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the eye and a candle, a flash of light was instantly produced, by representing the name of the candle magnified to the size of the whole of the inner surface of this piece of metal, and gave an increased light upon the wall opposite to him. After this discovery, he had several pieces of metal formed, retaining the same angle, but of various diameters, and found, to his great surprise, that, although their area were greatly increased, the representation of the flame still filled them without the least diminution in the quality of the light, but with an increased light against the wall, in proportion to the increased area of the surface of the metal." How far this power and effect may extend, is not a present ascertained; but it is believed, that a zone of light of the same quality and effect may be produced to an inconceivable extent. Some idea may be formed of the powerful and important results that may be derived from this discovery, by reasoning philosophically on its principles :—Let a candle, or any other light, be represented in a mirror at a given distance from the flame, and the eye of the spectator be placed so as to view its reflection nearly in the cathetus of incidence. Let him mark the quantity of light represented in the mirror, and such will be its true quality when forming a zone of represented flame of double the diameter of the distance betwixt the real flame and the mirror. ,
If a candle be placed before a mirror, its flame will be represented; and if a thouand mirrors are placed in a given circle round a candle, the candle will be represented a thousand times, and each representation equal in brilliancy, if the mirrors are at equal distances from the flame. Suppose that the thousand mirrors were united in such a form as to bring all the represented
* This invention is not confined solely to light, but the increase of heat keeps pace with the increase of light, and both in the ratio of the area of the surface.
The apparatus is so constructed as to be placed upon a candle, and sinks down with the flame, without either flooding or waste.
flames into one flame, of equal brilliancy with the real flame of the candle. For the same law of nature by which the flame is represented a thousand times in as many mirrors so united, it would be represented in one flame if the mirror be made of a proper form, and placed in a proper position to receive the rays of light that emanate from the candle in the direction of the angle of this peculiar formed mirror.
As the light of a small candle is visible at the distance of four miles, in a dark night, what must the diameter or circumference of that zone of flame be that is produced by this discovery from one of the gas lights in the streets of London? Thus two lamps or stations would be sufficient to light the longest street, when its position approaches to a right line, as the diameter of the zone may be made of the same diameter as the street; and as the rays of light that are increased by this invention diverge from the luminous body, all parts of the street would be filled with light. Many are the minor advantages that will be derived from its application to domestic purposes, for writing, reading, and working by candle or lamp light This, like Dr Brewster's kaleidoscope, is another instance of the effects to be produced by mirrors.
It appears that the great impediment to improvement and discovery in this branch of the science of optics, has arisen from the difficulty of foiling glass to the various forms necessary, in lieu of which we have been compelled to use metallic substances. These difficulties once removed, a vast field of important discovery will be opened on the nature and effect of light. May not many of the phenomena that are observed in the air, such as halos round the sun, be produced by this principle, the rays falling upon a denser medium than air, and thus producing a zone of light, &c
We have given the preceding account of Mr Lester's discovery, without being able thoroughly to understand it, or to perceive that it contains any principle; but we have no doubt that this arises from the brevity and obscurity of the statement.
WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.
The Philosophy of Chemistry, which does not consist in being an Improvement on the Opinions of others, much less a Copy of them, but is an entire New System of the Science of Nature; by T. H. Pasley, H. M. Dockyard, Chatham.
Sir Charles Morgan, already so well known to the literary world by his appendi
ces to Lady Morgan's work on France, has just put to press his Sketches of the Philosophy of Life.
M. Kotezebue is preparing for publication, his Account of the Russian Embassy to Persia. It will appear at the same time at London and Weimar.
Another National Novel, from the pen of Lady Morgan, is now in the press, entitled, Florence Macarthy. A correspondent ok. 41
serves, that the style of Romance, of which the author of the Wild Irish Girl was the original inventor, still remains in her exclusive possession; for though Miss Edgeworth has depicted with great fidelity and incomparable humour the manners of the lower classes of the Irish,—and though the author of Waverley has left imperishable monuments of Scottish peculiarities, yet the illustration, by example, of the consequences of great errors in domestic policy, with a view to internal amelioration, has not apparently entered into the plans of those authors.
The Rev. Mr Evans of Islington, has in the press, the Progress of Human Life, or Shakspeare's Seven Ages of Man; illustrated by a Series of Extracts, in Prose and Poetry, upon the plan of his Juvenile Tourist and his Excursion to Windsor, with a view to the rising generation.
Mr Chamlcnt, author of a History of Malvern, is engaged in a History of Worcester, which is now in the press; it will contain the principal matter of Nash and Green, with the addition of much original information, and a copious Index.
The Telegraphist's Vade-Mecum, a more simple, comprehensive, and methodical Telegraphic Work than any hitherto offered, is announced for publication, by Mr Joseph Connolly, author of the Telegraphic Dictionary, and Essay on Universal Telegraphic Communications, for which he has received the gold and silver medals from the Society of Arts.
John Gait, Esq. is preparing the Second Part of the Life of Benjamin West, Esq.
The Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; by Thomas Hartwell Horne, A.M. illustrated with maps and fac-similes of Biblical Manuscripts, in 3 vols, 8vo, is nearly ready for publication.
Mr John Nichols is preparing for publication, in 3 vols 8vo, the Miscellaneous Works of the late George Hardinge, Esq.
Captain Golownin, the Narrative of whose Captivity has been recently published, is printing Recollections of Japan, comprising an Account of the People and of the Country.
Mr Chalmers has in the press, an Abridgement of Todd's Edition of Dr Johnson's Dictionary.
Speedily will appear. Sermons, by the Rev. t. R. Maturin, Curate of St Peter's, Dublin, in 8vo.
