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In this figure (54) the conditions represented at fig. 53 (p. 107) are exactly reproduced, the only difference being that in the present figure the wing is applied to the air in a more or less horizontal direction, whereas in fig. 53 it is applied in a more or less vertical direction. The letters in both figures are the same. The insects whose wings tack upon the air in a more or less horizontal direction, have an extensive range, each wing describing nearly half a circle, these half circles corresponding to the area of support. The body of the insect is consequently the centre of a circle of motion. It corresponds to x of the present figure (fig. 54). When the wing is seized by the hand at a, and the root made to travel in the direction ne, the body of the wing travels in the direction jf. While so travelling, it flies upwards in a double curve, kite-fashion, and elevates the weight l. When it reaches the point f, it reverses suddenly to prepare for a return stroke, which is produced by causing the root of the wing to travel in the direction m a, the body and tip travelling in the direction i b. During the reverse stroke, the wing flies upwards in a double curve, kite-fashion, and elevates the weight k. The more rapidly these movements are repeated, the more powerful the wing becomes, and the greater the weight it elevates. This follows because of the reciprocating action of the wing,—the wing, as already explained, always drawing a current of air after it during the one stroke, which is met and utilized by it during the next stroke. The reciprocating action of the wing here referred to is analogous in all respects to that observed in the flippers of the seal, sea-bear, walrus, and turtle; the swimming wing of the penguin ; and the tail of the whale, dugong, manatee, porpoise, and fish. If the muscles of the insect were made to act at the points a e, the body of the insect would be elevated as at kl, by the reciprocating action of the wings. The amount of tractile power developed in the arrangement represented at fig. 53 (p. 107), can be readily ascertained by fixing a spring or a weight acting over a pulley to the anterior margin (a b or e f) of the wing; weights acting over pulleys being attached to the root of the wing (a or e).

The amount of elevating power developed in the arrangement represented at fig. 54, can also be estimated by forwards. To this there is no exception. A sheet of paper or a card will float along if its anterior margin is slightly raised, and if it be projected with sufficient velocity. The wings of all flying creatures when made to vibrate, twist and untwist, the posterior thin margin of each wing twisting round the anterior thick one, like the blade of a screw. The artificial wing represented at fig. 53 (p. 107) does the same, cd twist

in bouwhen something twisting round a b, and g h round e f. The natural and artificial wings, when elevated and depressed, describe a figure-of-8 track in space when the bodies to which they are attached are stationary. When the bodies advance, the figure-of-8 is opened out to form first a looped and then a waved track. I have shown how those insects, bats, and birds which flap their wings in a more or less vertical direction evolve tractile or propelling power, and how this, operating on properly constructed inclined surfaces, results in flight. I wish now to show that flight may also be produced by a very oblique and almost horizontal stroke of the wing, as in some insects, e.g. the wasp, blue-bottle, and other flies. In those insects the wing is made to vibrate with a figure-of-8 sculling

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FIG. 54. motion in a very oblique direction, and with immense energy. This form of flight differs in no respect from the other, unless in the direction of the stroke, and can be readily imitated, as a reference to fig. 54 will show.

In this figure (54) the conditions represented at fig. 53 (p. 107) are exactly reproduced, the only difference being that in the present figure the wing is applied to the air in a more or less horizontal direction, whereas in fig. 53 it is applied in a more or less vertical direction. The letters in both figures are the same. The insects whose wings tack upon the air in a more or less horizontal direction, have an extensive range, each wing describing nearly half a circle, these half circles corresponding to the area of support. The body of the insect is consequently the centre of a circle of motion. It corresponds to x of the present figure (fig. 54). When the wing is seized by the hand at a, and the root made to travel in the direction ne, the body of the wing travels in the direction jf. While so travelling, it flies upwards in a double curve, kite-fashion, and elevates the weight l. When it reaches the point f, it reverses suddenly to prepare for a return stroke, which is produced by causing the root of the wing to travel in the direction ma, the body and tip travelling in the direction i b. During the reverse stroke, the wing flies upwards in a double curve, kite-fashion, and elevates the weight k. The more rapidly these movements are repeated, the more powerful the wing becomes, and the greater the weight it elevates. This follows because of the reciprocating action of the wing,—the wing, as already explained, always drawing a current of air after it during the one stroke, which is met and utilized by it during the next stroke. The reciprocating action of the wing here referred to is analogous in all respects to that observed in the flippers of the seal, sea-bear, walrus, and turtle ; the swimming wing of the penguin ; and the tail of the whale, dugong, manatee, porpoise, and fish. If the muscles of the insect were made to act at the points a e, the body of the insect would be elevated as at k l, by the reciprocating action of the wings. The amount of tractile power developed in the arrangement represented at fig. 53 (p. 107), can be readily ascertained by fixing a spring or a weight acting over a pulley to the anterior margin (a b or ef) of the wing; weights acting over pulleys being attached to the root of the wing (a or e).

