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shall elude the air during the up stroke, it is necessary to make it valvular, as shown at fig. 125, p. 241.
This wing, as the figure indicates, is composed of numerous narrow segments (f ff), so arranged that the air, when the wing is made to vibrate, opens or separates them at the beginning of the up stroke, and closes or brings them together at the beginning of the down stroke.
The time and power required for opening and closing the segments is comparatively trifling, owing to their extreme narrowness and extreme lightness. The space, moreover, through which they pass in performing their valvular action is exceedingly small. The wing under observation is flexible and elastic throughout, and resembles in its general features the other wings described.
I have also constructed a wing which is self-acting in another sense. This consists of two parts--the one part being made of an elastic reed, which tapers towards the extremity; the other of a flexible sail. To the reed, which corresponds to the anterior margin of the wing, delicate tapering reeds are fixed at right angles; the principal and subordinate reeds being arranged on the same plane. The flexible sail is attached to the under surface of the principal reed, and is stiffer at its insertion than towards its free margin. When the wing is made to ascend, the sail, because of the pressure exercised upon its upper surface by the air, assumes a very oblique position, so that the resistance experienced by it during the up stroke is very slight. When, however, the wing descends, the sail instantly flaps in an upward direction, the subordinate reeds never permitting its posterior or free margin to rise above its anterior or fixed margin. The under surface of the wing consequently descends in such a manner as to present a nearly flat surface to the earth. It experiences much resistance from the air during the down stroke, the amount of buoyancy thus furnished being very considerable. The above form of wing is more effective during the down stroke than during the up one. It, however, elevates and propels during both, the forward travel being greatest during the down stroke.
Compound Wave Wing of the Author:- In order to render
the movements of the wing as simple as possible, I was induced to devise a form of pinion, which for the sake of distinction I shall designate the Compound Wave Wing. This wing consists of two wave wings united at the roots, as represented at fig. 126. It is impelled by steam, its centre
Duslowed de piston every steerin
Fig. 126.. being fixed to the head of the piston by a compound joint (oc), which enables it to move in a circle, and to rotate along its anterior margin (abcd; A, A') in the direction of its length. The circular motion is for steering purposes only. The wing rises and falls with every stroke of the piston, and the movements of the piston are quickened during the down stroke, and slowed during the up one.
During the up stroke of the piston the wing is very decidedly convex on its upper surface (abcd; A, A'), its under surface being deeply concave and inclined obliquely upwards and forwards. It thus evades the air during the up stroke. During the down stroke of the piston the wing is flattened out in every direction, and its extremities twisted in such a manner as to form two screws, as shown at a'b'c' d'; é f'g'h'; B, B' of figure. The active area of the wing is by this means augmented, the wing seizing the air with great avidity during the down stroke. The area of the wing may be still further increased and diminished during the down and up strokes by adding joints to the body of the wing.
The degree of convexity given to the upper surface of the wing can be increased or diminished at pleasure by causing a cord i j; A, A) and elastic band (k) to extend between two points, which may vary according to circumstances. The wing is supplied with vertical springs, which assist in slowing and reversing it towards the end of the down and up strokes, and these, in conjunction with the elastic properties of the wing itself, contribute powerfully to its continued play. The compound wave wing produces the currents on which it rises. Thus during the up stroke it draws after it a current, which being met by the wing during its descent, confers additional elevating and propelling power. During the down stroke the wing in like manner draws after it a current which forms an eddy, and on this eddy the wing rises, as explained at p. 253, fig. 129. The ascent of the wing is favoured by the superimposed air playing on the upper surface of the posterior margin of the organ, in such a manner as to cause the wing to assume a more and more oblique position with reference to the horizon. This change in the plane of the wing enables its upper surface to avoid the superincumbent air during the up stroke, while it, confers upon its under surface a combined kite and parachute action. The compound wave wing leaps forward in a curve both during the down and up strokes, so that the wing during its vibration describes a waved track, as shown at a, c, e,g, i of fig. 81, p. 157. The compound wave wing possesses most of the peculiarities of single wings when made to vibrate separately. It forms a most admirable elevator and propeller, and has this advantage over ordinary wings, that it can be worked without injury to itself, when the machine which it is intended to elevate is resting on the ground. Two or more compound wave wings may be arranged on the same plane, or superimposed, and made to act in concert. They may also by a slight modification be made to act horizontally instead of vertically. The length of the stroke of the compound wave wing is determined in part, though not entirely by the stroke of the piston—the extremities of the wing, because of their elasticity, moving through a greater space than the centre of the wing. By fixing the wing to the head of the piston all
gearing apparatus is avoided, and the number of joints and working points reduced—a matter of no small importance when it is desirable to conserve the motor power and keep down the weight.
