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warlike maxims, they may as it were out of a long war come forth renowned and perfect commanders in the fervice of their country. They would not then, if they were trufted with fair and hopeful armies, fuffer them for want of juft and wife difcipline to fhed away from about them like fick feathers, though they be never fo oft fupplied; they would not fuffer their empty and unrecruitable colonels of twenty men in a company, to quaff out, or convey into fecret hoards, the wages of a delufive lift, and a miferable remnant; yet in the mean while to be overmastered with a score or two of drunkards, the only foldiery left about them, or elfe to comply with all rapines and violences. No certainly, if they knew aught of that knowledge that belongs to good men or good governors, they would not fuffer these things. But to return to our own institute; befides these conftant exercifes at home, there is another opportunity of gaining experience to be won from pleasure itself abroad; in thofe vernal seasons of the year when the air is calm and pleasant, it were an injury and fullenness against nature, not to go out and fee her riches, and partake in her rejoicing with Heaven and earth. I should not therefore be a perfuader to them of ftudying much then, after two or three years that they have well laid their grounds, but (to ride out in companies with prudent and ftaid guides to all the quarters of the land; learning and obferving all places of strength, all commodities of building and of foil, for towns and tillage, harbours and ports for trade. Sometimes taking fea as far as to our navy, to learn there alfo what they can in the practical knowledge of failing and of fea fight. These ways would try all their peculiar gifts of nature, and if there were any fecret excellence among them would fetch it out, and give it fair opportunities to advance itself by, which could not but mightily redound to the good of this nation, and bring into fashion again those old admired virtues and excellencies with far more advantage now in this purity of chriftian knowledge. Nor fhall we then need the monfieurs of Paris to take our hopeful youth into their flight and prodigal cuftodies, and fend them over back again transformed into mimics, apes, and kickshows. But if they defire to fee other coun
tries at three or four and twenty years of age, not to learn principles, but to enlarge experience, and make wife obfervation, they will by that time be fuch as fhall deserve the regard and honour of all men where they pass, and the fociety and friendship of those in all places who are best and most eminent. And perhaps, then other nations will be glad to vifit us for their breeding, or else to imitate us in their own country.
Now laftly for their diet there cannot be much to fay, fave only that it would be beft in the fame house; for much time elfe would be loft abroad, and many ill habits got; and that it should be plain, healthful, and moderate, I fuppofe is out of controverfy. Thus Mr. Hartlib, you have a general view in writing, as your defire was, of that, which at feveral times I had difcourfed with you concerning the beft and nobleft way of education; not beginning as fome have done from the cradle, which yet might be worth many confiderations, if brevity had not been my scope; many other circumftances alfo I could have mentioned, but this to fuch as have the worth in them to make trial, for light and direction may be enough. Only I believe that this is not a bow for every man to fhoot in, that counts himself a teacher; but will require finews almoft equal to those which Homer gave Ulyffes; yet I am withal perfuaded that it may prove much more eafy in the affay, than it now seems at diftance, and much more illuftrious; howbeit, not more difficult than I imagine, and that imagination presents me with nothing but very happy, and very poffible according to best wishes; if God have fo decreed, and this age have spirit and capacity enough to apprehend,
A SPEECH FOR THE LIBERTY OF UNLICENSED PRINTING,
TO THE PARLIAMENT OF ENGLAND.
