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longed, and that under the management of Henslowe, its known before it appeared in the folio of 1623, and we may may be looked upon as singular, that the latter should have infer that Butter failed in getting o good allowance" witli been witliont a drama on that portion of English history “the wardens' hands to it." until after 1599; and it is certainly not less singular, that as The Globe Theatre was destroyed on 29th June, 1613, the

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ing a new play upon the subject. Possibly, about that date discharge of some small pieces of ordnance. (Hist. of Engl. eare's - Richard

had been revived with Dram. Poetry and the Stage, vol. iii. p. 298.) It has been the additions; and hence the employment of Jonson on a stated by Howes, in his continuation of Stowe's Chronicle, rival drama, and the publication of the third edition of Shake-| that the play then in a course of representation was “ Henry speare's tragedy after an interval of four years.

the Eighth ;" but Sir Henry Wotton, who is very particular Malone was of opinion that Shakespeare wrote “ Richard in his description of the calamity, asserts that the play was the Third " in 1593, but did not adduce a particle of evidence, called “ All is True." There is little doubt that he is right, and none in fact exists. We should be disposed to place it because a ballad, printed on the occasion, has the burden of somewhat nearer the time of publication.

6 All is True' at the end of every stanza. The question then is, whether this was Shakespeare's " Henry the Eighth" under a different title, or a different play? Sir Henry Wot

ton informs us in terms that it was a new play," and as he KING HENRY VIII.

was right in the title, we may have the more faith in his

statement respecting the novelty of the performance. 66 The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eight," In the instance of “Henry the Eighth," as of many other

was first printed in the folio of 1623, where it occupies | works by our great dramatist, there is ground for believing twenty-eight pages; viz. from p. 205 to p. 232, inclusive. I that there existed a preceding play on the same story. Hen. It is the last play in the division of 66 Histories." It fills slowe's Diary affords us some curious and important evithe same place in the later impressions in the same form. dence on this point, unknown to Malone. According to this

authority two plays were written in the year 1601 for the THE principal question, in relation to Shakespeare's Earl of Nottingham's players, on the events of the life of " Henry the Eighth," is, when it was written. We are satis- Cardinal Wolsey, including necessarily some of the chief infied, both by the internal and external evidence, that it cidents of the reign of Henry VIII. These plays consisted came from the poet's pen after James I. had ascended the of a first and second part, the one called "The Rising of throne.

Cardinal Wolsey," and the other, " Cardinal Wolsey," We Independently of the whole character of the drama, which collect that the last was produced first, and the success it met was little calculated to please Elizabeth, it seems to us that with on the stage was perhaps the occasion of the second Cranmer's prophecy, in Act v. sc. 4, is quite decisive. There drama, containing, in fact, the commencement of the story. the poet first speaks of Elizabeth, and of the advantages de- of this course of proceeding Henslowe's Diary furnishes rived from her rule, and then proceeds in the clearest several other examples. manner to notice her successor :-

The earliest entry relating to 66 Cardinal Wolsey," (the

second play in the order of the incidents, though the earliest "Nor shall this peace sleep with her : but as when

in point of production) is dated 5th June, 1601, when Henry The bird of wonder dies, the maiden phenix,

Chettle was paid 20s. “ for writing the book of Cardinal Her ashes new create another heir,

Wolsey." On the 14th July he was paid 40s. more on the As great in estimation as herself;

same account, and in the whole, between 5th June and 17tlı So shall she leave her blessedness to one (When heaven shall call her from this cloud of darkness)

July, he was paid 51., as large a sum as he usually obtained Who from the sacred ashes of her honour

for a new play. Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she was,

We have no positive testimony of the success of " CardiAnd so stand fix'd."

nal Wolsey," of which Chettle was the sole author; but we

are led to infer it, because very soon afterwards we find no Ingenuity cannot pervert these lines to any other meaning; fewer than four poets engaged upon the production of the but it has been said that they, and some others which follow drama under the title of " The Rising of Cardinal Wolsey," them, were a subsequent introduction; and, moreover, that which, doubtless, related to his early life, and to his gradual they were the work of Ben Jonson, on some revival of the advance in the favour of Henry VIII. These four poets were play in the reign of James I. There does not exist the Drayton, Chettle, Munday, and Wentworth Smith; and so slightest evidence to establish.either proposition. Any per-many pens, we may conjecture, were employed, that the play son, reading the whole of Cranmer's speech at the christening, might be brought out with all dispatch, in order to follow up can hardly fail to perceive such an entireness and sequence the popularity of what may be looked upon as the second of thoughts and words in it, as to make it very unlikely part of the same "history." Another memoranduin in Henthat it was not dictated by the same intellect, and written slowe's Diary tends to the same conclusion, for it appears by the same pen. Malone and others made up their minds that the play was licensed piece-meal by the Master of the that "Henry the Eighth " was produced before the death of Revels, that it might be put into rehearsal as it proceeded, Elizabeth, and finding the passage we have quoted directly and represented immediately after it was finished, in the teeth of this supposition, they charged it as a subse- A farther point established by the same authority is, that quent addition, fixed the authorship of it upon a different Henslowe expended an unusual amount in getting up the poet, and printed it within brackets.

drama. On the 10th Aug. 1601, he paid no less than 211. for As to external evidence, there is one fact which has never "velvet, sattin, and taffeta” for the dresses, a sum equal now had sufficient importance given to it. We allude to the fol to about 1001. Upon the costumes only, in the whole, lowing memorandum in the Registers of the Stationers' | considerably more than 2001. were laid out, reckoning the Company :

value of money in 1601 at about five times its value at "12 Feb. 1604

present. 6 Nath. Butter] Yf he get good allowance for the En-1.

