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calamity was increased by a letter which he received the same day from the Princess Anne, full of tenderness and contrition. She assured him, that she would fly to him so soon as he landed; cluded with saying,

“ She could ask for his forgiveness, because, “ being his daughter, she could hope for it; but how could she ask “ him to present her duty to the queen!” The letter was dated so far back as the roth of December; but Lloyd, who brought it, had been prevented by accidents from delivering it sooner. The original severity of James's mind had been softened into tend rness by his. misfortunes. Sir Charles Littleton having some time before said to him, he was ashamed that his son was with the Prince of Orange, James interrupted him with these words, “ Alas! Sir Charles, why “ ashamed? are not my daughters with him ?” Russel ordered solemn prayers, and a thanksgiving, through all his fleet, for the victory. In England, a present of thirty thousand pounds was given by the queen to the seamen, and public funerals were bestowed on those officers whose bodies were brought on shore. But, in France, Jame's slowly, and sadly returned to bury the remembrance of his greatness in the convent of La Trappe. All his attempts, and those of his family afterwards, to recover the throne of their ancestors, were either disappointed by the insincerity of French friendship, or were the mere efforts of despair.



EVERAL new regiments, English, Dutch, and Brandenburghers, army impatiently expected the arrival of the king, who, on the fourteenth day of June 1690, landed at Carricfergus, and was received by the soldiers and inhabitants in a transport of joy. He came attended by Prince George of Denmark, the young Duke of Ormond, the Earls of Oxford, Scarborough, and Manchester, and other persons of distinction; was met by Duke Schomberg, the Prince of Wirtem. berg, Kirk, and other officers; received an address from the northern clergy, presented by Walker, and published his proclamations for the suppression of rapine, violence, and injustice. His military genius prompted him, and the present distracted state of England, together with the formidable preparations of France, obliged him to a vigorous prosecution of the war. From Belfast he advanced to Lisburne and Hillsborough.

His forces were ordered to take the field ; and when some cautious councils were suggested by his officers, he rejected them with indigVOL. IV,


nation. « I came not to Ireland,” said he, “ to let grass grow under. my feet. At Loughbrickland, his whole army assembled from their different quarters, and were joined by the king and his train. William ordered them to change their encampment, that he might review the regiments on their march to the new ground. The officers imagined, that on a tempestuous and dusty day, he would content himself with a general view from some convenient station; but they saw him dart quickly into the throng, riding eagerly from place to place, examining every regiment and every troop distinctly and critically. His soldiers were thus pleased and animated, every man considering himself as under the immediate inspection of his royal leader, who took his quarters in the camp, was the whole day on horseback at the head of an advanced party, viewing the adjacent country, reconnoitering, or directing the accommodations necessary for his soldiers. When an, order was presented to him to be signed for wine for his own table, he passionately exclaimed, that his men should be first provided; “ Let them not want,” said he, “ I shall drink water.” An army of thirty-six thousand men, thus animated and excellently appointed, advanced southward to decide the fate of Ireland, while the fleet coasted slowly in view, to supply them with every necessary, and thus to increase their confidence.

Six days had elapsed from the time of William's landing, when James received the first intelligence that a prince who he confidently believed must be detained in England by faction and discontent, was already on his march to meet him. He committed the guard of Dublin to a militia, under the command of Lutterel, the governor, and marched with six thousand French infantry to join the main body of his army, which, at the approach of the enemy, had retired from Dundalk and Ardee, and now lay near Drogheda, on the banks of the river Boyne. His numbers were about thirty-three thousand. His council of officers reminded him, that the naval armament of France was completed, and the fleet perhaps already on the English coast; that Louis had promised, as soon as the squadron attending on William should return, he would send a fleet of frigates into the Irish seas to destroy his transports ; that he would be thus fatally detained in Ireland, while Britain was threatened by foreign invasion, and the domestic enemies of the reigning prince concerting an insurrection.

