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cially, by giving them every inducement to attend to and understand his lectures, by making that attention and that understanding the sole means of giving them a character among their fellows, and agreeable feelings of moral approbation of themselves. Thus his lectures were not mere words, that died away with the passing morninghour; but it became necessary to the respectability of every hearer, that he should make himself thoroughly master not only of the general bearings of these lectures, but even of all their most minute illustrations and details, that he might appear to be a man and a rational being in the hour of examination.
A strict, constant, and impartial examination of all the students in his class, is the great engine by which he has wrought a radical change in the minds of innumerable persons, who will have good cause to bless him all the days of their life for whatever is energetic and operative in their mental constitution. It is not a decorous attention only that is thus generated, but emulation, zeal, ardour, enthusiasm. Each youth is for ever in the eyes of his equals. Every generous and manly feeling of his nature is thus kept constantly in play; and a deep interest being thus created in his mind respecting every thing connected with the business of the class, that class, instead of being a dull, yawning, fidgetting congregation of listless or fretful idlers, is "instinct with spirit," full of gladness, animation, and delight, sparkling with eager eyes, resounding with clear and uiifaultcring voices, and instead of being considered as a den of irksome imprisonment, is in truth the very hall of liberty.
The advantages of this rare system —for manifestly excellent as it is, we fear it is indeed rare—are incalculable. Boys at school labour, and are forced to labour. But when they leave school and go to the university, they are delivered at once up to the freedom of their own will, and learning must then be followed for its own sake, or it will not be followed at all. But the love of learning must not be left entirely to itself, or nearly so. In the Logic Class at Glasgow, the strict habits of the schoolboy are encouraged, nay demanded, in the youth. He is kept still to his tasks, not slavishly and blindly, as might once have been
necessary, by the mere influence of the authority of a master, but by the generous praise, or the kind censure, of an enlightened and warm-hearted teacher, who looks on him with much of the pride, and much of the anxious- ness, of parental affection,—who brings him, by the affinities created by constant viva-voce intercourse, nearer and closer to himself,—who elevates his very nature by daily communion with a wiser and more experienced spirit, —and who thus flings over the path of science, at times dark and intricate, the shining light of a condescending and approachable wisdom, and urges onwards to that path by all the eager enthusiasm of a lofty sympathy.
The details of this admirable system are given by the Professor with much distinctness; and we earnestly recommend his volume, if it were only for this part of it, to the perusal of all who may have warmly and closely at heart the interests of the rising generation. Professor Jardine's reputation as a teacher is not confined to Scotland. Many English youth annually repair to the University pf Glasgow for the benefit of his instruction; and we have a pleasure and a pride in the thought, that our widely - circulated Miscellany may be the means of introducing, to many of our Southern Brethren, a knowledge of the principles of the system which he has so long and successfully pursued. We admire our English Universities: and the only part of Professor Jardine's book which we cannot commend, is the extension of his reasoning on the merits of his own system to that of those famous seats and schools of learning. He is unluckily altogether ignorant of the system of Oxford and Cambridge education, and it would not be difficult to refute every thing he has said on that subject. But there are numerous persons in England, to whom, by various causes, an university education is forbidden; and in no other seminary of education in England, of which we know any thing, is there a system of instruction pursued, at all comparable to that of which Professor Jardine has in this volume given us the outlines.
Examination, then, is the great engine which he sets to work. An hour each day, throughout a session of six months, and towards the close of that session, two hours each, are set apart for this purpose. The professor in a short time becomes acquainted with the abilities and acquirements of one and all of his students, and adapts the nature of his questions to the measure of their capacities. Stern and rigorous impartiality, and sound discretion, are the most essential qualities in the professor. Without them all examination becomes a farce. Nay, it becomes a system of the vilest and most Sernicious injustice. Professor Jarine shows no favour to any one student above another,—except perhaps that favour, which genius and talent irresistibly win to themselves from a mind like his, that rejoices in the contemplation of rising excellence. The son of the Noble is there on a par with the son of the Peasant. There is no distinction but that of mental power. Professor Jardine has thus gained such a character among the youths of the college, that eminence in his class is considered as the surest test of talent, for it can be acquired only by force of talent. The conviction of this is universal, and its effects are most happy. No one chooses to be idle there, he loses all character, when he loses the countenance of Professor Jardine; and an incorrigibly idle lounger can no more be permitted to exist in the lively and working community of his class, than a drone in a summer-hive.
