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the eye and a candle, a flash of light was instantly produced, by representing the name of the candle magnified to the size of the whole of the inner surface of this piece of metal, and gave an increased light upon the wall opposite to him. After this discovery, he had several pieces of metal formed, retaining the same angle, but of various diameters, and found, to his great surprise, that, although their area were greatly increased, the representation of the flame still filled them without the least diminution in the quality of the light, but with an increased light against the wall, in proportion to the increased area of the surface of the metal." How far this power and effect may extend, is not a present ascertained; but it is believed, that a zone of light of the same quality and effect may be produced to an inconceivable extent. Some idea may be formed of the powerful and important results that may be derived from this discovery, by reasoning philosophically on its principles :—Let a candle, or any other light, be represented in a mirror at a given distance from the flame, and the eye of the spectator be placed so as to view its reflection nearly in the cathetus of incidence. Let him mark the quantity of light represented in the mirror, and such will be its true quality when forming a zone of represented flame of double the diameter of the distance betwixt the real flame and the mirror. ,

If a candle be placed before a mirror, its flame will be represented; and if a thouand mirrors are placed in a given circle round a candle, the candle will be represented a thousand times, and each representation equal in brilliancy, if the mirrors are at equal distances from the flame. Suppose that the thousand mirrors were united in such a form as to bring all the represented

* This invention is not confined solely to light, but the increase of heat keeps pace with the increase of light, and both in the ratio of the area of the surface.

The apparatus is so constructed as to be placed upon a candle, and sinks down with the flame, without either flooding or waste.

flames into one flame, of equal brilliancy with the real flame of the candle. For the same law of nature by which the flame is represented a thousand times in as many mirrors so united, it would be represented in one flame if the mirror be made of a proper form, and placed in a proper position to receive the rays of light that emanate from the candle in the direction of the angle of this peculiar formed mirror.

As the light of a small candle is visible at the distance of four miles, in a dark night, what must the diameter or circumference of that zone of flame be that is produced by this discovery from one of the gas lights in the streets of London? Thus two lamps or stations would be sufficient to light the longest street, when its position approaches to a right line, as the diameter of the zone may be made of the same diameter as the street; and as the rays of light that are increased by this invention diverge from the luminous body, all parts of the street would be filled with light. Many are the minor advantages that will be derived from its application to domestic purposes, for writing, reading, and working by candle or lamp light This, like Dr Brewster's kaleidoscope, is another instance of the effects to be produced by mirrors.

It appears that the great impediment to improvement and discovery in this branch of the science of optics, has arisen from the difficulty of foiling glass to the various forms necessary, in lieu of which we have been compelled to use metallic substances. These difficulties once removed, a vast field of important discovery will be opened on the nature and effect of light. May not many of the phenomena that are observed in the air, such as halos round the sun, be produced by this principle, the rays falling upon a denser medium than air, and thus producing a zone of light, &c

We have given the preceding account of Mr Lester's discovery, without being able thoroughly to understand it, or to perceive that it contains any principle; but we have no doubt that this arises from the brevity and obscurity of the statement.

WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION.

LONDON.

The Philosophy of Chemistry, which does not consist in being an Improvement on the Opinions of others, much less a Copy of them, but is an entire New System of the Science of Nature; by T. H. Pasley, H. M. Dockyard, Chatham.

Sir Charles Morgan, already so well known to the literary world by his appendi

Vol. III.

ces to Lady Morgan's work on France, has just put to press his Sketches of the Philosophy of Life.

M. Kotezebue is preparing for publication, his Account of the Russian Embassy to Persia. It will appear at the same time at London and Weimar.

Another National Novel, from the pen of Lady Morgan, is now in the press, entitled, Florence Macarthy. A correspondent ok. 41

serves, that the style of Romance, of which the author of the Wild Irish Girl was the original inventor, still remains in her exclusive possession; for though Miss Edgeworth has depicted with great fidelity and incomparable humour the manners of the lower classes of the Irish,—and though the author of Waverley has left imperishable monuments of Scottish peculiarities, yet the illustration, by example, of the consequences of great errors in domestic policy, with a view to internal amelioration, has not apparently entered into the plans of those authors.

The Rev. Mr Evans of Islington, has in the press, the Progress of Human Life, or Shakspeare's Seven Ages of Man; illustrated by a Series of Extracts, in Prose and Poetry, upon the plan of his Juvenile Tourist and his Excursion to Windsor, with a view to the rising generation.

Mr Chamlcnt, author of a History of Malvern, is engaged in a History of Worcester, which is now in the press; it will contain the principal matter of Nash and Green, with the addition of much original information, and a copious Index.