In such circumstances, they advised him to wait the event of those designs formed in his favour, not to hazard an engagement against superior numbers, to strengthen his garrisons, to march to the Shannon with his cavalry and a small body of foot, and thus to maintain a defensive war against an enemy which, in a strange and unfriendly climate, without provisions or succours, must gradually perish by disease and famine. James, on the contrary, contended, that to abandon the capital, were to confess himself subdued ; that his reputation must be irreparably ruined ; that the Irish, who judged by appearances, would desert; and, what was of still more moment, his friends in England and Scotland must be dispirited, and deterred from their attempts to restore him. He expressed satisfaction, that he had at last the opportunity of one fair battle for the crown. He insisted on maintaining his present post, and, from such animated language, his officers concluded that he meant to take a desperate part in the engagement; yet, with an ominous precaution, he dis patched Sir Patrick Trant, one of his commissioners of revenue, to Waterford, to prepare a ship for conveying him to France, in case of any misfortune.

William was no stranger to the motions of the French, and the machinations of his enemies. Whatever was the proper conduct for James, it was evidently his interest to bring their contest to an immediate decision. On the last day of June, at the first dawn of morning, his army moved towards the river in three columns. He marched at the head of his advanced guard, which by nine o'clock appeared within two miles of Drogheda. William observing a hill west of the town, rode to the summit with his principal officers, to take a view of the enemy. On their right was Drogheda, fiiled with Irish soldiers. Eastward of the town, on the farther banks of the river, their camp extended in two lines, with a morass on the left, difficult to be passed. In their front were the fords of the Boyne, deep and dangerous, with rugged banks, defended by some breastworks, with huts and hedges, convenient to be lined with infantry. On their rear, at some distance, lay the church and village of Donore ; three miles farther was the pass of Duleek, on which they depended for a retreat. The view of their encampment was intercepted by some hills to the south-west, so that Sgravenınore, one of William's generals, who counted but forty-six regiments, spoke with contempt of the enemy's numbers. The king observed, that more might lie concealed behind these hills, and many be stationed in the town; “ But it is my purpose,” said he,“ to be speedily acquainted with « their whole strength.

His army was now marching into camp; when William, anxious to gain a nearer and more distinct view of the enemy, advanced, with some officers, within musquet-shot of a ford opposite to a village called Old Bridge ; here he conferred for some time on the methods of passing, and planting his batteries ; when riding on still westward, he alighted, and sat down to refresh himself on a rising ground. Neither the motions of William nor of his army were unnoticed. Berwick, Tyrconnell, Sarsefield, and some other generals, rode slowly on the opposite banks, viewing the army in their march, and soon discovered the present situation of the king. A party of about forty horse immediately appeared in a plowed field, opposite to the place on which he sat. In their centre they carefully concealed two field-pieces, which they planted unnoticed, under cover of a hedge, and retired. William mounted his horse ; at that moment the first discharge killed a man and two horses on a line (at some distance) with the king; another ball instantly succeeded, grazed on the banks of the river, rose, and slanted on his right shoulder, tearing his coat and flesh. His attendants crouded round him, and appeared

in confusion. An universal shout of joy rung through the Irish camp, at the news that Orange was no more.

It was conveyed rapidly to Dublin; it was wafted to Paris; Louis received it with extacy; and the guns of the Bastile proclaimed the meanness of his triumph.

While some squadrons of the enemy's horse drew down to the river, as if to pursue a flying enemy, William rode through his camp, to prevent all alarms, or false reports of his danger. On the arrival of his artillery, the batteries were mounted, and the cannonading continued on each side, not without some execution, till the close of evening. Some deserters were received, and gave various accounts of the strength and disposition of the enemy. One, who appeared of some note, spoke so plausibly, and at the same time so magnificently of their numbers, that William seemed disconcerted. To Sir Robert Southwell, his secretary of state, who had given him different intelligence, he expressed his suspicion that the enemy was really stronger than he imagined. Southwell communicated the king's doubts to Cox, his under-secretary, through whose channel the intelligence had been conveyed. Cox, with an acuteness which seems to have laid the foundation of his future fortune, led the deserter through the English camp; and when he had surveyed it, asked at what he computed the amount of William's forces. The man confidently rated them at more than double their number. The king was thus satisfied that his reports arose from ignorance and presumption. Other deserters made reports more unfavourable to the enemy; and the king was assured, that James, in expectation of defeat, had already conveyed part of his baggage and artillery to Dublin.