These examinations are conducted on a very comprehensive scale. They are not confined to the lecture of the morning, but they extend indefinitely throughout the whole range of the preceding part of the course of lectures. If a youth hopes to distinguish himself there, he must retain what he acSuires, and have the substance of all lie lectures, not in his note-book, but in his mind. A single well-directed question can let the Professor into the secret of the student's knowledge or ignorance; and where all are hourly liable to being questioned—where question and reply keep circling and permeating the whole body of students, it is obvious, that an eager spirit of attention must be thus generated throughout that body, and kept awake by every generous sentiment in the generous minds of youth.
But, besides this very comprehensive plan of examination, the professor has adopted another mode of exercising the acuteness and readiness of his pupils, which he justly thinks entitled to Vol. III.
the merit of originality. He occasionally calls upon the student to stand up in his place, to collect his thoughts, and to express them on subjects so selected, as to require him, on the instant, to survey his store of knowledge, and to bring forth what may be necessary for his present purpose. When he has done so, some other student is requested to stand up and enlarge upon, or correct or qualify, what has just been advanced, and thus something like a scholastic disputation takes place, conducted beneath the watchful eye of a wise and experienced teacher, and wholly free from all perplexing technicalities, and all the useless or baneful circumstances of form. It is obvious, that a very peculiar talent is necessary to enable a student to excel in such exercises; but by judicious management and temperate encouragement, there can be no doubt that much may be done in this way, to give young men even of slower faculties a readiness in collecting their ideas, and of meeting, without embarassment, a sudden and unexpected opposition. Of course, exhibitions of this kind are not very frequent, and are at all times prevented by the Professor from assuming a character that might change a class-room of philosophy into a debating club.
The professor next gives a detailed and lucid account of the Themes which he exacts from all his students during the whole course of lectures. These he classes into five Orders. He calls upon as many of the students as the time will permit, to read these themes in the presence of the class, or at least such part of them as may enable him to judge whether they have been executed according to the directions received, and particularly, whether they bear the marks of labour and diligence. He remarks upon their style and composition—points out the faults of arrangement, Ike, and by judicious and cheering criticism, both corrects and excites.
The object of the First Order Of Themes is, to promote the habitual exercise of those powers by which clear, distinct, and adequate Notions are formed. Thus, the first lectures contain an explanation of that knowledge to which the term philosophy is applied; and also an account of what is understood by the knowledge of the senses, of history, of revelation,—and 3H
the distinction is explained betwixt the knowledge of phenomena, or facts, and that of causes or principles. The themes are often proposed to the students in the form of questions, so constructed as to make the exercise a specific answer to them. For example, "In what sense is philosophy an interpretation of the laws of nature?" "How may philosophy be distinguished from other kinds and degrees of knowledge?" "In what sense is philosophy a knowledge of causes and principles?"
The object of the Second Order Of Themes is, to promote the exercise of those powers by which the notions thereby acquired are arranged under their proper heads. The power of abstraction and generalization is strengthened by a regular course of exercises, in the execution of which, the students are directed to fix upon some common quality, by which objects that have common features may be brought under one class. For example, " How many classes of words are there in any formed language, and upon what principles are they divided?" "What is the principle of the arrangement of the predicables and categories of Aristotle, of the division of errors according to Lord Bacon, and of the different kinds and degrees of evidence."
The object of the Third Order or Themes is, to form, in the minds of the students, those processes of analysis and investigation which are the great instruments of acquiring science. Before, however, he makes any direct attempts to analyse, he is required to give an account, in writing, of the manner in which a philosophical analysis is conducted in the works of Locke, Hutchison, Hume, Reid, or other philosophers. After having been accustomed to attend to the progress of analysis in the works of these celebrated authors, he is next required to put his knowledge into practice. A portion of composition is selected, an oration of Demosthenes, or of Cicero, or a paper of the Spectator; and he is required to point out, in order, and separately, the principal parts, and the connexion that subsists among them. Afterwards, the faculties of imagination, of reason, and of the external senses, are made the subject of analysis.
The object of the Fourth Order
Of Themes is, to communicate to others the knowledge which the students have acquired in composition, by which certain subjects are explained or illustrated in all their parts, or by which the truth or falsehood of propositions is established by appropriate arguments. The worthy Professor gives such directions for the composition of these themes, as have been suggested to him by experience; but previous to these, he explains those rules which the Logicians have presented for the assistance of young composers. He enters into this subject at great length in this volume, and taking Emulation for the subject of such a theme, he gives a sketch of the mode in which it may be treated as an example of the nature of these compositions in general.
