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pally concerned in progression, these flapping about in the water very much as the wings of a bird flap about in the air. In the beaver, the tail is flattened from above downwards, as in the foregoing mammals, but in swimming it is made to



FIG. 35.-Skeleton of the Dugong. In this curious mammal the anterior

extremities are more developed than in the manatee and porpoise, and resemble those found in the seal, sea-bear, and walrus. They are useful in balancing and turning, the tail being the effective instrument of propulsion. The vertebral column closely resembles that of the fish, and allows the tail to be lashed freely about in a vertical direction. Compare with

fig. 29, p. 65.-(After Dallas.) act upon the water laterally as in the fish. The tail of the bird, which is also compressed from above downwards, can be twisted obliquely, and when in this position may be made to perform the office of a rudder.

Swimming of the Seal, Sea-Bear, and Walrus.- In the seal, the anterior and posterior extremities are more perfect than in the whale, porpoise, dugong, and manatee; the general


Fig. 36.—The Seal (Phoca foetida, Müll.), adapted principally for water. The extremities are larger than in the porpoise and manatee. Compare with

figs. 33 and 34, p. 73.--Original. form, however, and mode of progression (if the fact of its occasionally swimming on its back be taken into account), is essentially fish-like.

A peculiarity is met with in the swimming of the seal, to which I think it proper to direct attention. When the lower portion of the body and posterior extremities of these creatures are flexed and tilted, as happens during the back and least effective stroke, the naturally expanded feet are more or less completely closed or pressed together, in order to diminish the extent of surface presented to the water, and, as a consequence, to reduce the resistance produced. The feet are opened to the utmost during extension, when the more effective stroke is given, in which case they present their maximum of surface. They form powerful propellers, both during flexion and extension.

The swimming apparatus of the seal is therefore more highly differentiated than that of the whale, porpoise, dugong, and manatee; the natatory tail in these animals being, from its peculiar structure, incapable of lateral compression. It would appear that the swimming appliances of the seals (where the feet open and close as in swimming-birds) are to those of the sea-mammals generally, what the feathers of the bird's wing (these also open and close in flight) are to the continuous membrane forming the wing of the insect and bat.

The anterior extremities or flippers of the seal are not engaged in swimming, but only in balancing and in changing position. When so employed the fore feet open and close, though not to the same extent as the hind ones; the resistance and non-resistance necessary being secured by a partial rotation and tilting of the flippers. By this twisting and untwisting, the narrow edges and broader portions of the flippers are applied to the water alternately. The rotating and tilting of the anterior and posterior extremities, and the opening and closing of the hands and feet in the balancing and swimming of the seal, form a series of strictly progressive and very graceful movements. They are, however, performed so rapidly, and glide into each other so perfectly, as to render an analysis of them exceedingly difficult.

i In a few instances the caudal fin of the fish, as has been already stated, is more or less pressed together during the back stroke, the compression and tilting or twisting of the tail taking place synchronously.

In the Sea-Bear (Otaria jubata) the anterior extremities attain sufficient magnitude and power to enable the animal to progress by their aid alone; the feet and the lower portions of the body being moved only sufficiently to maintain, correct, or alter the course pursued (fig. 73). The anterior extremities are flattened out, and greatly resemble wings, particularly those of the penguin and auk, which are rudimentary in character. Thus they have a thick and comparatively stiff anterior margin; and a thin, flexible, and more or less elastic posterior margin. They are screw structures, and when elevated and depressed in the water, twist and untwist, screw-fashion, precisely as wings do, or the tails of the fish, whale, dugong, and manatee.


FIG. 37.-The Sea-Bear (Otaria jubata), adapted principally for swimming and diving. It also walks with tolerable facility. Its extremities are larger than those of the seal, and its movements, both in and out of the water, more varied.-Original.