The amount of elevating power developed in the arrangement represented at fig. 54, can also be estimated by

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causing weights acting over pulleys to operate upon the root of the wing (a or e), and watching how far the weights (k or 7) are raised. In these calculations allowance is of course to be made for friction. The object of the two sets of experiments described and figured, is to show that the wing can exert a tractile power either in a nearly horizontal direction or in a nearly vertical one, flight being produced in both cases. I wish now to show that a body not supplied with wings or inclined surfaces will, if left to itself, fall vertically downwards; whereas, if it be furnished with wings, its vertical fall is converted into oblique downward flight. These are very interesting points. Experiment has shown me that a wing when made to vibrate vertically produces horizontal traction; when made to vibrate horizontally, vertical traction; the vertical fall of a body armed with wings producing oblique traction. The descent of weights can also be made to propel the wings either in a vertical or horizontal direction; the vibration of the wings upon the air in natural flight causing the weights (body of flying creature) to move forward. This shows the very important part performed by weight in all kinds of flight.

Weight necessary to Flight.However paradoxical it may seem, a certain amount of weight is indispensable in flight.

In the first place, it gives peculiar efficacy and energy to the up stroke, by acting upon the inclined planes formed by the wings in the direction of the plane of progression. The power and the weight may thus be said to reciprocate, the two sitting, as it were, side by side, and blending their peculiar influences to produce a common result.

Secondly, it adds momentum,-a beavy body, when once fairly under weigh, meeting with little resistance from the air, through which it sweeps like a heavy pendulum.

Thirdly, the mere act of rotating the wings on and off the wind during extension and flexion, with a slight downword stroke, apparently represents the entire exertion on the part of the volant animal, the rest being performed by weight alone.

This last circumstance is deserving of attention, the more especially as it seems to constitute the principal difference

between a living flying thing and an aërial machine. If a flying-machine was constructed in accordance with the principles which we behold in nature, the weight and the propelling power of the machine would be made to act upon the sustaining and propelling surfaces, whatever shape they assumed, and these in turn would be made to operate upon the air, and vice versâ. In the aërial machine, as far as yet devised, there is no sympathy between the weight to be elevated and the lifting power, whilst in natural flight the wings and the weight of the flying creature act in concert and reciprocate; the wings elevating the body the one instant, the body by its fall elevating the wings the next. When the wings elevate the body they are active, the body being passive. When the body elevates the wings it is active, the wings being passive. The force residing in the wings, and the force residing in the body (weight is a force when launched in space and free to fall in a vertical direction) cause the mass of the volant animal to oscillate vertically on either side of an imaginary line—this line corresponding to the path of the insect, bat, or bird in the air. While the wings and body act and react upon each other, the wings, body, and air likewise act and react upon each other. In the flight of insects, bats, and birds, weight is to be regarded as an independent moving power, this being made to act upon the oblique surfaces presented by the wings in conjunction with the power expended by the animal—the latter being, by this arrangement, conserved to a remarkable extent. Weight, assisted by the elastic ligaments or springs, which recover all wings in flexion, is to be regarded as the mechanical expedient resorted to by nature in supplementing the efforts of all flying things.1 Without this, flight would be of short duration, laboured, and uncertain, and the almost miraculous journeys at present performed by the denizens of the air impossible.

I Weight, as is well known, is the sole moving power in the clock-the pendulum being used merely to regulate the movements produced by the descent of the leads. In watches, the onus of motion is thrown upon a spiral spring ; and it is worthy of remark that the mechanician has seized upon, and ingeniously utilized, two forces largely employed in the animal kingdom.

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