The Telegraphist's Vade-Mecum, a more simple, comprehensive, and methodical Telegraphic Work than any hitherto offered, is announced for publication, by Mr Joseph Connolly, author of the Telegraphic Dictionary, and Essay on Universal Telegraphic Communications, for which he has received the gold and silver medals from the Society of Arts.

John Gait, Esq. is preparing the Second Part of the Life of Benjamin West, Esq.

The Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; by Thomas Hartwell Horne, A.M. illustrated with maps and fac-similes of Biblical Manuscripts, in 3 vols, 8vo, is nearly ready for publication.

Mr John Nichols is preparing for publication, in 3 vols 8vo, the Miscellaneous Works of the late George Hardinge, Esq.

Captain Golownin, the Narrative of whose Captivity has been recently published, is printing Recollections of Japan, comprising an Account of the People and of the Country.

Mr Chalmers has in the press, an Abridgement of Todd's Edition of Dr Johnson's Dictionary.

Speedily will appear. Sermons, by the Rev. t. R. Maturin, Curate of St Peter's, Dublin, in 8vo.

In the press, uniform in size and execution—I. The most approved Versions of the Holy Scriptures, in the Modern European Languages, viz. French, Italian, Spanish, and GermanF- II. A Polyglott Common Prayer Book, in Eight Languages at every opening of the Volume, viz. Greek, Modern Greek, by Mr A. Calbo, French, English, Italian, Latin, Spanish, and German.—Each of the Volumes may be separately subscribed for; and the List of Subscribers will be published The Polyglott

Bible, already in part published, will be completed in Five Parts, at One Guinea each; the Volume of Modern European Languages, in Five Parts, at 18s. each; and the Polyglott Common Prayer, of Eight Languages, in Five Parts, at 10s. 6d- each. —With the above Quarto Edition, are regularly published, separate Pocket Editions of the Bible, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English; French, Italian, Spanish, and German; and also of the Common Prayer, in Greek, Modern Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Spanish, French, and German; or any Two Languages may be interleaved in one Pocket Volume.

Directions for the Treatment of Persons who have taken Poison, and those in a State of Suspended Animation, &c; by M. P Orfilla; translated from the French.

Observations on the Symptoms and Specific Distinctions of Venereal Diseases; interspersed with Hints for the more effectual Prosecution of the present Inquiry into the Uses and Abuses of Mercury in that Treatment; by Richard Carmichael, M. H. ". A. one of the Surgeons of the Richmond Hospital, House of Industry, Dublin, <Jr.

A Succinct Account of the Contagious Fever of this Country, as exemplified in the Epidemic now prevailing in London, with the appropriate Method of Treatment, <• practised in the House of Recovery; * which are added*. Observations on the Nature and Properties of Contagion, tending » correct the popular Notions on this SubjcCand pointing out the Means of Prevenuuc; by Thomas Bateuan, M.D. F.L-S. Physician to the Public Dispensary, and Consulting Physician to the Fever Institution: London, &c

Letters on French History, for the Use c Schools; by J. Bigland, author of Letters on English History, &c

Transactions of the Literary Society o Bombay, 4to, with numerous engravings.

A Second Memoir on Babylon; comaiing an Inquiry into the Correspondence between the Ancient Descriptions of Babykr and the Remains still visible on the gee suggested by the " Remarks" of Major Rennel, published in the Archaeok>g>a; is Claudius James Rich, Esq.

Dawson Turner, Esq. will soon puhli.' the remaining portion of his Coloured figures, and Descriptions of the Plants reared, by Botanists, to the Genus Kucus.

The Rev. H. J. Todd is prcparirtc » Work on Original Sin, Freewill, Oraoe, Regeneration, Justification, Faith, Good "Werfc. and Universal Redemption, as maintained certain Declarations of our Reforojers

The Rev. Dr John Fleming will a r publish, a General View of the Structure. Function, and Classification of Animals, 'F Illustrated by engravings

Miss Trimmer is preparing a Sexjuel Mrs Trimmer's Introduction to the top ledge of Nature and the Scriptures

Memoirs of Count Las Casas, up w'

return from St Helena, communicated by himself, are printing in an octavo volume.

Mr Mascall, a Barrister of Lincolns-Inn, has in the press, a Digest of the Law of the Distribution of the Personal Estates of Intestates.

Mr Soane has in the press, Udine, a Fairy Romance, translated from the German of Baron de la Motte Pouque.

The Rev. J. Bellamy is printing a Second Edition of his Concordance to the Bible, in quarto; and another Edition in an octavo volume.

EDINBURGH.