We may conclude with tolerable certainty that Shakespeare terlude of K. Henry 8th before he begyn to print it;

1 wrote “Henry the Eighth” in the winter of 1603-4, and

it that it was first acted at the Globe soon after the commenceand then procure the wardens hands to ył for the entrance of yt: he is to have the same for his copy." | wards the close of April,' as soon as a theatre open to the

ment of the season there, which seems to have begun toChalmers asserted, without qualification, that this entry weather could be conveniently employed. The coronation referred to a contemporaneous play by Samuel Rowley, under procession of Anne Bullen forms a prominent feature in the the title of "When you see me you know me," 1605; but drama; and as the coronation of James I. and Anne of Denthe “enterlude" is expressly called in the entry "K, Henry mark took place on the 24th July, 1603, we may not unren8th," and we feel no hesitation in concluding that it referred sonably suppose that the audiences at the Globe were into Shakespeare's drama, which had probably been brought tended to be reminded of that event, and that the show, deout at the Globe Theatre in the summer of 1604. The me-tailed with such unusual minuteness in the folio of 1623, was morandum, judging from its terms, seems to liave been made, I meant as a remote imitation of its splendour. The opinion, not at the instance of Nathaniel Butter, the bookseller, but that Shakespeare's “Henry the Eighth" was undoubtedly of the company to which Shakespeare belonged, and in order written after the accession of James l., was expressed and to prevent a surreptitious publication of the play. The printed by us nearly twenty years ago. The words - aged "12 Feb. 1604," was, of course, according to our present princess," (no part of the imputed addition by Ben Jonson) reckoning the 12 Feb. 1605, and at that date Butter had not would never have been used by Shakespeare during the life begun to print "Henry the Eighth." No edition of it is of Elizabeth.

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TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.

A

156 Histories," and "Tragedies," at the beginning of the

volume was most likely printed last, and the person who The Famous Historie of Troylus and Cresseid. Excellently formed it accidentally omitted “ Troisus and Cressida," be

expressing the beginning of their loues, with the conceited cause it had been as accidentally omitted in the pagination. wooing of Pandarus Prince of Licia. Written by Wil-No copy of the folio of 1623 is, we believe, known, which liam Shakespeare. London Imprinted by G. Eld 'for R. does not contain "Troilus and Cressida:" it is not there diBonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred Eagle vided into acts and scenes, although at the commencement of in Paules Church-yeard, ouer against the great North doore. the piece we have Actus Primus, Scænu Prima. 1609. 4to. 46 leaves. ...

Such are the facts connected with the appearance of the The Historie of Troylus and Cresseida. As it was acted by tragedy in quarto and folio. It seems very evident that

the Kings Maiesties seruants at the Globe. Written by - Troilus and Cressida” was acted in the interval between the William Shakespeare. London Imprinted by G. Eld for first and the second issue of the quarto, as printed by G. Eld R. Bonian and H. Walley, and are to be sold at the spred for Bonian and Walley in the early part of 1609. It is probEagle in Paules Church-yeard, ouer against the great able that our great dramatist prepared it for the stage in the North doore. 1609. 4to. 45 leaves.

winter of 1608–9, with a view to its production at the Globe In the folio of 1623, « The Tragedie of Troylus and Cressida" | as soon as the season commenced at that theatre : before it

occupies twenty-nine pages, the Prologue filling the first was so produced, and after it had been licensed, 1 Bonian and page and the last being left blank. It retains its place in Walley seem to have possessed themselves of a copy of it; the later folios ; but in that of 1685 the Prologne is placed and having procured it to be printed, issued it to the world

at the head of the page on which the play commences. as a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapperWe will first state the facts respecting the early impressions W 11 wat tot the foot oomoting the lyrimneacions i clawed with the palms of the vuugar." That they had obof " Troilus and Cressida," and then make such observations tained it without the consent of the company, “the grand upon them as seem necessary.

possessors," as they are called, may be gathered froin the The play was originally printed in 1609. It was formerly conclusion of the preface. The second issue of Bonian and supposed that there were two editions in that year, but they

Walley's edition of 1609 was not made until after the tragedy were merely different issues of the same impression: the

had been acted at the Globe, as is stated on the title-page. body of the work (with two exceptions, pointed out hereafter)!