The object of the Fifth Order or Themes is, the improvement of the powers of genius and of taste by a practical course of discipline. Some of the questions which are here put to the students are of considerable difficulty, and presuppose an intimate acquaintance with classical literature. "What are those parts in the Iliad which best discover the invention of Homer?" "What are those traits in the poetry of Virgil by which it is distinguished from Homer ?" &Q. " What is the distinction between poetry and prose?" " What are the limits of poetic fiction?" At other times the students are required to imitate a dialogue in the manner of Socrates—a fable in that of ^Esop—an eastern story similar to those in the Arabian Night's Entertainments. On reading the biographical accounts of men of eminent talent, they are required to state the circumstances and accidents which gave an early direction to their genius, and the manner in which obstacles were removed.
It has only been in our power to give a very general sketch of the contents of this excellent volume. We strongly recommend it to the perusal of our readers, and feel assured, that though some of the details may seem rather too minute, and consequently a little dull, the impression left by the exposition of the system in general will be, that it is most admirably calculated for the education of youth, and worthy of all the praise that can be bestowed upon it.
not received any increasei and the tc
REPORT FOR 1618 OF THE INST1TU- tal rccejpts staua thUS:
TION FOR THE EDUCATION OF DEAF
AND DUMB children. Donations and subscriptions in
Edinburgh, ±529 13 6
Remitted by Glasgow Commit
In this very interesting and intelligent tee, 105 0 0
report, the Committee declare their con- Collected at Annual Examina
viction, that the past year has been the tion 28 11 0
most important one in its history. The Profits of Examinations during
liberal and enlightened views of the -h^5?ionn,c7llV-: 7T * 6
Founders of institution, who we ^Z^^l^Z: 45 0 0
from the first desirous of imparting to"
it the character of a national establish- Total, £785 9 0
ment, were not speedily realized. For „
some years, the support it received was Tbe ">*JTMion owes £200 for the
confined almost exclusively to the ca- purchase of the property in Chesscls
pital; and in one instance, namely, in Court; and it is therefore incumbent
the distribution of the large funds col- °.n th.e f"ends of the institution to as
lectedin 1815 by the Musical Festival, 8lst lts /unds/ n.ot °nlv to afi?rd *e
it was excluded, not very rationally we raC!ms of continuing and extending its
think, on the ground that it was not usefulness, but even to preserve it from
one of the charitable establishments of embarrassment.
Edinburgh, hut a national establish- The typhus fever unfortunately broke
mcnt out in the establishment this spring,
Mr Kinniburgh, the excellent head and thus a ve,7 heavy and unforeseen
of the institution, in 1814, went to cMfns? was incurred m the removal
Glasgow with some of his pupils; and of *? healthy pupils to another house
the public examination, which they andby medical attendance of the sick.'
then underwent, so interested the in- / be accommodation of the house in
habitants of that city, that an auxil- Chessek Court is very defective; and
iary society was formed in it, by the it u therefore the intention of the
aid of whose contributions a consider- Comm"*e> y they.sha" be entb1^ by
able number of pupils have since re- Pubhc liberality to fulfil it, to build an
ceived the benefits of the institution. addition to the house, and to fit it up
In 1817, Mr Kinniburgh made a si- as an hospital. It is needless to say
milar visit to Dundee, Aberdeen, In- how desirable would be the attainment
verness, and Perth, and was every of this object On the state of the
where hailed as a person whose exer- scho°l the Committee thus speak:
tious had been blessed as the means ot "°f *e ,6ta^ of the school, under the
restoring children to their families, charge of Mr Kinniburgh, the Committee
and citizens to society and servants to "^ *Peak m tcrms of the m06t unSuallfieu
ana citizens to society, ana servants to approbaUon. It is indeed, chiefly on the
God. Hie whole results of this jour- durance of the great benefits derived by
ney cannot yet be stated, but it is &e pupiis from nia tuiuon, and the won
known, that meetings have been held derful change which it has introduced into
at Dundee, Aberdeen, Elgin, Inver- their moral condition, that they solicit the
ness, and Perth, for the purpose of aid of a benevolent public They entreat
forming auxiliary societies in aid of all, to whom the interests of their fellow
the parent institution. creatures are dear, to viiil the Maooj, and
The Committee also express their t0 judge for themselves. Let them first
v , ..~ .. . ,f ., contemplate the deaf and dumb in their na
high gratification, in recording the en- tural a*d unimproveu slBte>_aim0,t 4e
lightened benevolence of the town of lowest condition in which a mortal being can Paisley, where an auxiliary society has be placed—and then survey in our school recently been formed, though it never the effects of instruction. So completely has been visited by the pupils. has it broken down the barrier, hitherto conIn the character, therefore, of one
of the public establishments of Scot- *lt " impossible (say the Committee) to noland, it now solicits public patronage; ^^ PTMful ^iect' without expressing and we have great pleasure ?n nowln- ^T^^Z ?£££ creasing the publicity of the Commit- every occasion which has called for medical tee s Report in our pages. The income attendance, have been most unremitting, of the past year, though not inade- and entitle him to the gratitude of every quote to the purpose of the society, has friend to this institution.
sidered insurmountable, which excluded all the lights of truth, of reason, and of religion, from the minds of these unfortunate persons, that it is no exaggeration to say, that there is perhaps no class of persons in their station, who are so thoroughly well educated, as the pupils of this institution.
