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underneath sometimes expands with such force as to rend the supe. rior strata with violent explosions. In the frosty climates of the polar regions these explosions are sometimes as loud as cannon.-Blocks of slate-stone, which is formed in thin plates or strata, not separable by a tool, are taken out of the quarry and exposed to rain, which soaking into the pores of the stone, is there frozen into ice, which by its expansion breaks the stone into thin plates. In the iron-works they sometimes, in order to break an old bomb-shell, fill it with water, then fasten up the vent and expose it to the frost, which bursts it into pieces without farther trouble. It is necessary, therefore, in order to preserve a vessel which has liquor in that is expected to freeze, to leave sufficient room for this expansion. The effects of it are observable in a thousand phænomena: trees are burst, rocks are rent, walnut, ash, and oak-trees, are sometimes cleft asunder, with a noise like the explosion of fire-arms.

EFFECTS OF EXTREME COLD. WHEN some French mathematicians wintered at Tornea, in Lapa land, the external air, when suddenly admitted into their rooms, converted the moisture of the air into whirls of snow; their breasts seemed to be rent when they breathed it, and the contact was intolerable to their bodies; and the aqueous parts of the spirits of wine, which had not been highly rectified, burst some of their thermometers.

Extreme cold often proves fatal to animal life: 7000 Swedes perished at once in attempting to pass the mountains which divide Norway from Sweden. In cases of extreme cold, the person attacked first feels himself extremely chilly and uneasy, he begins to turn listless, is unwilling to walk, or use the exercise necessary to keep him warm, and at last turns drowsy, sits down to refresh himself with sleep_but wakes no more. Dr. Solander, with some others, when at Terra del Fuego, having taken an excursion up the country, the cold was so intense as to kill one of the company: the doctor, though he had warned his companions of the danger of sleeping in that situation, could not be prevented from making that dangerous experiment himself; and though he was awaked with all possible expedition, he was so much shrunk in bulk that his shoes fell off his feet, and it was with the utmost difficulty he recovered.

In very severe frosts and very cold climates, rivers have been known to be frozen over with great rapidity. Dr. Goldsmith mentions having seen the Rhine frozen at one of its most precipitate cataracts, and the ice standing in glassy columns like a forest of large trees, the branches of which had been lopt away. So hard does the ice become in cold countries, that in 1740 a palace of ice was built at Petersburgh, after a very elegant model, and in just proportions of Augustan architecture. It was 52 feet long, and 20 feet high. The materials were quarried from the surface of the river Neva; and the whole stood glistening against the sun with a brilliancy almost equal to his

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the same materials, were planted before this extraordinary edifice; the cannon were three-pounders, they were charged with gunpowder, and fired off'; the ball of one pierced an oak plank two inches ihick, at 60 paces distance, nor did the piece burst with the explosion.

DUTY OF CONSIDERING

THE POOR.

S

*INCE there is, and, to answer the purposes of society, there must

be inequalities among men, it is but natural to ask the man who finds himself in a situation preferable to that of his neighbour, and yet refuses to have compassion upon him in his distress—How came your lot to be cast in so fair a ground ? It is not your merit or his demerit which occasions the diiference between you. It has been permitted, that the work of God may be manifested in you both; that he from his poverty may learn patience and resignation, and you be taught charity, and the right employment of the good things vouchsafed you. He was not suffered to fall into this condition that 'you should overlook and despise, but that you should consider and comfort him. You have an advantage over him without doubt and your Saviour has informed you wherein it consists —" It is more blessed to give than to receive." Secure this blessing, and the end of your being made to differ is answered.

It might have pleased God that you should have been poorbut this is not all--it may please him that you shall be so ; and hard would you esteem it in such a case not then to experience the benevolence you are now invited to display. It is God's high prerogative to exalt and to abase : he putteth down one and setteth up another.

But whether riches leave you or not, yet a little while--and it can be but a little while--before you must leave them. However gay and prosperous you go through life, death will certainly strip you of all, and leave you more truly destitute than the neediest wretch that was ever laid at your gate. Neither land nor money can accompany you to the grave. The hour must come--and while we speak it is hastening forward-when strength will droop, beauty will fade, and spirits will fail ; when physicians will despair, friends will lament, and all will retire ; when from the palaces of the city, and the paradises of the country, you must go down to the place where all these things are forgotten, and take up your residence in the solitude of the tomb. What then will riches avail ? Much every way if they have been bestowed in charity; if the thought of death that most profitable and salutary of all thoughts, that epitome of true philosophy-shall have excited you through life to “ consider the poor."

POETRY

AN IRREGULAR ODE

ON THE

MORAL PRINCIPLES OF MASONRY.

DESIGNED FOR THE CONSECRATION OF THE

KING GEORGE'S LODGE, IN SUNDERLAND;

ON THE FOURTH DAY OF JUNE 1778;

BEING THE BIRTH-DAY OF

HIS MAJESTY GEORGE THE THIRD.

BY J. CAW DELL, COMEDIAN.

SOUND. Lelouces vous instruments of joy !

CHORUS PRIMO.
! sound aloud ! your instruments of joy!
Let cheerful strains abound !

From pole to pole resound!
And may no hostile cares our social mirth annoy!
Raise, raise the voice of harmony, all raise !