This is an easy and intelligible mode of accounting for the is alike in each ; they were from the types of the same

main differences in the quarto copies; and it enables us with printer, and were published by the same booksellers. The some plausibility to conjecture, that the date when Shakestitle-pages, as may be seen on the opposite leaf, vary ma-peare wrote “Troilus and Cressida” was not long before it terially : but there is another more remarkable alteration. was first represented, and a still shorter time before it was On the title-page of the copies first circulated, it is not stated first prir that the draina had been represented by any company in a sort of preface headed, " A never Writer to an ever of a “Troilus and Cressida" in the Stationers' books, with Reader. News," it is asserted that it had never been staled the date of 7th Feb. 1602-3, in which entry it is stated that with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the palms of the the play was “acted by the Lord Chamberlain's servants ;' vulgar;" in other words, that the play had not been acted, the company to which Shakespeare belonged having been so This was probably then true; but as "'Troilus and Cressida" denominated anterior to the license of James I. in May, 1603. was very soon afterwards brought upon the stage, it became This circumstance formed Malone's chief ground for contendnecessary for the publishers to substitute a new title-page, ing that Shakespeare wrote his “Troilus and Cressida” in and to suppress their preface : accordingly a re-issue of the 1602. It may, however, be reasonably inferred that this was same edition took place, by the title-page of which it ap- a different play on the same subject. Every body must be peared, that the play was printed " as it was acted by the struck with the remarkable inequality of some parts of King's Majesty's servants at the Globe."

Shakespeare's 6 Troilus and Cressida, especially towards In the Stationers' Registers are two entries, of distinct dates, the conclusion: they could hardly have been written by the relating to a play, or plays, called, “ Troilus and Cressida :" pen which produced the magnificent speeches of Ulysses and they are in the following terms :

other earlier portions, and were probably relics of a drama “7 Feb. 1602–3

acted by the Lord Chamberlain's servants about 1602, and in 6 Mr. Roberts) The booke of Troilus and Cresseda, as the spring of 1603 intended to be printed by Roberts. In April

yt is acted by my Lo. Chamberlens men." and May, 1599, it appears by Henslowe's Diary that he paid 528 Jan. 1608-9

various sums to Dekker and Chettle for a play they were then 6 Rich. Bonion and Hen. Whallevs] Entered for their writing under the title of " Troilus and Cressida :" it inay be

copie under t hands of Mr. Segar Deputy to concluded that it was soon afterwards acted by the Earl of Sir Geo. Bucke, and Mr. Warden Lownes: A Nottingham's players, for whom it was composed ; and the

booke called the History of Troylus and Cressula." " Troilus and Cressida," entered by Roberts on the 7th Feb. The edition of 1609 was, doubtless, published in conse- | 1602-3, may have been a tragedy, not by Shakespeare, brought quence of the entry of 66 28 Jan. 1608-9;' but if Roberts out by the Lord Chamberlain's servants at the Globe, in comprinted a " Troilus and Cressida,” whether by Shakespeare petition with their rivals at the Rose or Fortune. Of this or by any other dramatist, in consequence of the earlier entry piece it is not impossible that Shakespeare in some degree of 667 Feb. 1602-3," none such has come down to our time. availed himself; and he might be too much in haste to have Shakespeare's tragedy was not again printed, as far as can time to alter and improve all that his own taste and genius now be ascertained, until it appeared, under rather peculiar would otherwise have rejected. circumstances, in the folio of 1623.

This brings us to the question of the source from which In that volume the dramatic works of Shakespeare, as is Shakespeare derived his plot: how far he did, or did not, well known, are printed in three divisions---Comedies," follow the older play we suppose him to have employed, it “ Histories," and "Tragedies ;' and a list of them, under is not possible to determine. In 1581 "a proper ballad, those heads is inserted at the commencement. In that list dialogue-wise, between Troilus and Cressida " was entered " Troilus and Cressida" is not found; and it is farthier re- on the Stationers' Registers by Edward White, and in the lax markable, that it is inserted near the middle of the folio of form of expression of that day this may have been a dramatic 1623, without any paging, excepting that the second leaf is performance. More than a century earlier, viz. in 1471, Caxnumbered 79 and 80: the signatures also do not correspond ton had printed his “Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye," with any others in the series. Hence it was inferred by which at various dates, and in a cheap form, was reprinted. Fariner, that the insertion of " Troilus and Cressida” was Lydgate's “ History, Sege, and Destruccyon of Troye" came an afterthought by the player-editors, and that when the rest from Pynson's press in 1513; but Shakespeare seeins to have of the folio was printed, they had not intended to include it. been so attentive a reader of Chaucer's five books of “Troylus It seems to us, that there is no adequate ground for this and Creseyda" (of which the last edition, anterior to the pronotion, and that the peculiar circumstances to which we have duction of Shakespeare's play, appeared in 1602) as to have alluded may be sufficiently accounted for by the supposition been considerably indebted to them. It is not easy to trace that “ Troilus and Cressida" was given to, and executed by, any direct or indirect obligations on the part of Shakespeare a different printer. The paging of the folio of 1623 is in to Chapman's translation of Homer, of which the earliest several places irregular, and in the division of Tragedies" portion came out in 1598. It is well known that the adven(at the head of which « Troilus and Cressida” is placed) tures of Troilus and Cressida are not any where mentioned in there is a mistake of 100 pages. The list of " Comedies," the Iliad.

