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Introductory Remarks on Aural Surgery.—Former means of diagnosis, and general knowledge of the subject—Early History of the Art.—Writings of the Ancients from

Hippocrates to Galen Discoveries of the Anatomists of the fifteenth century.—Irish

Translations.—Mercurialis. Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb—Heumius.—Introduction of the Speculum by Fabricius. Bonet and Du Verney Kennedy.—Eustachian Cathetcrism by Guyot. English Aurists: Cleland and Wathan—Leschevin.—

Degravers Valsalva and Cassebohm Sims and the London Medical Society—

Graham and Elliott Quacks and Quackery Perforation of Mastoid Process.—

Cheselden Perforation of the Membrana Tympani by Sir A. Cooper—Saunders.

—Curtis and his followers; Stephenson, Williams, Wright, Webster, Hepworth, and

Gardner.—Buchanan, Earle, Tod, Swan and Caswell The French School: Laenncc,

Hard, and Deleau.—The German School: Kramer, Schmalz, Lincke, and Frank— The Modern English School: Toynbee, Pilcher, Wharton Jones, Williams, Yearsley,

Harvey, Dufton, and Wakeley Turnbull and his Reviewers.—Requisites for an

Aural Surgeon, and what Aural Surgery can effect.

TN the following Treatise I purpose writing, for the information -*- of practitioners and students in medicine, the history, symptoms, causes, mode of treatment, and results of the most frequent and remarkable diseasesof theEar. With respect to my competency to this task, I have but to remark, that 1 have had very ample opportunities for studying these diseases during the last ten years in an extensive practice, and in the management of a large public institution in Dublin, for a long time the only one of the kind open to the student where clinical and practical instruction in Aural Surgery was delivered in Great Britain.

This work is the result of the experience thus acquired. Detached portions of it, clinical lectures, and cases observed at St. Mark's Hospital, have already appeared in the periodicals of this country, and some of these essays have been translated and published separately on the Continent. All these, together with much additional information gleaned since their publication, are embodied in this book, which does not profess to be a complete system of Aural Surgery, giving a full description of all the diseases of the Ear which have been recorded by authors; but is intended to supply the reader with a practical treatise on the most frequent and urgent affections of the organ of hearing, and those that I myself am best acquainted with. It may, therefore, be regarded somewhat in the light of a monograph, a form of publication peculiar to this School, and one generally containing more useful and practical information than either a large systematic work or a manual.

In studying the diseases of the Ear, my object has been to take as a basis the principles of pathology: and to reduce their treatment, local as well as general, to the recognised rules of modern therapeutics and scientific surgery; but, above all, I have laboured to divest this branch of medicine of that shroud of quackery, medical as well as popular, with which, until lately, it has been encompassed.

Country friends often ask me, " Have you found out any new cure for deafness T I do not profess to invent or introduce new remedies. I try to make the well-established rules of practice in the treatment of other organs applicable to the management of aural diseases. Like most students, I was taught during my apprenticeship theoretically to believe, and practically to observe, that we "knew nothing about the diseases of the organs of hearing." This was the dictum honestly expressed by the "heads of the Profession,"—men from whom the public were willing to receive a fearless, candid opinion, either immediately on being consulted, or after a few trials of the "ordinary means;" to wit, syringing with hot water and soap, either Castile, soft, yellow, or old brown Windsor, in the hope that the deafness or the noise in the ears might arise from a collection of hardened wax;—then setting the digestive organs to rights by purgation, and a "course

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