Preparing for publication, an Essay on the Office and Duties of the Eldership in the Church of Scotland; to which is added, an Account of the Management of the Poor in the Parishes of Paisley, Greenock, &c with various observations on the Comparative State of the Poor Laws in England and Scotland r—on the Different Plans proposed for behoof of the Poor,—on the Assembly Report of the State of Pauperism in Scotland,—and on other topics connected with the several subjects of Charity, and the Moral and Political State of the Lower Classes

of the Community. By the Rev. Robert Burns, one of the Ministers of Paisley, Author of a letter to the Rev. Dr Chalmers of Glasgow, on the Distinctive Characters of the Protestant and Roman Catholic Religion. «

Dr Brewster has in the press, a Treatise on the Kaleidoscope; including an Account of the different forms in which some ingenious opticians have fitted up that Instrument

Dr Andrew Duncan will soon publish an Account of the Life, Writings, and Character, of flic late Dr Alexander Monro, delivered at the Harveian Oration at Edinburgh for 1818.

An Account of the Small Pox, as it appeared after vaccination, will shortly appear, by Alexander Monro, M.D. Professor of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh; including, among many cases, three which occurred in the author's own family.

A Geographical and Statistical Description of Scotland, is in the press; by James Playf'air, D.D. F.R.S. and K.A.S.E. Principal of the United College of St Andrew, and Historiographer to the Prince Regent.

An Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia; by Hugh Murray, P.R.S.E. will speedily be published.

MONTHLY LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

LONDON.

AGRICULTURE.

Letters and Papers on Agriculture, Planting, &c, selected from a correspondence of the Bath and West of England Agricultural Society, Vol. XIV. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

ANTIQUITIES.

The Cathedral Antiquities of England; by J. Britton, F.S.A. No XVII. being No III. of York Cathedral.

BIOGRAPHY.

Memoirs of her Royal Highness the late Princess Charlotte; by T. Green, 8vo. 12s.

Biographical Conversations on the most eminent Voyagers of different nations, from Columbus to Cooke; by the Rev. W. Bingley. l£uio. Ts.

BOTANY.

Part VII h of Green's Botanical Dictionary; with coloured or plain engravings

The Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, Part I. of Vol. III. 4to. £l, 10s.

COLONIAL.

A Letter to a Friend relative to the present State of the Island of Dominica; by Langford Lovell, Esq. 8vo.

COMMERCE.

Universal Commerce; or, the Commerce of all the Mercantile Cities and Towns of the World, gvo. 10s. (id.

EDUCATION.

A Sequel to the French Exercises of Chambaud, Hamel, Pen-in, Wanostrocht, and other Grammars; being a Practical Guide to translate from English into good French; on a new plan, with grammatical notes; by G. H. Poppleton, 12mo. 3s.

A Key to Poppleton's French Exercises; being a translation of the various exercises contained in that book, 12mo. 2s. 6d.

'Conversations on Algebra; being an Introduction to the first principles of that science: designed for those who have not the advantage of a tutor, as well al for the use of students in schools; by William Cole, 12mo. 7s.

The Pronouncing Instructor, or General Reader's Assistant in the pronunciation of difficult Greek, Latin, and Scripture proper names; the names of eminent modern artists and men of science; distinguished characters and notorious, who have appeared on the theatre of Europe within the last thirty yearsI and geographical names of places i to which are added, Latin and French words and phrases, with their pronunciation and meanings; by Christopher Earnshaw, author of a much-approved portable explanatory Pronouncing Dictionary, and an English Grammar. Is. 6d.

A Concise Description of Endowed Grammar Schools in England and Wales; b;

Nicholas Carlisle, (F. R. S. M. R. I.A. & F. & S. S. A.; very elegantly printed, with fac-similes of seals, &c 2 vols 8vo. Si, 16s. Ipswich Reading Lessons; selected from the Holy Scriptures, and adapted to the improved System of Education, for instructing both Adults and Children, by Richard Dykes Alexander. Second edition, 10s. 6d.

FINE ARTS.

A List of the Numbers and Prices of the valuable Library and Collection of Prints, Drawings, and Pictures, of W. Roscoe, F.sq. which were sold at Liverpool in 1816, 8vo, 7s.

A Series of Outline Designs, illustrative of the Poem of Thalaba the Destroyer; by Robert Southey, Esq. Poet Laureate. Geogkaphy.

Elementary Tables of Practical Geography, in two large folio sheets; by J. Gould.

Spanish America; or, a Descriptive, Historical, and Geographical Account of the Dominions of Spain in the Western Hemisphere, continental and insular; illustrated by a map of Spanish North America and the West India Islands, a map of Spanish South America, and an engraving representing the comparative altitudes of the mountains in those regions; by R. H. Bonnycastle, captain in the corps of royal engineers, 2 vols 8vo. £l, Is.