1 We infer this from the terms of the entry in the Stationers acted for the Master of the Revels. Sir George Buck was not formally Registers, in which Sir George Buck, and his deputy, Segar, are appointed until 1610. mentioned. It is upon this evidence only that we know that Segar |

IN

tori

After adverting to the real or supposed origin of the story ment of the received text. This copy of the second issue of of 16 Troilus and Cressida," Coleridge remarks in his Literary the quarto, 1609, seems originally to have belonged to HumRemains, vol. ii. p. 130, that it can scarcely be classed with phry Dyson, a curious collector, who considerably outlived his dramas of Greek and Roman History; but it forms an in- Shakespeare, and who registers on the title-page, with the termediate link between the fictitious Greek and Roman His- attestation of his signature, that " Troilus and Cressida” was vhich we nay

lary dramas, and the proper“ printed amongest the workes” of Shakespeare, referring of ancient histories; that is, between the Pericles or Titus An- course to the folio of 1623. dronicus, and the Coriolanus or Julius Cæsar." He then ad-' Dryden produced an alteration of " Troilus and Cressida” verts to the characters of the hero and heroine, and the at the Dorset Garden Theatre in 1679, and it was printed in purpose Shakespeare had in view of pourtraying them, and the same year: in tlie preface he states that he had "refined goes on to observe: "I am half inclined to believe that Shakespeare's language, which before was obsolete." Shakespeare's main object, or shall I rather say, his ruling impulse, was to translate the poetic heroes of paganism into the not less rude, but more intellectually vigorous, and more

ADDRESS featurely, warriors of Christian chivalry..and to subs the distinct and graceful profiles or outlines of the Homeric PREFIXED TO SOME COPIES OF THE EDITION OF 1609. epic into the flesh and blood of the romantic drama,-in short, to give a grand history-piece in the robust style of Albert Durer." Consistently in some degree with this opinion, A never Writer to an ever Reader. News'. Schlegel remarks, that “the whole play is one continued irony of the crown of all heroic tales-the tale of Troy," and after

Eternal reader, you have here a new play, never staled with dwelling briefly upon this point, he adds :-“ in all this let no me

in this letna the stage, never clapper-clawed with the palms of the vulgar, man conceive that an indignity was intended to Homer: and yet passing full of the palm comical ; for it is a birth of Shakespeare had not the liad before him, but the chivalrous your brain, that never undertook any thing comical vainly: romances of the Trojan war derived from Dares Phrygius." |

101 and were but the vain names of comedies changed for the Shakespeare, in fact, found the story popular, and he applied

ied titles of commodities, or of plays for pleas, you should see all it to a popular purpose in a popular manner.

those grand censors, that now style them such vanities, flock One reason for thinking that 66 Troilus and Cressida " to them for the main grace of their gravities; especially this came from the hands of a different printer, though little or

och little or author's comedies, that are so framed to the life, that they no distinction can be traced in the type, is that there is hardly

Blue serve for the most common commentaries of all the actions any play in the folio of 1623 which contains so many errors

of our lives, showing sucli a dexterity and power of wit, that of the press. The quarto of 1609 was unquestionably the

the most displeased with plays are pleased with his comédies. foundation of the text of the folio, for in various instances

And all such dull and heavy-witted worldlings, as were never the latter adopts the literal blunders of the former: it

capable of the wit of a comedy, coming by report of them to introduces not a few important corruptions, for which it is not

his representations, lave found that wit there that they never easy to account, so that the language of Shakespeare, on the

found in themselves, and have parted better-witted than they whole, is perhaps best represented in the quarto. There are,

came; feeling an edge of wit set upon them, more than ever however, some valuable additions in the folio, not found in

they dreamed they had brain to grind it on. So much and the quarto, while on the other hand the quarto contains |

such savoured salt of wit is in his comedies, that they scem passages omitted in the folio, though sometimes absolutely |

(for their height of pleasure) to be born in that sea that necessary to the sense. The variations, whether important

| brought forth Venus. Amongst all there is none more witty or comparatively insignificant, are noted at the foot of the

than this; and had I time I would comment upon it, though page; but there are two instances deserving notice in which

I know it needs not, (for so much as will make you think our text differs from that of all preceding editions. It has

your testern well bestowed) but for so much worth, as even been thought that the quarto inipressions of 1609, as far as

poor I know to be stuffed in it. It deserves such a labour, regards the body of the play, are identical. Such is not pre

as well as the best comedy in Terence or Plautus: and believe cisely the case, and a copy of the drama issued after it had

ī this, that when he is gone, and his comedies out of sale, you been “ acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe," |

will scramble for them, and set up a new English inquisition.2 belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, contains two valuable

Take this for a warning, and at the peril of your pleasure's improvements of the text, as it had been given in the earlier

loss, and judgment's, refuse not, nor like this the less for not copies published before it had been performed. The first of

being sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude; but these occurs in Act iii. sc. 2, where Troilus, anticipating the

thank fortune for the scape it hath made amongst yoii, since

by the grand possessors wills, I believe, you should have entrance of Cressida, exclaims, as we find the passage in all

prayed for them, rather than been prayed. And so I leave modern editions,

all such to be prayed for (for the states of their wits' healths) "I am giddy : expectation whirls me round.

that will not praise it.- Vale.
Th’ imaginary relish is so sweet
That it enchants my sense; what will it be
When that the wat’ry palate tastes indeed
Love's thrice-reputed nectar ?"