Τελέυθερον δ ̓ ἐκεῖνο, ἔι τις θέλει πόλει
This is true Liberty, when freeborn men,
THEY, who to ftates and governors of the commonwealth direct their speech, high court of parliament! or wanting fuch accefs in a private condition, write that which they forefee may advance the public good; I fuppofe them, as at the beginning of no mean endeavour, not a little altered and moved inwardly in their minds; fome with doubt of what will be the fuccefs, others with fear of what will be the cenfure; fome with hope, others with confidence of what they have to fpeak. And me perhaps each of these difpofitions, as the fubject was whereon I entered, may have at other times variously affected; and likely might in these foremost expreffions now also disclose which of them fwayed moft, but that the very attempt of this addrefs thus made, and the thought of whom it hath recourse to, hath got the power within me to a paffion, far more welcome than incidental to a preface. Which though I ftay not to confess ere any afk, I shall be blamelefs, if it be no other, than the joy and gratulation which it brings to all who wish and
promote their country's liberty; whereof this whole difcourfe propofed will be a certain teftimony, if not a trophy. For this is not the liberty which we can hope, that no grievance ever should arife in the commonwealth, that let no man in this world expect; but when complaints are freely heard, deeply confidered, and fpeedily reformed, then is the utmost bound of civil liberty attained, that wife men look for. To which if I now manifeft, by the very found of this which I fhall utter, that we are already in good part arrived, and yet from fuch a steep disadvantage of tyranny and fuperftition grounded into our principles, as was beyond the manhood of a Roman recovery, it will be attributed first, as is moft due, to the ftrong affiftance of God, our deliverer; next, to your faithful guidance and undaunted wisdom, lords and commons of England! Neither is it in God's efteem, the diminution of his glory, when honourable things are fpoken of good men, and worthy magiftrates; which if I now firft fhould begin to do, after fo fair a progress of your laudable deeds, and fuch a long obligement upon the whole realm to your indefatigable virtues, I might be justly reckoned among the tardieft, and the unwillingeft of them that praise ye. Nevertheless there being three principal things, without which all praifing is but courtthip and flattery, firft, when that only is praised which is folidly worth praife; next, when greatest likelihoods are brought, that fuch things are truly and really in those perfons, to whom they are afcribed; the other, when he who praises, by fhowing that fuch his actual perfuafion is of whom he writes, can demonftrate that he flatters not; the former two of these I have heretofore endeavoured, refcuing the employment from him who went about to impair your merits with a trivial and malignant encomium; the latter as belonging chiefly to mine own acquittal, that whom I fo extolled I did not flatter, hath been referved opportunely to this occafion. For lie who freely magnifies what hath been nobly done, and fears not to declare as freely what might be done better, gives ye the best covenant of his fidelity; and that his loyaleft affection and his hope waits on your proceedings. His highest praifing is not flattery, and his plainett advice
is a kind of praifing; for though I fhould affirm and hold by argument, that it would fare better with truth, with learning, and the commonwealth, if one of your published orders, which I should name, were called in; yet at the fame time it could not but much redound to the luftre of your mild and equal government, whenas private perfons are hereby animated to think ye better pleased with public advice, than other statists have been delighted heretofore with public flattery. And men will then fee what difference there is between the magnanimity of a triennial parliament, and that jealous haughtiness of prelates and cabin counsellors that ufurped of late, whenas they fhall obferve ye in the midst of your victories and fucceffes more gently brooking written exceptions against a voted order, than other courts, which had produced nothing worth memory but the weak oftentation of wealth, would have endured the leaft fignified dislike at any fudden proclamation. If I fhould thus far prefume upon the meek demeanour of your civil and gentle greatnefs, lords and commons! as what your publifhed order hath directly faid, that to gainfay, I might defend myself with ease, if any fhould accufe me of being new or infolent, did they but know how much better I find ye efteem it to imitate the old and elegant humanity of Greece, than the barbaric pride of a Hunnish and Norwegian ftatelinefs. And out of thofe ages, to whose polite wisdom and letters we owe that we are not yet Goths and Jutlanders, I could name him who from his private house wrote that difcourfe to the parliament of Athens, that perfuades them to change the form of democraty which was then eftablished. Such honour was done in those days to men who profeffed the study of wisdom and eloquence, not only in their own country, but in other lands, that cities and figniories heard them gladly, and with great respect, if they had aught in public to admonish the ftate. Thus did Dion Prufæus, a ftranger and a private orator, counfel the Rhodians against a former edict; and I abound with other like examples, which to fet here would be fuperfluous. But if from the induftry of a life wholly dedicated to studious labours, and those natural endowments haply not the