A Complete Survey of Scripture Geography: containing an Historical Account of Primitive Nations, and of all the Countries and People mentioned in Sacred History. To which is prefixed, an Introductory Essay concerning the Origin, Occasion, Character, and Meaning of each Book or Writing in the Holy Bible; wherein also the most difficult subjects of the Mosaic History are clearly and fully confirmed by physical reasons and proofs, deduced from the present improved state of science: with a List of Texts, Versions, Paraphrases, and Targums, in all languages into which the Holy Writings have been translated or converted: illustrated by a set of maps and a chart of the world. By Thomas Heming of Madg. Hall, Oxon. royal 4to. £3, 10s.

The Surrey of Scripture Geography is sold separately from the Atlas, £l, in bds, and XI, .Is. bid.

LAW.

A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason, and other Crimes and Misdemeanours, from the earliest period to the year 1783; with notes and other illustrations: compiled by T. B. Howell, Esq. F.R.S F.S.A., and continued from the year 1783 to the present time, by T. J. Howell, Esq. Vol. XXIV. royal 8vo. At, lls.6d.

Reports of Cases argued and determined in the High Court of Chancery, from 1756 to 17ti(i. from the original manuscripts of Lord Northington; collected and arranged by the Hon. R. H. Eden. 2 vols royal r>vo. £3, 3s.

MEDICINE.

Observations on a Stridulous Affection o the Bowels, and on some Varieties of Spinal Disease; with an Appendix of Cases. By J. Bradley, M. D.

An Enquiry into the Probability of Mr Hunter's Theory of Life; new edition; by John Abemethy, F.R.S. 8vo. 4s. 6d.

Observations, proving that Dr Wilson's Tincture for the Cure of Gout and Rheumatism is similar in its Nature and Effects to that deleterious preparation the Eiu Medicinale; by W. H. Williams, M.D. F.L.S. 4to. 4s.

On the Nature and Treatment of Tetanus and Hydrophobia; with some Observations on a natural Classification of Diseases in general; by Robert Reid, M. D. Licentiate of the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Dublin, Member of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, Ate. 8vo. 7s. 6d.

MISCELLANEOUS.

The British Review, No XXIII. 8vt>. 6s.

The Philosophical Library, a very curious collection cf the most rare and valuable reprints of ancient morality, &c, &c, ; as, for example, the lives and morals of Confucius, Epicurus, and Isocrates; the morality of the East, from the Koran, &c; the political mischiefs of Popery, as far as it regards the interests and liberties of the Catholics themselves; a summary of the ancient Irish Christianity, and its four gospels; a looking-glass for Popes and Priestso" with a genuine catalogue of the holy relics of the Roman Catholic Church, Vol. I. 8vo. 15s (idLetters from Illinois; By Morris Kirkbeck, 8vo. 5s.

Village Dialogues; by the Rev. R. H3L 2 vols 8vo. £l, 6s—12mo. 13s.

The London Guide, and Stranger's Safeguard, against the Cheats, Swindlers, and Pickpockets, that abound within the Bills of Mortality; forming a Picture of London as regards active life, 12mo.

A Series of Essays on several most important New Systems and Inventions, particularly interesting to the mercantile and maritime world, shipbuilders, underwriters, mariners, and all seafaring men, &C. &C. ; by Abraham Bosquet, Esq. late one of his Majesty's Commissaries of the Musters, royal 8vo. 10s. 6d.

Ford's (of Manchester) Catalogue of a Curious and Valuable Collection of Books, in various languages, departments, and classes of literature, bvo. Is. 6d

Familiar Lectures on Moral Philosophy, with Memoir; by John Prior Estlin. LL.il. 2 vols 8vo. 18s.

A Dissertation upon the Distinctions in Society and Ranks of the People under the Anglo-Saxon Government; by Sam. Heywood, Svo. 18s.

Standing Orders of an Establishment for instructing the Junior Officers and the NoeCommissioned Officers and Soldiers of the Royal Engineer Department, in their Duties in the Field ; by C. W. Paslcy, 12mo, 8s.

A Vindication of the University of Cambridge, from the Reflections of Sir James Edward Smith, President of the Linntean' Society, contained in a Pamphlet, entitled, "Considerations respecting Cambridge," etc. By the Rev. James Henry Monk, B.D.

Profitable Amusement for Children; or, Familiar Talcs; combining useful Instruction with pleasing Entertainment, 1 Brno. b.

Dr Rees' Cyclopedia: Part LXXVI.