CORIOLANUS. For “thirice-reputed nectar,” the Duke of Devonshire's " The Tragedy of Coriolanus" was first printed in the folio copy of the quarto, 1609, has 6 thrice-repured nectar," or

of 1623, where it occupies thirty pages, viz. from p. 1 to p. thrice purified and refined nectar. The other instance of the

30 inclusive, a new pagination commencing with that same kind occurs near the end of the play (Act v. sc. 7.)

drama. In the folio of 1632 the new pagination begins where Achilles is exciting his armed Myrmidons to the

with “ Troilus and Cressida,' and in the folios of 1664 and slaughter of Hector, and tells them,

1685 “ Coriolanus" is inserted in the same order. “Empale him with your weapons round about:

NOTHING has yet been discovered to lead to the belief that In fellest manner execute your arms."

DA

there was a play on the story of Coriolanus anterior to ShakeThus it stands in all editions, from the folio of 1623 down- speare's tragedy. Ilenslowe's Diary contains no hint of the wards, and the commentators have been at some pains to ex-kind. plain the phrase "execute your arms," when in truth, as The materials for this drama appear to have been derived Steevens suspected, it is nothing but a misprint for "execute exclusively from the Life of Caius Martins Coriolanus," in your aims," as appears upon the authority of the quarto, I the early translation of Plutarch by Sir Thomas North. That 1609, in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire: for translation came from the press in folio in 1579, with the folAchilles, to charge his followers to encircle Hector with their lowing title: “ The Lives of the noble Grecians and Romanes, weapons, and then to execute their aims against him in the compared togetlier by that grave learned Philosophor and fellest manner, requires no explanation, and is an improve- Historiographer, Plutarke of Chæronea." It was avowedly

A never Writer to an ever Reader. News.] This address, or 3-rather than been prayed.] This passage refers, probably, to epistle, is only found in such copies of " Troilus and Cressida" as do the unwillingness of the company to which Shakespeare belonged not state on the title-page that it " was acted by the King's Majesty's to allow any of their plays to be printed. Such seems to have been servants at the Globe." See Introduction.

| the case with all the associations of actors, and hence the imperfect 2 -and set up a new English inquisition.] This prophecy has manner in which most of the dramas of the time have come down to been well verified of late years, when (to say nothing of the prices us, and the few that issued from the press, compared with the numof first editions of Shakespeare's undoubted works) 1001. have been ber that were written. The word “them,” in “prayed for them," given for a copy of the old - Taming of a Shrew," 1594, and 1301. for refers, as Mr. Barron Field suggests to me, not to the “grand pos* The True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York," 1595, merely because sessors, but to “his comedies," mentioned above. they were plays which Shakespeare made use of in his compositions.

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TITUS ANDRONICUS.

VI

made from the French of Amiot, Bishop of Auxerre, and ap-to recollect that our dramatic poets were then only beginning pears to have been very popular: though published at a high to throw off the shackles of rhyme, and their versification parprice (equal to about 51." of our present money), it was took of the weight and monotony which were the usual accomseveral times reprinted; and we may, perliaps, presume that paniments of couplets. “Titus Andronicus” is to be read our great dramatist made use of an impression nearer his own under this impression, and many passages will then be found time, possibly that of 1595. In many of the principal in it which, we think, are remarkable indications of skill and speeches he has followed this authority with verbal exact- power in an unpractised dramatist: as a poetical production ness; and he was indebted to it for the whole conduct of his it has not hitherto had justice done to it, on account, partly, plot. The action occupies less than four years, for it com- of the revolting nature of the plot. Compared with the verinences subsequent to the retirement of the people to Mons sification of Greene, Peele, or Lodge, the lines in “Titus AnSacer in 262, after the four:dation of Rome, and terminates Ironicus" will be found to run with ease and variety, and with the death of Coriolanus in A. U.C. 266.

{they are scarcely inferior to the later and better productions The Tragedy of Coriolanus" originally appeared in the of Marlowe. Neither is internal evidence wholly wanting, for folio of 1623, where it is divided into acts but not into scenes; words and phrases employed by Shakespeare in his other and it was registered at Stationery Hall by Blount and Jag-works may be pointed out; and in Act iii. sc. 1, we meet a regard on the 8th of November of that year, as one of the markable expression, which is also contained in " Venus and il copies" which had not been "entered to other inen." | Adonis." Hence we infer that there had been 110 previous edition of it! With reference to the general complexity of the drama, and in quarto. Malone supposed that “ Coriolanus " was written the character of the plot, it must also be borne in mind that in 1610 ; but we are destitute of all evidence on the point, it was produced at a time, when scenes of horror were especibeyond what may be derived from the style of composition: ally welcome to public audiences, and wlien pieces were actuthis would certainly induce us to fix it soinewhat late in the ally recommended to their admiration in consequence of the career of our great dramatist.

