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of the former, while she has increased those of the latter. which flies in the air, and has curtailed the travelling surfaces

flies under the water, relatively much heavier than the bird struck the just balance; she has made the diving bird, which


FIG. 47.--At A the penguin is in the act of diving, and it will be observed that the anterior or thick margin of the
wing is directed downwards and forwards, while the posterior margin is directed upwards and backwards. This has
the effect of directing the under or ventral concave surface of the wing upwards and backwards, the most effective
stroke being delivered in a downward and backward direction. The efficacy of the wing in counteracting levity is
thus obvious. At B the penguin is in the act of regaining the surface of the water, and in this case the wing is
maintained in one position, or made to strike downwards and forwards like the aërial wing, the margins and under
surface of the pinion being reversed for this purpose. The object now is not to depress but to elevate the body.
Those movements are facilitated by the alternate play of the feet. (Compare fig. 47 with fig. 37, p. 76.)


For the same reason, she has furnished the diving bird with a certain degree of buoyancy, and the flying bird with a certain amount of weight-levity tending to bring the one to the surface of the water, weight the other to the surface of the earth, which is the normal position of rest for both. The action of the subaquatic or diving wing of the king penguin is well seen at p. 94, fig. 47. .

From what has been stated it will be evident that the wing acts very differently in and out of the water; and this is a point deserving of attention, the more especially as it seems to have hitherto escaped observation. In the water the wing, when most effectivé, strikes downwards and backwards, and acts as an auxiliary of the foot; whereas in the air it strikes downwards and forwards. The oblique surfaces, spiral or otherwise, presented by animals to the water and air are therefore made to act in opposite directions, as far as the down strokes are concerned. This is owing to the greater density of the water as compared with the air,—the former supporting or nearly supporting the animal moving upon or in it; the latter permitting the creature to fall through it in a downward direction during the ascent of the wing. To counteract the tendency of the bird in motion to fall downwards and forwards, the down stroke is delivered in this direction ; the kite-like action of the wing, and the rapidity with which it is moved causing the mass of the bird to pursue a more or less horizontal course. I offer this explanation of the action of the wing in and out of the water after repeated and careful observation in tame and wild birds, and, as I am aware, in opposition to all previous writers on the subject.

The rudimentary wings or paddles of the penguin (the movements of which I had an opportunity of studying in a tame specimen) are principally employed in swimming and diving. The feet, which are of moderate size and strongly webbed, are occasionally used as auxiliaries. There is this difference between the movements of the wings and feet of this most curious bird, and it is worthy of attention. The wings act together, or synchronously, as in flying birds; the feet, on the other hand, are moved alternately. The wings are wielded with great energy, and, because of their

semi-rigid condition, are incapable of expansion. They therefore present their maximum and minimum of surface by a partial rotation or tilting of the pinion, as in the walrus, sea-bear, and turtle. The feet, which are moved with less vigour, are, on the contrary, rotated or tilted to a very slight extent, the increase and diminution of surface being secured by the opening and closing of the membranous expansion or web between the toes. In this latter respect they bear a certain analogy to the feet of the seal, the toes of which, as has been explained, spread out or divaricate during extension, and the reverse. The feet of the penguin entirely differ from those of the seal, in being worked separately, the foot of one side being flexed or drawn towards the body,

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FIG. 48.-Swan, in the act of swimming, the right foot being fully expanded.

and about to give the effective stroke, which is delivered outwards, downwards, and backwards, as represented at r of fig. 50; the left foot being closed, and about to make the return stroke, which is delivered in an inward, upward, and forward direction, as shown at 8 of fig. 50. In rapid swimming the swan flexes its legs simultaneously and somewhat slowly; it then vigorously extends them.-Original.

while its fellow is being extended or pushed away from it. The feet, moreover, describe definite curves in opposite directions, the right foot proceeding from within outwards, and from above downwards during extension, or when it is fully expanded and giving the effective stroke; the left one, which is moving at the same time, proceeding from without inwards and from below upwards during flexion, or when it is folded up, as happens during the back stroke. In the acts of extension and flexion the legs are slightly rotated, and the

feet more or less tilted. The same movements are seen in the feet of the swan, and in those of swimming birds generally (fig. 48).

One of the most exquisitely constructed feet for swimming and diving purposes is that of the grebe (fig. 49). This foot


Fig. 49.- Foot of Grebe (Podiceps). In this foot each toe is provided with its

swimming meni brane : the membrane being closed when the foot is flexed, and expanded when the foot is extended. Compare with foot of swan (fig. 48), where the swimming membrane is continued from the one toe to the

other.—(After Dallas.) consists of three swimming toes, each of which is provided with a membranous expansion, which closes when the foot is being drawn towards the body during the back stroke, and opens out when it is being forced away from the body during the effective stroke.

FIG. 50.-Diagram representing the double waved track described by the feet of swimming birds. Compare with figs. 18 and 19, pp. 37 and 39, and with

fig. 32, p. 68.- Original. In swimming birds, each foot describes one side of an ellipse when it is extended and thrust from the body, the other side of the ellipse being described when the foot is flexed and drawn towards the body. The curve described by the right foot when pushed from the body is seen at the arrow 1 of fig. 50; that formed by the left foot when drawn towards the body, at the arrow s of the same figure. The curves formed

ments of waved lineo produce

by the feet during extension and flexion produce, when united in the act of swimming, waved lines, these constituting a chart for the movements of the extremities of swimming birds.

There is consequently an obvious analogy between the swimming of birds and the walking of man (compare fig. 50, p. 97, with fig. 19, p. 39); between the walking of man and the walking of the quadruped (compare figs. 18 and 19, pp. 37 and 39); between the walking of the quadruped and the swimming of the walrus, sea-bear, and seal; between the swimming of the seal, whale, dugong, manatee, and porpoise, and that of the fish (compare fig. 32, p. 68, with figs. 18 and 19, pp. 37 and 39); and between the swimming of the fish and the flying of the insect, bat, and bird (compare all the foregoing figures with figs. 71, 73, and 81, pp. 144 and 157).

Flight of the Flying-fish; the kite-like action of the Wings, etc. Whether the flying-fish uses its greatly expanded pectoral fins


Fig. 51.-The Flying-fish (Exocoetus exsiliens, Linn.), with wings expanded and

elevated in the act of flight (vide arrows). This anomalous and interesting creature is adapted both for swimming and flying. The swimming-tail is consequently retained, and the pectoral fins, which act as wings, are enormously increased in size.Original.

as a bird its wings, or only as parachutes, has not, so far as I am aware, been determined by actual observation. Most observers are of opinion that these singular creatures glide up the wind, and do not beat it after the manner of birds; so that their flight (or rather leap) is indicated by the arc of a circle, the sea supplying the chord. I have carefully examined the structure, relations, and action of those fins, and am satisfied in my own mind that they act as true pinions within

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