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The Porpoise and Manatee, ..... 73

The skeleton of the Dugong—{Dallas), . . .74

The Seal, ....... 74

The Sea-Bear, ....... 76

The elliptical, looped, and spiral tracks made in swimming, . 81 The several attitudes assumed by the extremities in swimming

in the prone position, . . . .82

Overhand swimming, ...... 85

Side swimming, ...... 86

Swimming of the Turtle and Triton, . . . .89

Swimming of the Little Penguin, . . . .91

Sub-aquatic flight or diving, . . . . .94

The feet of the Swan as seen in the open and closed condition, 96 The foot of the Grebe with swimming membrane—(Dallas), . 97 Double waved track described by the feet of swimming birds,. 97 The flight of the Flying-fish, ..... 98

The wing a lever of the third order, .... 105

Figure-of-8 vertical track made by the wing in flight, . . 107

Do. horizontal track, . . . . .108

Feathers and cork flying forward, . . . .112

Diagram illustrating how wings obtain their high speed, . 120

Butterfly with large wings, ..... 124

Beetle with small wings, . . . . .125

Partridge with small wings; Heron with large wings, . 126

The wings of the Hawk and Albatross, . . 136, 137

The Green Plover with one wing flexed aud the other extended, 138 Blur or impression produced on the eye by the rapidly oscillating wing of the insect, ..... 139

Diagram in which the down and up strokes of the wing of the

insect are analysed, ..... 141

Diagrams illustrating the looped and waved tracks described

by the wing of the insect, bat, and bird, . . . 144

Figures showing the positions assumed by the wing of the bird

during the up and down strokes (side view), . . 145

The positions assumed by the wing of the insect as it hastens

to and fro and describes a figure-of-8 track, . . 141

The figure-of-8 curves made by the wing of the bird in flexion

and extension, ...... 147

The long and short axes of the wing, .... 149

The waved tracks described by the wing and body of the bird

as they alternately rise and fall,

157, 163 The positions assumed by the wing of the bird during the

down and up strokes (front view), ... 158

Analysis of the movements of the wing, . . 160,161

The kite-like action and waved movements of the wing, . 166

The Centaur Beetle and Water Bug, . . . .171

The Dragon Fly, . . . .... 172

The screws formed by the wing of the insect, bat, and bird, 174, 175,176 The muscles, elastic ligaments, and feathers of the wing of the

bird, ....... 181

The flight of the King-fisher, . . . . .183

The flight of the Gull, ...... 186

The flight of the Owl, . . . . . .198

The flight of the Albatross, . . . . .200

Pigeon and Duck alighting, .... 203, 204

Hawk and quarry—(The Graphic), .... 206

The Vauxhall Balloon of Mr. Green, . . . .208

Mr. Henson's Flying Machine, ..... 212

Mr. Stringfellow's Flying Machine, . . . .213

Sir George Cayley's Flying Apparatus, . . . 215

Flying Machine designed by De la Landelle, . . .217

Borelli's Artificial Bird, . . . . .220

Diagrams illustrating the true and false action of the wing, . 228 The sculling action of the wing as seen in the bird, . .231

The artificial wave wing of the Author, . . . 237

Do. do. with driving apparatus, . . 239

Various forms of artificial wings by the Author, . . 241

The compound wave wing of the Author, . . . 243

Diagrams illustrative of artificial wing movements, . . 250

Diagram illustrating the currents produced by the movements

of artificial wings, ...... 253

The aerial wave screw of the Author, .... 256

Swallow in pursuit of insects, ..... 260

[graphic]
[graphic]

ANIMAL LOCOMOTION.

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