blood and slaughter with which they abounded. Shakespeare, It is on the whole well printed for the time in the folio of perhaps, took up the subject on this account, and he worked 1623; but in Act ii. sc. 3, either the transcriber of the manu-it out in such a way as, prior to the introduction and formascript or the compositor niust have omitted a line, which tion of a purer taste, would best gratify those for whose Pope supplied from conjecture (with the aid of North's | amusement it was intended. Plutarch), and which has ever since been received into the The oldest known edition of “Titus Andronicus" bears text, because it is absolutely necessary to the intelligibility date in 1600 : two copies of it are extant, the one in the collecof the passage. For the sake of greater distinction, we have tion of Lord Francis Egerton, jlow before us, and the other printed the line within brackets, besides pointing out the in the Signet Library at Edinburgh. This second copy was circumstance in a note.

not discovered until very recently, and we feel convinced that a more ancient impression will some time or other again be brought to light. That it once existed, we have the testiinony of Langbaine, in his “ Account of English Dramatic Poets,

8 vo. 1691, where he tells us that the play was “ first printed The most lainentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus. 4to. Lond. 1594.” Consistently with this assertion we find the

As it hath sundry times beene playde by the Right Honour- } following entry in the Registers of the Stationers' Company :able the Earle of Pembrooke, the Earle of Darbie, the Earle “6 Feb. 1593 of Sussex, and the Lorde Chamberlainie theyr Seruants. At John Danter] A booke entitled a noble Roman Historye of London, Printed by I. R. for Edward White, and are to bee Tytus Andronicus." solde at his shoppe, at the little North doore of Paules, at The Stationers' books contain several subsequent meinothe signe of the Gun. 1600. 4to. 40 leaves.

randa respecting: 6 Titus Andronicus," bearing date 19th The most lamentable Tragedie of Titus Andronicus. As it April, 1602, 14th Dec. 1624, and 8th Nov. 1630; but none

hath sundry times beene plaide by the Kings Maiesties which seems to have relation to the editions of 1600 and Seruants. London, Printed for Eedward White, and are to (1611. No quarto impressions of a subsequent date are known, be solde at his sloppe, nere the little North dore of Pauls, land the tragedy next appeared in the folio of 1623. The folio at the signe of the Gun. 1611. 4to. 40 leaves.

was printed from the quarto of 1611, but with the addition In the folio of 1623, “ The Lamentable Tragedy of Titus An-lof a short scene in the third Act, which otherwise, according

dronicus” occupies twenty-two pages, in the division of to the divisions there adopted, would have consisted of only "Tragedies," viz. from p. 31 to p. 52 inclusive. The three lone scene. later folios, of course, insert it in the same part of the volume. The wording of the title-page of the edition of 1600 is re

WE feel no hesitation in assigning - Titus Andronicus" to markable, althongh it has hitherto been passed over without Shakespeare. Whether he may lay claim to it as the author due notice: it professes that the drama had been played not of the entire tragedy, or only in a qualified''sense, as having only by the Lord Chamberlain's servants," of whom Shakemade additions to, and improvements in it, is a different and speare was one, but by the theatrical servants of the Earl of a more difficult question."

Pembroke, the Earl of Derby, and the Earl of Sussex. The We find it given to liim by his contemporary, Francis Meres, performance of Shakespeare's plays seems almost uniformly in his Palludis Tania, 1598, where he mentions " Titus An- to have been confined

S " Titus An- to have been confined to the company to which he belonged ; dronicus” in immediate connection with 6 Richard II.," but we know from Henslowe's Diary that between 3rd June, 6. Richard III.," " Henry IV.," « King John," and “Romeo 1594, and 15th Nov. 1596, the Lord Chamberlain's servants and Juliet." "It was also inserted in'the folio of 1623 by were acting in apparent conjunction with those of the Lord Shakespeare's fellow-actors, Heminge anri Condell, and they Admirala: one of the plays, enumerated by Henslowe as havplace it between 6 Coriolanus” and “Romeo and Juliet.', (ing been acted in this interval, is “ Titus Andronicus," which Had it not been by our great dramatist, Meres, who was well circumstance he records under date of 12th June, 1594. This acquainted with the literature of his time, would not have may have been the very play Shakespeare had written, and attributed it to him; and the player-editors, who had been which having been thus represented by several companies, Shakespeare's " fellows and friends," and were men of char- although the Earl of Nottingham's servants was not one of

r' and experience, vould not liave included it in their vol- them, the fact was stated on the title-page of the ume. These two facts are, in our view, sufficient?.