On the Safety Lamp for Coal Miners; with some Researches on Flame. By Sir Humphry Davis, 8vo. 8s. MUSIC.

A Grammar of Music; to which are prefixed, Observations explanatory of the properties and powers of Music as a Science, &c: by T. Bnshby, Mus. Doc 9s.

The Musical Tour of Dr Minim, A. B.C. and D. E. F.G.; with a description of a new-invented Instrument, a new mode of teaching"music by machinery, and an account of the gullabaic system in general, 12mo. b.

NOVELS.

The Physiognomist; by the Author of «' The Bachelor and the Married Man." 3 vols 12mo. 16s. 6d.

Zutna, ou la Decouverte du Quinquina, suivi de la Belle Paule, de Zcneide de Roseaux du Tibrc, &c &c; par Madame la Comtesse de Genlis.

POETRY.

Translations from Camoens, and other Poets; with original Poetry. By the Author of " Modern Greece," and the " Restoration of the Works of Art to Italy." 8vo. 4s.

The Warning Voice; a sacred poem, in two cantos: addressed to infidel writers of poetry; by the Hon. and Bev. Kdw. John Tumour, A. M. formerly of St Mary Hall, Oxford, Ito. 3s. 6d.

Antonia; a Poem, with Notes, descriptive of the Plague in Malta; by Murdo Young.

Lines on the Death of her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales, to which was adjudged the Prize proposed by the Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin, for the best English Poem on the subject; by John Anster, A. B. 8vo. W.

Ballads of Archery, Sonnets, &c; by the Rev. J. W. Dodd, second usher in Westminster school, with Notes, crown Bvo. 10s.

The Recluse of the Pyrenees; a Poem, inscribed to his Royal Highness Leopold, Prince of Saxe Cobourg, Ac. 8vo. 4«. 6d.

The Lonely Hearth, and other Poems I by William Knox, I2mo. 5s.

Fashionable Fudges in London; or, Sketches of Public Characters; a poem: with Historical and Explanatory Notes. By Benjamin Flaccus, Esq. <xc. foolscap rivo. 6s.

POLITICS.

The Principles of Population and Production investigated: by George Purvess, LL. D. 8vo. 10s. 6d.

An Inquiry concerning the Population of Nations; containing a refutation of Mr Malthus s Essay on Population; by George Ensor, Esq. 8vo. 12s.

THEOLOGY.

Annals of Scottish Episcopacy, from the year 1788 to the year 1S16 inclusive; being the period during which the Right Rev. John Skinner of Aberdeen held the office of Senior Bishop and Primus; of whom a Biographical Memoir is prefixed; by the Rev. J. Skinner, M.A. 12s.

Plain Remarks on the Four Gospels, a. dapted to the use of the poorer classes, and chiefly designed for the benefit of schools and families; by the Rev. James Slade, M.A. vicar of Bolton, and prebendary of Chester, 12mo. 3s. (id.

Part II. of Biblia Sacra Polyglotta Textin Archetypal Vertionaque ah Ecdttia Antiquitut Heceptui compketentia.—To be completed in Five Parts, forming one Quarto Volume. The Three remaining Parts will follow in quick succession, the whole of the Bible in some of the Languages being already done

A neat edition of the Septuagint, with Apocrypha, in one volume; the text is taken from the Oxford edition of Bos. 8vo. 28s,

The Morality of the New Testament, properly digested under various heads; comprehending our duties to God, to ourselves, and to our fellow, creatures; with an introductory address to Deists, in which the character of Christ is fully vindicated, and the religion he taught clearly demonstrated to be the pure religion of nature and reason, as it existed from all eternity, and which is so easily comprehended by mankind in general, Nos. VII. and VIII. of VoL II. 2s. 6d. each—This work will, if possible, be completed in No IX. and is well deserving the most serious attention of all real Christians.

Novum Testamentum Gnrec Textum ad Fidem Codicum, Vcrsionum et Patrum recensuit et l.cctionis Varietatem adjeciu D. Jo. Jae. Griesbach. Editio nova, 2 vols 8vo. £2, 2s.

Biblos tcs Demosias Euches; or, a Greek Translation of the Liturgy of the Church of England: a new edition, corrected. By the late James Duport. D.D. limo. 2s.

Lucanus de BtUo Civili; cum Hug. Grotii. I'arnabii. Notis integris et variorum selectissimis, in usum studios* juventutis. Accurante Com. Schrevelio, 8vo. MU. ; royal paper, M, 4s.

TOPOGRAPHY.

Planta's New Picture of Paris; or, the Stranger's Guide to the French Metropolis! accurately describing the Public Establishments, remarkable Edifices, Places of. A musement, and every other object worthy of

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