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of all his enemies, and from the power of the grave :* and he said.”
Again ; the title of the twenty-second psalm, to which the twenty-third, being without a title, appears as the second part, is thus headed in English: To the chief Musician upon Aijedeth Shahar, a Psalm of David. The title of this psalm, which describes the crucifixion, the untranslated words being rendered, reads thus: To the Conqueror upon the interposed darkness, a Psalm of the Beloved.f
* The word 5789, SHAooL, the grave, is the same with Shaool, or, as it is given in English, Saul, the king of Israel,
+ Parkhurst renders the title of the twenty-second psalm, To the conqueror, concerning the interposition of the dusk.
Duguet thus gives the title of the twenty-second psalm: Pseaume de David, au chef de ses chantres, sur le belier immolé au point du jour. The Vulgate says, Pro susceptione matutina. The Chaldee paraplırase, Super potenti oblatione perpetuâ aurore. « Le sacrifice ordonné tous les jours, étoit d'un agneau le matin, et d'un agpeau le soir ; mais ni le premier holocauste n'étoit offert avant le lever du soleil, ni le second après son coucher. C'étoit seule. ment dans les Néomènies, ou les premiers jours de chaque mois, qu'outre l'holocauste ordinaire, on offroit dès le point du jour un belier en' holocauste, qui étoit suivi de ceux de deux veaux, et de celui de deux agneaux. Le pseaume 22 devoit être chanté dans les Néomènies, pendant qu'on offroit le premier holocauste, au lever de l'agrore. Je suis persuadé qu'il faut ainsi lire ce titre, non nx Sox by 7775 , c'est-à-dire, Psalmus David, ad oblationem arietis cum aurorâ immolandi ; c'est-à-dire, cum ortu aurore, ad primum ortum aurore.--DUGUET Explic, des Pseaumes, tom. ii.
The thirty-second psalm is in English headed, A Psalm of David Maschil* The trae title is, Of the Beloved, to give true wisdom.
The thirty-fourth stands in our translation, as a Psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech, who drove him away, and he departed. It should be, Of the Beloved, when he changed his appearance before his Father the King, when he sent him forth, and he went forth. Let any one read this psalm, and see if it does not better apply to Christ's taking on Him the form of a servant, than on David's bebaviour to Abimelech.
The thirtieth psalm bears the title, A Psalm and Song of David, at the dedication of the house of David. The inconsistency of this title with the psalm itself is quite obvious. The title ought to run, A Psalm to be sung at the dedication of the tabernacle of the Beloved, or a psalm on occasion of the ascension,t after the crucifixion and death of Christ; according to the prophecy of Amos, that God should raise up the tabernacle of David , (or the Beloved, as Amos prophesied, three hundred years after the death of the literal David,) which was fallen. The psalm, read in this connexion, will appear perfectly clear.
* The title is rendered by Sacy, Pour l'intelligence de David; the Douay version, To David himself understanding ; Duguet's version, “ Ipse David intellectus, ou, comme traduit Saint Jérôme, David eruditio. Le terme bugun peut également signifier intelligens et erudiens.” .
† Sacy observes on this psalm, “ Ce pseaume peut s'entendre spirituellement de la guérison des âmes, et s'appliquer aussi à Jésus. Christ, triomphant de la mort par sa résurrection.”
It is to be observed, that our Saviour was born into this world in the month Tisri, at the feast of tabernacles, which both typified the humanity of Christ journeying through this vale of tears that of his church, in its mortal pilgrimage to a heavenly Canaan, --and that of the children of Israel, the figurative church, to a figurative land of promise.
The thirty-sixth psalm is now headed, To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David, the servant of the Lord. It should be, To the Conqueror, to the Beloved, the Servant of Jehovah.
The thirty-ninth psalm is entitled, To the chief Musician, even to Jeduthun,* a Psalm of David. When translated, it really is, To the Conqueror ; for a public confession, a Psalm for the Beloced.
The forty-second psalm is headed, To the chief Musician, Maschil, for the Sons of Korah.t It
* The word Jeduthun is derived from my, public confessions or professions ; whence the word 1979, JEHODAH, or JUDAH, a confessor.
+ The word Korab is in Hebrew nap, KORACH, baldness. Now, this was the established sign, amongst Oriental nations, of mourning; and the Scriptures continually use the word baldness in this sense. See Jer. xvi. 6. and xlviii. 37. Ezek. xxvii. 31; Mic. i, 16, to xv. 2. Jer, xlvii. 5. to xxii, 12. Ezek. vii. 18. The version of the title of this psalm is, then, literally, To the eternal Conqueror, an instruction for the sons of baldness.
truly is, To the Conqueror, an instruction for the sons of mourning, or for mourners, according to our English idiom. Let any one read the psalm, and the justness of the real title will soon appear.
The forty-third psalm is a continnation of the forty-second, there being no distinct title.
The forty-fifth now rups,* To the chief Musician, upon Shoshannim, for the Sons of Korah, Maschil, a song of loves. The imaginary musiciao being struck out, and the untranslated Hebrew words explained, it stands as follows:
* Sacy has translated the latter part of the title of this psalm, Pour ceux qui seront changez, intelligence aux enfans de Coré, cantique pour le Bien-aimé. The word Shoshannim is derived by Parkhurst from the root ww, SASS, to joyfully exult; and be lias considered the a as being only formative. In that case, the title will stand as we have given it. Sacy, on the other hand, considers 73W, SHANAU, he iterated or changed, as the root, and the first w as a prefixed pronoun. In that case, the title will read as he has given it: and he applies it to the resurrection, when the trumpet shall sound, and in the twinkling of an eye we shall all be changed. The Hebrew bears both senses.
The Douay version also gives the title of the forty-fifth psalm, thus: Unto the end; for them that shall be changed; for the sons of Core; for understanding; a canticle for the beloved.
Duguet observes : “ Il est ainsi dans la Vulgate, In finem pro iis qui commutabuntur, &c. ce qui est une version des Septante, qui ont la apparemment O'W-V, qui mutantur, au lieu de D'unu, dont la signification ordinaire est lilia,”
To the Conqueror, concerning joyful things, being an instruction for the sons of mourning ; a song of loves, or of the Beloved.
The forty-sixth psalm now stands thus, To the chief Musician, for the sons of Korah, a song upon Alamoth.* Again, dispensing with the ideal musician, and translating the Hebrew, we have, To the Conqueror, for the Sons of Mourning, a song upon hidden things to come.
Several other psalms follow, in which the title, To the chief Musician, for the Sons of Korah, is most improperly put, for To the Conqueror, a Psalm for the Sons of Mourning.
The title of the fifty-first psalm, now applied exclusively to the repentance of David, is thus,
To the Conqueror, a Psalm for the Beloved, when the given prophet went forth from him after he went to the daughter of the oath or covenant : thus representing it as the confession of sin of Christ when going forth from his Father, he came to rescue his Church.
The fifty-third psalm is now prefaced by the title, To the chief Musician upon Mahalath,t
* The Hebrew root is by, he concealed; whence riasy, GNALAMOTH. Sacy translates it " pour les secrets."
tobris, MACHALATH, the profane, from 57, to make a breach, to break, to violate or profane. This word is frequently opposed to IP, KADOSHE, holy, set apart, or separated.