tant impression. It is to be observed, flowever, that Henslowe It was, undoubtedly, one of his earliest, if not his very has an entry of the performance of " Titus Andronicus" on earliest dramatic production. We are not to suppose that at the 23rd Jan. 1593-4, when it appears to have been a new the time he first joined a theatrical company in London, when play. The "Titus Andronicus,'' therefore, acted on 12th June, he might not be more than twenty-two or twenty-three years 1594, may have been a repetition of a drama, which possibly old; Lis style was as formed and as matured as it afterwards had been got up for Henslowe, in consequence of the success became : all are aware that there is a most marked distinction of a tragedy upon the same story, the property of a rival between his mode of composition early and late in life ; as ex-company. There can be little doubt that Shakespeare's “ Tihibited, for instance, in " Love's Labour's Lost," and in “Thetus Andronicus” was written several years earlier. Winter's Tale;" and we apprehend that “Titus Andronicus" It is very possible that Shakespeare's “ Titus Andronicus" belongs to a period even anterior to the former. Supposing was founded upon some anterior dramatic performance, but "Titus Andronicus" to have been written about 1588, we are on this point we have no evidence beyond what may be col

1 We consider Ravenscroft's testimony, in his alteration of " Titus speare only gave some master-touches to one or two of the principal Andronicus,'' (acted about 1673, and printed nine years afterwards) characters." of very little value: in his suppressed Prologue he asserted it to be the 2 See : The Memoirs of Edward Alleyn," published by the Shakeunquestionable work of Shakespeare, while in his preface to the speare Society, p. 22. The theatre the Lord Chamberlain's and the printed copy in 1687, he mentions it as a stage-tradition, that Shake- I Lord Admiral's players jointly occupied, was that at Newington Butts.

literally t1

lected from the piece itself, in certain real or supposed dissimi- | sometimes more particular; and our inference is, that it owed larities of composition.

part of its popularity, not merely to printed narratives in When Danter entered the "noble Roman History of Titus prose or verse, nor to the play spoken of by Brooke in 1562, Andronicus” in 1593, he coupled with it "the ballad thereof,' | but to subsequent dramatic representations, perhaps, more or which probably is the same printed in Percy's “Reliques," less founded upon that early drama. vol. i. p. 241, edit. 1812. A play called " Andronicus” is men- How far Shakespeare might be indebted to any such protioned by Ben Jonson in the Induction to his “ Bartholomew duction we have no means of deciding; but Malone, Steevens, Fair,” (played first in 1614,) as a piece of twenty-five or thirty and others have gone upon the supposition, that Shakespeare years standing. This may have been Shakespeare's tragedy, was only under obligations either to Brooke's poem, or to that acted by Henslowe's company, or a drama which had Paynter's novel; and least of all do they seem to have conserved as a foundation of both. * The oldest notice of “ Titus templated the possibility, that he might have obtained assistAndronicus” (excepting that by Meres) is contained in a tractance from some foreign source. called “Father Hubbard's Tales, or The Ant and the Night-1 Arthur Brooke avowed that he derived his materials from ingale," 4to. 1604, imputed to Thomas Middleton, where (Sign. Bandello (Part ii. Nov.'9), La sfortunata morte di due infeliE. 3) the author speaks of the lamentable action of one arm, cissimi Ama like old Titus Andronicus." The loss of his hand by the Boisteau's Histoire de deux Amuns, dcc., in the collection of hero would no doubt form an incident in every drama written Histoires Tragiques, published by Belle-forest. Both Brooke's upon the subject.

poem and Paynter's prose version have recently been reprinted in a work called " Shakespeare's Library," where the an

tiquity of the story is considered. Steevens was disposed to ROMEO AND JULIET.

think that our great dramatist had obtained more from PaynAn excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. As it |

ter than from Brooke, while Malone supported, and we think, hath been often (with great applause) plaid publiquely, by !!

established, a contrary opinion. He examined a number of the right Honourable the L. of Hunsdon his Seruants, Lon

y minute points of resemblance; but, surely, no doubt can be don, Printed by Iohn Danter. 1597. 4to. 39 leaves.

entertained by those who only compare the following short The most excellent and lamentable Tragedie, of Romeo and

al passage from a speech of Friar Laurence with three lines from Iuliet. Newly corrected, augmented, and amended : As it |

Brooke's “Romeus and Juliet." hath bene sundry times publiquely acted, by the right Hon

"Art thou a man? Thy form cries out thou art; ourable the Lord Chamberlaine his Seruants. London

Thy tears are womanish; thy wild acts denote

The unreasonable fury of a beast.'—(Act iii. sc. 3.) Printed by Thomas Creede, for Cuthbert Burby, and are to be sold at his shop neare the Exchange. 1599. 4to. 46 leaves.

This, as will be seen from what is subjoined, is almost verThe most excellent and Lamentable Tragedie, of Romeo and / bally from Brooke's poem: Juliet. As it hath beene sundrie times publiquely Acted,

" Art thou,? quoth he, 6 a man ? thy shape saith so thou art; by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe. 'Newly cor

Thy crying and thy we ping eyes denote a woman's heart * * rected, augmented and amended: London Printed for lohn

If thou a man or woman wert, or els a brutish beast."

(Sakesp. Lib. part vii. p. 43.) Smethwick, and are to be sold at his Shop in Saint Dunstanes Church-yard, in Fleetestreete vnder the Dyall. 1609.