About nine at night, William called a council of war, not to deliberate, but to receive his orders; and here he declared his resolution of passing the river in front of the enemy. Duke Schomberg, with the caution natural to his years, endeavoured to dissuade him from this hazardous enterprize; and when he could not prevail, insisted that part of the army should be immediately detached to secure the bridge of Slane, about three miles westward of their camp, so as to flank the enemy, and to cut them off from Duleek, the pass through which they might retreat. It is generally imputed to the indifference with which his council was received, that this general retired in disgust, and received the order of battle in his tent, declaring, that“ it was the first ever sent to him.” Nor did James discover more attention to this important pass of Slane. In his council of war, Hamilton recommended that eight regiments might be sent immediately to secure the bridge. James proposed to employ fifty dragoons in this service ; the general, in astonishment, bowed and was silent.

William directed that the river should be passed in three different places; by his right wing, commanded by Count Schomberg, son of the duke, and General Douglas, on the west, at some fords discovered near the bridge of Slane; by the centre, commanded by Duke Schomberg, in front of the Irish camp; and by the left wing, led by the king himself, at a ford between the army and the town of Drog

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heda. At midnight, William once more rode through his camp with torches, inspected every post, and issued his final orders.

Early on the succeeding morning, Count Schomberg with the cavalry, and Douglas with the infantry which composed the right wing, marched towards Slane, with greater alacrity than the troops sent from the other side to oppose them. They crossed the river without any opposition, except from a regiment of dragoons stationed over-night at the ford, of which they killed seventy before their retreat could be secured. They advanced, and found their antagonists drawn up in two lines. They formed, mixing their horse and foot, squadron with battalion, till on the arrival of more infantry, they changed their position, drawing the horse to the right, by which they considerably out-flanked the enemy. But they were to force their way through fields inclosed by deep ditches, difficult to be surmounted, especially by the horse, who, in the face of an enemy, were obliged to advance in order ; beyond these lay the morass, still more embarrassing, The infantry were ordered to plunge in, and, while the horse found a firm passage to the right, forced their way with fatigue and difficulty. The enemy, astonished at their intrepidity, fled instantly towards Duleek, and were pursued with slaughter.

By the time when it was supposed that the right wing had made good their passage, the infantry in the centre was set in motion. The Dutch guards first entered the river on the right, opposite to OldBridge. The French protestants and Eniskilleners, Brandenburghers and English, at their several passes to the left, plunged in with alacrity, checking the current, and swelling the water, so that it rose in some places to their middle, in others to their breasts, and obliged the infantry to support their arms above their heads. The Dutch had marched unmolested to the middle of the river, when a violent discharge was made from the houses, breast-works, and hedges, but without execution; they moved on, gained the opposite banks, formed gradually, and drove the Irish from their posts. As they still advanced, the squadrons and battalions of the enemy suddenly appeared in view behind the eminences which had concealed them. Five of these battalions bore down upon those Dutch

who had already passed, but were received firmly, and repulsed. The efforts of the Irish horse were equally unsuccessful. Two attacks were bravely repelled, when the French and Eniskilleners arrived to the support of the Dutch, and drove back a third body of horse with considerable execution.

In the mean time, General Hamilton led the Irish infantry to the very margin of the river, to oppose the passage of the French and English. But his men, although stationed in the post of honour, at the requisition of their oificers, shrunk from the danger. Their cavalry proved more spirited. A squadron of Danes was attacked with such fury and success, that they fled back through the river. The Irish horse pursued, and, on their return, fell furiously on the French Huguenots, who had no pikes to sustain their shock, and were instantly broken. Caillemote, their brave commander, received his mortal wound, and when borne to the English camp, with his last

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