To hail this festive day

Your vocal strength display!
And charm the list'ning world with jocund songs of praises
May this new Consecration thro' ages shine secure,
A monument of Social Love, till time shall be no more.

Ye powers persuasive now inspire
My tongue with bold resistless fire!

Let sacréd zeal combine!
May inagic sweetness crown my lays,
To sing aloud Masonic praise,

And urge a theme divine !
May swelling nuinbers flow without controul,
And all be music, extasy of soul.
Confess'd unequal to the trembling task,

To touch the lyre so oft superior strung,
Your candour, patience, justice bids me ask,

And for a lab’ring heart excuse a fault'ring tongue,
Behold a social train in friendship's bands

Assembled, cheerful, eager to display
Their panting joy, to raise their willing hands,

And hail triumphant this auspicious day !
A day which Britons e'er must hold divine:

To sound its glories Fame expands her wings;
This day seľected for your fair design,

Has lent our favour'd isle the best of KINGS.
May Heaven, propitious, your endeavours crown,

Which, like the present, Virtue's basis claim!
May perfect Goodness here erect her throne,
And coward Vice be only known by name !

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Vol. IV.

May moral Virtue meet no savage foes

Within these walls made sacred to your cause ! Scorn each reviler who would truth oppose;

And learn, the Good are still Masonic laws.

BROTHERLY LOVE.

Hail! first grand principle of Masonry, for ever hail !

Thou gracious attribute descending from aboveO’er.each corroding passion of the soul prevail,

And shew the social charms of Brotherly Love. May thy bright virtues e'er resplendent shine

Through ages yet unborn-worlds unexplor'd; Till even Rancour falls before thy shrine,

And Malice, blushing, owns thee for her lord. This happy union of each gen'rous mind

Would nobly give to peace-eternal birth;
Implicit confidence would bless mankind,

And perfect happiness be found on earth.
From this celestial source behold a train
Of blooming virtues, emulous to gain

A genial warmth from each expanded breast. Among the pleasing numbers crouding round (Whose looks with well-meant services are crown'd),

Relief and Trutb superior stand confest.

RELIEF.

Relief, of Charity the soul,
Whose lib'ral hands from pole to pole extend,

Scorns mean restraint, disdains controul,
And gives alike to enemy and friend.

Empty distinctions here contemned fall,
For true Relief is bounteous to all,

TRUTH,
Nor is with paler glory Truth array'd,

In bright simplicity she shines, carest
She conquers Fraud, dispels its gloomy shade,

And brings conviction to the doubtful breast.
Should e'er Duplicity our ears assail,
And, fluent, forge an artful specious tale,

It may our easy faith awhile deceive;
But when this radiant goddess silence breaks
Decision follows, 'tis fair Truth who speaks,

And banish'd Falsehood can no longer live.

FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITY. When first kind Heav'n to th' astonish'd view

Of mortal sight its realms of joy display'd, Mankind enraptur’d with the prospect grew,

And to attain this bliss devoutly pray’d. Agreeing all, this sacred truth allow :

(And we its force with zealous warmth increase) That Faith, Hope, Charity, possess'd, bestow

The fairest claim to everlasting peace,

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FAITH.
By Faith what miracles in distant times were done!

The leper cleans'd - to sight restor'd the blind
By that the widow sav'd her darling son-
And Death his fruitless dart to faitb resign'd.

HOPE.
O fairest, sweetest, harbinger of joy!

Whose aid supreme with gratitude we own;
Cheer'd with thy smiles we human ills defy,
And drive Despair in shackles from thy throne;

AIR I.
Tho' throbbing griefs the soul oppress,
And fill the heart with deep distress,

Whilst each fond joy's withheid;
Yet when fair Hope her visage shows,
The mind inspir'd with rapture glows,

And ev'ry pang's expellid !
When conscious sin the dying wretch reproves,

Whilst from his quiv'ring lip the doubtful pray'r is sent;
He asks for Hope, she comes, his fear removes,
His mind enlightens, and he dies content !

CHARITY.
Fair Charity next, Masonic patroness !

Merits that praise which only hearts can give;
No words can her unrivall'd worth express;

Her glowing virtues in the soul must live.
The wretched widow, plung'd in streaming woes,

Bereft of husband, competence, and friends,
Finds no allay, no balmy quiet knows,

Till Heav'n-born Charity ev'ry comfort sends.
The helpless orphan wand'ring quite forlorn,

Sends forth his little soul in piteous moan;
In lisping murmurs rues he e'er was born,

And thinks, in infant griefs, he stands alone!
Thus plaintive wailing he relief despairs,

No tender parent to assuage his pain ;
No friend but Cbarity *-she dispels his cares
Father and me both in her remain,

AIR II.

AN ALLEGORY ON CHARITY.
As Poverty late, in a fit of despair,
Was beating her bosom and tearing her hair,
Smiling Hope came to ask what her countenance told
That she there lay expiring with hunger and cold.
Come, rise! said the sweet rosy herald of joy,
And the torments you suffer l'll quickly destroy ;
Take me by the hand, all your griefs l'll dispel,
And I'll lead you for succour to Charity's cell.

For the lasting honour of Masonry that noble Asylum in St. George's Fields for the Female Offspring of indigent Masons, originally set on foot by the Chevalier Ruspini, is now nearly completed. We have not forgotten our promise to engrave the Plan and Elevation of the Building,

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