Shakespeare's " Romeo and Juliet” originally came out, but

W in an imperfect manner, in 1597, quarto. This edition is in 4to. 46 leaves. In the folio of 1623 " The Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet” two different types, and was probably executed in haste by occupies twenty-five pages, viz. from p. 53 to p. 79, inclu

two different printers. It has generally been treated as an sive, in the division of Tragedies." It fills the same space

authorized impression from an authentic manuscript. Such, in the folios of 1632, 1664, and 1685.

after the most careful examination, is not our opinion. We It is certain that there was an English play upon the story

think that the manuscript used by the printer or printers (no of Romeo and Juliet before the year 1562, and the fact estab

bookseller's or stationer's name is placed at the bottom of the lishes that, even at that early date, our dramatists resorted to

title-page) was made up, partly from portions of the play as Italian novels, or translations of them, for the subjects of their

it was acted, but unduly obtained, and partly from notes taken productions. It is the most ancient piece of evidence of the

at the theatre during representation. Our principal ground kind yet discovered, and it is given by Arthur Brooke, who

for this notion is, that there is such great inequality in differin that year published a narrative poem, called “The Tragicall

ent scenes and speeches, and in some places precisely that Historye of Romeus and Juliet.'* At the close of his address degree and kind of imperfectness, which would belong to 66 to the Reader" he observes :--Though I saw the same argu

manuscript prepared from defective short-hand notes. As ment lately set forth on stage with more commendation than I

Steevens printed the first and the third edition of “Romeo can look for (being there much better set forth, than I have, or

and Juliet” in his " Twenty Quartos,” a comparison, to test

I the truth of our remark, may be readily made. We do not can do), yet the same matter, penned as it is, may serve the like good effect." (Hist. of English Draniatic Poetry and the

the of course go the length of contending that Shakespeare did Stage, vol. ii. p. 416.] Thus we see also, that the play had

il not alter and improve the play, subsequent to its earliest probeen received 2 with commendation," and that Brooke him

duction on the stage, but merely that the quarto, 1597, does

not contain the tragedy as it was originally represented. The self, unquestionably a competent judge, admits its excellence.. We can scarcely suppose that no other drama would be le

second edition was printed in 1599, and it professes to have fonnded upon the same interesting incidents between 1562 heen " newly corrected, augmented, and amended:" the third and the date when Shakespeare wrote his tragedy, a period | 4

T dated edition appeared in 1609; but some copies without a of, probably, more than thirty years; but no hint of the kind

date are known, which most likely were posterior to 1609, but is given in any record, and certainly no such work, either man

anterior to the appearance of the folio in 1623. The quarto,

1637, is of no authority. uscript or printed, has come down to us. Of the extreme popularity of the story we have abundant proof, and of a remote

The quarto, 1609, was printed from the edition which came date. It was included by William Paynter in the “ secondo

i lout ten years earlier; and the repetition, in the folio of 1623, tome” of his " Palace of Pleasure," the dedication of which

1 l of some decided errors of the press, shows that it was a re

1 he dates 4th Nov. 1567; and in old writers we find frequent

"fied from het print of the quarto, 1609. It is remarkable, that although mention of the hero and heroine. Thomas Dalapeend gives

every early quarto impression contains a Prologue, it was not the following brief "argument” in his “ Pleasant Fable of

transferred to the folio. The quarto, 1597, has lines not in

the quartos, 1599, 1609, nor in the folio: and the folio, reprintHermaphroditus and Salmacis," 1565:-"A noble mayden of the cytye of Verona, in Italye, wliyche loved Romeus, eldest |!118

+ ing the quarto, 1609, besides ordinary errors, makes several sonne of the Lorde Montesche, and beinge pryvelye maryed

important omissions. Our text is that of the quarto, 1599, togyther, he at last poysoned hymn selfe for love of her: she,

compared, of course, with the quarto, 1609, and with the folio for sorowe of his deathe, slewe her selfe in the same tombe

of 1623, and in some places importantly assisted by the quarto

of 1597. Of the value of this assistance, as regards particuwith lys dagger." B. Rich, in liis “ Dialogue betwene Mer

er words, we will only give a single instance, out of many, ciury and a Souldier," 1574, says that "the pittifull history of Romeus and Julietta," was so well known as to be represented

from Actiii. sc. 1, where Benvolio, in reference to the conflict on tapestry. It is again alluded to in “The Gorgeous Gal

| between Mercutio and Tybalt, says of Romeo, lery of Gallant Inventions," 1578; and in "A Poore Knight

“ His agile arm beats down their fatal points.” his Palace of Private Pleasure, " 1579. Austin Saker's “ Nar- The quartos, 1599 and 1609, and the folio of 1623, absurdly bonus," 1580, contains the subsequent passage :-"Had Ro- read aged arm;" and the editor of the folio of 1632 substimeus bewrayed his mariage at the irst, and manifested the tuted "able arm :" the true word, for which no substitute intent of his meaning, he had done very wisely, and gotten equally good could be found, is only in the quarto, 1597. license for the lives of two faithful friends." After this date! It will be observed that on the title-page of the quarto, the inention of the story becomes even more frequent, and 1597, it is stated that "Romeo and Juliet” was acted by the

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