In the press, uniform in size and execution—I. The most approved Versions of the Holy Scriptures, in the Modern European Languages, viz. French, Italian, Spanish, and GermanF- II. A Polyglott Common Prayer Book, in Eight Languages at every opening of the Volume, viz. Greek, Modern Greek, by Mr A. Calbo, French, English, Italian, Latin, Spanish, and German.—Each of the Volumes may be separately subscribed for; and the List of Subscribers will be published The Polyglott
Bible, already in part published, will be completed in Five Parts, at One Guinea each; the Volume of Modern European Languages, in Five Parts, at 18s. each; and the Polyglott Common Prayer, of Eight Languages, in Five Parts, at 10s. 6d- each. —With the above Quarto Edition, are regularly published, separate Pocket Editions of the Bible, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English; French, Italian, Spanish, and German; and also of the Common Prayer, in Greek, Modern Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Spanish, French, and German; or any Two Languages may be interleaved in one Pocket Volume.
Directions for the Treatment of Persons who have taken Poison, and those in a State of Suspended Animation, &c; by M. P Orfilla; translated from the French.
Observations on the Symptoms and Specific Distinctions of Venereal Diseases; interspersed with Hints for the more effectual Prosecution of the present Inquiry into the Uses and Abuses of Mercury in that Treatment; by Richard Carmichael, M. H. ". A. one of the Surgeons of the Richmond Hospital, House of Industry, Dublin, <Jr.
A Succinct Account of the Contagious Fever of this Country, as exemplified in the Epidemic now prevailing in London, with the appropriate Method of Treatment, <• practised in the House of Recovery; * which are added*. Observations on the Nature and Properties of Contagion, tending » correct the popular Notions on this SubjcCand pointing out the Means of Prevenuuc; by Thomas Bateuan, M.D. F.L-S. Physician to the Public Dispensary, and Consulting Physician to the Fever Institution: London, &c
Letters on French History, for the Use c Schools; by J. Bigland, author of Letters on English History, &c
Transactions of the Literary Society o Bombay, 4to, with numerous engravings.
A Second Memoir on Babylon; comaiing an Inquiry into the Correspondence between the Ancient Descriptions of Babykr and the Remains still visible on the gee suggested by the " Remarks" of Major Rennel, published in the Archaeok>g>a; is Claudius James Rich, Esq.
Dawson Turner, Esq. will soon puhli.' the remaining portion of his Coloured figures, and Descriptions of the Plants reared, by Botanists, to the Genus Kucus.
The Rev. H. J. Todd is prcparirtc » Work on Original Sin, Freewill, Oraoe, Regeneration, Justification, Faith, Good "Werfc. and Universal Redemption, as maintained certain Declarations of our Reforojers
The Rev. Dr John Fleming will a r publish, a General View of the Structure. Function, and Classification of Animals, 'F Illustrated by engravings
Miss Trimmer is preparing a Sexjuel Mrs Trimmer's Introduction to the top ledge of Nature and the Scriptures
Memoirs of Count Las Casas, up w'
return from St Helena, communicated by himself, are printing in an octavo volume.
Mr Mascall, a Barrister of Lincolns-Inn, has in the press, a Digest of the Law of the Distribution of the Personal Estates of Intestates.
Mr Soane has in the press, Udine, a Fairy Romance, translated from the German of Baron de la Motte Pouque.
The Rev. J. Bellamy is printing a Second Edition of his Concordance to the Bible, in quarto; and another Edition in an octavo volume.
Preparing for publication, an Essay on the Office and Duties of the Eldership in the Church of Scotland; to which is added, an Account of the Management of the Poor in the Parishes of Paisley, Greenock, &c with various observations on the Comparative State of the Poor Laws in England and Scotland r—on the Different Plans proposed for behoof of the Poor,—on the Assembly Report of the State of Pauperism in Scotland,—and on other topics connected with the several subjects of Charity, and the Moral and Political State of the Lower Classes
of the Community. By the Rev. Robert Burns, one of the Ministers of Paisley, Author of a letter to the Rev. Dr Chalmers of Glasgow, on the Distinctive Characters of the Protestant and Roman Catholic Religion. «
Dr Brewster has in the press, a Treatise on the Kaleidoscope; including an Account of the different forms in which some ingenious opticians have fitted up that Instrument
Dr Andrew Duncan will soon publish an Account of the Life, Writings, and Character, of flic late Dr Alexander Monro, delivered at the Harveian Oration at Edinburgh for 1818.
An Account of the Small Pox, as it appeared after vaccination, will shortly appear, by Alexander Monro, M.D. Professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh; including, among many cases, three which occurred in the author's own family.
A Geographical and Statistical Description of Scotland, is in the press; by James Playf'air, D.D. F.R.S. and K.A.S.E. Principal of the United College of St Andrew, and Historiographer to the Prince Regent.
An Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia; by Hugh Murray, P.R.S.E. will speedily be published.
MONTHLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
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Biographical Conversations on the most eminent Voyagers of different nations, from Columbus to Cooke; by the Rev. W. Bingley. l£uio. Ts.
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A Sequel to the French Exercises of Chambaud, Hamel, Pen-in, Wanostrocht, and other Grammars; being a Practical Guide to translate from English into good French; on a new plan, with grammatical notes; by G. H. Poppleton, 12mo. 3s.
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Observations on a Stridulous Affection o the Bowels, and on some Varieties of Spinal Disease; with an Appendix of Cases. By J. Bradley, M. D.
An Enquiry into the Probability of Mr Hunter's Theory of Life; new edition; by John Abemethy, F.R.S. 8vo. 4s. 6d.
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The British Review, No XXIII. 8vt>. 6s.
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