How to apply Artificial Wings to the Air.Borelli, Durckheim, Marey, and all the writers with whom I am acquainted, assert that the wing should be made to vibrate vertically. I believe that if the wing be in one piece it should be made to vibrate obliquely and more or less horizontally. If, however, the wing be made to vibrate vertically, it is necessary to supply it with a ball-and-socket joint, and with springs at its root (ni n of fig. 125, p. 241), to enable it to leap forward in a curve when it descends, and in another and opposite curve when it ascends (vide a, c, e, g, i of fig. 81, p. 157). This arrangement practically converts the vertical vibration into an oblique one. If this plan be not adopted, the wing is apt to foul at its tip. In applying the wing to the air it ought to have a figure-of-8 movement communicated to it either directly or indirectly. It is a peculiarity of the artificial wing properly constructed (as it is of the natural wing), that it twists and untwists and makes figure-of-8 curves during its action (see a b, c d of fig. 122, p. 239), this enabling it to seize and let go the air with wonderful rapidity, and in such a manner as to avoid dead points. If the wing be in several pieces, it may be made to vibrate more vertically than a wing in one piece, from the fact that the outer half of the pinion moves forwards and backwards when the wing ascends and descends so as alternately to become a short and a long lever; this arrangement permitting the wing to avoid the resistance experienced from the air during the up stroke, while it vigorously seizes the air during the down stroke.
If the body of a flying animal be in a horizontal position, a wing attached to it in such a manner that its under surface shall look forwards, and make an upward angle of 45° with the horizon is in a position to be applied either vertically (figs. 82 and 83, p. 158), or horizontally (figs. 67, 68, 69, and 70, p. 141). Such, moreover, is the conformation of the shoulder-joint in insects, bats, and birds, that the wing can be applied vertically, horizontally, or at any degree of obliquity without inconvenience. It is in this way that an insect which may begin its flight by causing its wings to make figure-of-8 horizontal loops (fig. il, p. 144), may gradually change the direction of the loops, and make them more and more oblique until they are nearly vertical (fig. 73, p. 144). In the beginning of such flight the insect is screwed nearly rertically upwards, in the middle of it, it is screwed upcards and forvards; whereas, towards the end of it, the insect advances in a vared line almost horizontally (see 0,1,,t of fig. 72, p. 144). The muscles of the wing are so arranged that they can propel it in a horizontal, vertical, or oblique direction. It is a matter of the utmost importance that the direction of the stroke and the nature of the angles made by the surface of the wing during its vibration with the horizon be distinctly understood; as it is on these that all flying creatures depend when they seek to elude the upward resistance of the air, and secure a maximum of elevating and propelling power with a minimum of slip.
As to the nature of the Forces required for propelling Artificial Wings.—Borelli, Durckheim, and Marey affirm that it suffices if the wing merely elevates and depresses itself by a rhythmical movement in a perpendicular direction ; while Chabrier is of opinion that a movement of depression only is required. All those observers agree in believing that the details of flight are due to the reaction of the air on the surface of the wing. Repeated experiment has, however, convinced me that the artificial wing must be thoroughly under control, both during the down and up strokes——the details of flight being in a great measure due to the movements communicated to the wing by an intelligent agent. In order to reproduce flight by the aid of artificial wings, I find it necessary to employ a power which varies in intensity at every stage of the down and up strokes. The power which
1 The human wrist is so formed that if a wing be held in the hand at an upward angle of 45°, the hand can apply it to the air in a vertical or horizontal direction without difficulty. This arises from the power which the hand has of moving in an upward and downward direction, and from side to side with equal facility. The hand can also rotate on its long axis, so that it virtually represents all the movements of the wing at its root.