This remarkable creature, which I have repeatedly watched at the Zoological Gardens 1 (London), appears to fly in the water, the universal joints by which the arms are attached to the shoulders enabling it, by partially rotating and twisting

1 The unusual opportunities afforded by this unrivalled collection have enabled me to determine with considerable accuracy the movements of the various land-animals, as well as the motions of the wings and feet of birds, both in and out of the water. I have also studied under the most favour. able circumstances the movements of the otter, sea-bear, seal, walrus, porpoise, turtle, triton, crocodile, frog, lepidosiren, proteus, axolotl, and the several orders of fishes.

them, to present the palms or flat of the hands to the water the one instant, and the edge or narrow parts the next. In swimming, the anterior or thick margins of the flippers are directed downwards, and similar remarks are to be made of the anterior extremities of the walrus, great auk, and turtle.1

The flippers are advanced alternately; and the twisting, screw-like movement which they exhibit in action, and which I have carefully noted on several occasions, bears considerable resemblance to the motions witnessed in the pectoral fins of fishes. It may be remarked that the twisting or spiral movements of the anterior extremities are calculated to utilize the water to the utmost—the gradual but rapid operation of the helix enabling the animal to lay hold of the water and disentangle itself with astonishing facility, and with the minimum expenditure of power. In fact, the insinuating motion of the screw is the only one which can contend successfully with the liquid element; and it appears to me that this remark holds even more true of the air. It also applies within certain limits, as has been explained, to the land. The otaria or sea-bear swims, or rather flies, under the water with remarkable address and with apparently equal ease in an upward, downward, and horizontal direction, by muscular efforts alone—an observation which may likewise be made regarding a great number of fishes, since the swimmingbladder or float is in many entirely absent. Compare with figs. 33, 34, 35, and 36, pp. 73 and 74. The walrus, a living specimen of which I had an opportunity of frequently examining, is nearly allied to the seal and sea-bear, but differs from both as regards its manner of swimming. The natation of this rare and singularly interesting animal, as I have taken great pains to satisfy myself, is effected by a mixed movement—the anterior and posterior extremities participating in nearly an equal degree. The anterior extremities or flippers of the walrus, morphologically resemble those of the seal, but physiologically those of the sea-bear; while the posterior extremities possess many of the peculiarities of the hind legs of the seabear, but display the movements peculiar to those of the seal. In other words, the anterior extremities or flippers of the walrus are moved alternately, and reciprocate, as in the seabear; whereas the posterior extremities are lashed from side to side by a twisting, curvilinear motion, precisely as in the seal. The walrus may therefore, as far as the physiology of its extremities is concerned, very properly be regarded as holding an intermediate position between the seals on the one hand, and the sea-bears or sea-lions on the other.

1 This is the reverse of what takes place in flying, the anterior or thick margins of the wings being invariably directed upwards.

2 The air-bladder is wanting in the dermopteri, plagiostomi, and pleuronectidæ.-Owen, op. cit. p. 255.

Swimming of Man.—The swimming of man is artificial in its nature, and consequently does not, strictly speaking, fall within the scope of the present work. I refer to it principally with a view to showing that it resembles in its general features the swimming of animals.

The human body is lighter than the water, a fact of considerable practical importance, as showing that each has in himself that which will prevent his being drowned, if he will only breathe naturally, and desist from struggling.

The catastrophe of drowning is usually referrible to nervous agitation, and to spasmodic and ill-directed efforts in the extremities. All swimmers have a vivid recollection of the great difficulty experienced in keeping themselves afloat, when they first resorted to aquatic exercises and amusements. In especial they remember the short, vigorous, but flurried, misdirected, and consequently futile strokes which, instead of enabling them to skim the surface, conducted them inevitably to the bottom. Indelibly impressed too are the ineffectual attempts at respiration, the gasping and puffing and the swallowing of water, inadvertently gulped instead of air.

In order to swim well, the operator must be perfectly calm. He must, moreover, know how to apply his extremities to the water with a view to propulsion. As already stated, the body will float if left to itself; the support obtained is, however, greatly increased by projecting it along the surface of the water. This, as all swimmers are aware, may be proved by experiment. It is the same principle which prevents a thin flat stone from sinking when projected with force against the surface of water. A precisely similar result is obtained if the

strokes, but usements when

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