, and will not stir till something is given to the petitioner; and as I had no money about me, I was obliged to feign giving something, to satisfy the beast."

The sympathy which was excited by the struggle of the Poles in 1794, and the heroic character of Kosciusko, are well commemorated in the following lines of Campbell, from the “ Pleasures of Hope.”

Oh! sacred truth! thy triumph ceased awhile !
And Hope, thy sister, ceased with thee to smile,
When leagued oppression poured to northern wars
Her whiskered pandoors and her fierce hussars,
Waved her dread standard to the breeze of morn,
Pealed her loud drum, and twanged her trumpet horn;
Tumultuous horror brooded o'er her van,
Presaging wrath to Poland,—and to man!

Warsaw's last champion from her height surveyed
Wide o'er the fields, a waste of ruin laid, -
Oh! Heaven! he cried, my bleeding country save!
Is there no hand on high to shield the brave?
Yet though destruction sweeps those lovely plains,
Rise, fellow-men! our country yet remains !

By that dread name, we wave the sword on high!
And swear for her to live,--with her to die!

He said, and on the rampart heights arrayed
His trusty warriors, few, but undismayed;
Firm paced and slow, a horrid front they form,
Still as the breeze, but dreadful as the storm;
Low murmuring sounds along their banners fly,
Revenge or death,—the watch-word and reply;
Then pealed the notes, omnipotent to charm,
And the loud tocsin tolled their last alarm!

In vain, alas! in vain, ye gallant few,
From rank to rank your volleyed thunder flew;
Oh, bloodiest picture in the book of Time,
Sarmatia fell, unwept, without a crime;
Found not a generous friend, a pitying foe,
Strength in her arms, nor mercy in her wo!
Dropped from her nerveless grasp, the shattered spear,
Closed her bright eye, and curbed her high career;
Hope, for a season, bade the world farewell,
And Freedom shrieked, as Kosciusko fell!

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Those who have perused the charming romance of Florian, under the title of “William Tell, or Switzerland Delivered,” may be reluctant to come down to the somewhat meagre details which constitute all we know of his veritable history. Yet, as, on the one hand, the “Deliverer of Switzerland” demands a place in our list of patriots—so sober truth compels us to say that in the dearth of well authenticated facts respecting his life, the real existence of such a man has been seriously denied. It is not our purpose, however, to dwell upon these doubts-William Tell unquestionably lived and performed the great actions attributed to him ; and these we shall present to the reader.

We must travel back more than five hundred years, and take our stand in the centre of Europe, at the period when the dark ages are nearly passed, and the light of civilization is beginning to dawn along the horizon.

At this epoch, Rodolph, Count of Hapsburgh, in Switzerland, appeared upon the stage of history. His possessions were small, but he had fine talents, a good address and boundless ambition; and in the course of events, he became the emperor of Germany. This occurred in 1273. From him the present house of Austria is descended. For a series of generations the daughters of this family have been remarkable for their

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