"Independently of moral and religious instruction—to which almost all other knowledge is but as the means to an end—the pupils are taught to read and write their native language, to compose in it with ease and fluency, and even to use it in articulate speech. They are also taught arithmetic, and such other branches of education as may fit them for the stations to which they are dfTtt"fi There are doubtless situations and professions, from which their infirmity necessarily excludes them ; but there is no condition in which they can find occupation, for which they may not, and do not, receive the appropriate instruction in the institution.
"The pupils who belong to the lower classes of society, are trained to those habits which are to make them useful in their station. All the female pupils are taught sewing, and other peculiar branches of female education. The females of an inferior station are instructed by Mrs Kinniburgh in those occupations which qualify them for domestic service. Those who prefer to support themselves by labour, are taught shoebinding, and other works of that nature.
"Similar attention is paid to the appropriate instruction of the boys. It was mentioned in the last Report, that, as a beginning of mechanical instruction in the institution, a number of the boys had been taught shoemaking. This experiment has been remarkably successful. The Committee annex, in the Appendix, a state of the expense of this department, from which it will be found, that no loss has arisen from it; but that, on the contrary, it has been, to a small extent, a source of profit, which will doubtless increase as the boys become more perfect in their trade. It is proper to add, that a large stock of shoes, of different qualities, the work of the pupils, is for sale at the institution; by the purchase of which, at the ordinary prices, its friends will materially benefit its funds, without increasing their own contributions.
"During the past year ten new pupils have been admitted into the institution, of whom five were recommended by the Glasgow Committee. On the other hand, six have left the institution, having completed their course of education. It is affecting to follow these six persons to their homes, which, they left a few years since, unconscious of the great end of their existence, and incapable of hope, of enjoyment, and of usefulness; and to which they now return, furnished with all the means of profitable occupation, and endowed with all the privileges of rational, moral, and immortal beings. If any can contemplate, unmoved,
so amazing a change in the human condition, it were in vain to appeal to him in behalf of our institution ; and, to him who feels it as he ought, all other arguments are superfluous.
"The total number of pupils presently in the institution is fifty; of whom eighteen were recommended by the Glasgow Committee.
"Besides those who have left the institution, Joseph Turner has, some time since, completed his education. Mr Kinniburgh, however, finds the assistance of this meritorious youth very valuable in the instruction of the pupils; indeed, his participation of their common infirmity, gives at once a peculiar value and an interest to his instructions. It is therefore proposed, with the concurrence of his friends, to engage him as a permanent assistant in the school.
In the conclusion of the Report, the the Committee quote the following beautiful passages from the article Deaf and Dumb in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, which, we are sure, will now be perused with feelings of profound sorrow by many thousand hearts. We add also the note which accompanies them.
"The task of education," says an eloquent and powerful advocate for our institution, "is never perhaps more truly delightful, than when this unfortunate, though interesting class of persons, are the subjects of it. They unite, in general, to singular steadiness of application, the greatest gentleness and docility, and expressions of countenance, as cheering as they are unequivocal, continually declare the emotions of gratitude with which they receive instruction." Wcsee their happiness increasing with their knowledge, and when the sublimity of nature is first unfolded to their opening minds, and we mark the tear starting into their eyes, we cannot but participate in their noble pleasure, and rejoice that such emotions can be thcir's."*
* " Edinburgh Encyclopedia, v. Dumb and Deaf—It is an affecting recollection to those who so lately listened to this Report, that the accomplished and amiable author of these beautiful sentences was present, and witnessed the emotions of pleasure with which they were heard by a very numerous audience. He was then in the vigour of health and youth; rich in the affections of his friends; advancing rapidly to the highest eminence in his profession ; and looking forward probably to many years of virtuous exertion, of usefulness, and of enjoyment He is now no more!—This is not
the place to enlarge on those qualities which endeared Dr Gordon to his friends, in a degree which it has seldom been the lot of mortality to attain. Yet it may be permitted to those who have so long been