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This screw, which for the sake of uniformity I denominate the aërial wave screw, possesses advantages for aërial purposes to which no form of rigid screw yet devised can lay claim. The way in which it clings to the air during its revolution, and the degree of buoying power it possesses, are quite astonishing. It is a self-adjusting, self-regulating screw, and as its component parts are flexible and elastic, it accommodates itself to the speed at which it is driven, and gives a uniform buoyancy. The slip, I may add, is nominal in amount. This screw is exceedingly light, and owes its efficacy to its shape and the graduated nature of its blades; the anterior margin of each blade being comparatively rigid, the posterior margin being comparatively flexible and more or less elastic. The blades are kites in the same sense that natural wings are kites. They are flown as such when the screw revolves. I find that the aërial wave screw flies best and elevates most when its blades are inclined at a certain upward angle as indicated in the figure (130). The aërial wave screw may have the number of its blades increased by placing the one above the other; and two or more screws may be combined and made to revolve in opposite directions so as to make them reciprocate; the one screw producing the current on which the other rises, as happens in natural wings.

The Aërial Wave Screw operates also upon Water.—The form of screw just described is adapted in a marked manner for water, if the blades be reduced in size and composed of some elastic substance, which will resist the action of fluids, as gutta-percha, carefully tempered finely graduated steel plates, etc. It bears the same relation to, and produces the same results upon, water, as the tail and fin of the fish. It throws its blades during its action into double figure-of-8 curves, similar in all respects to those produced on the anterior and posterior margins of the natural and artificial flying wing. As the speed attained by the several portions of each blade varies, so the angle at which each part of the blade strikes varies; the angles being always greatest towards the root of the blade and least towards the tip. The angles made by the different portions of the blades are diminished in proportion as the speed, with which the screw is driven, is increased. The screw in this manner is self-adjusting, and extracts a large percentage of propelling power, with very little force and surprisingly little slip.

A similar result is obtained if two finely graduated angularshaped gutta-percha or steel plates be placed end to end and applied to the water (vertically or horizontally matters little), with a slight sculling figure-of-8 motion, analogous to that performed by the tail of the fish, porpoise, or whale. If the thick margin of the plates be directed forwards, and the thin ones backwards, an unusually effective propeller is produced. This form of propeller is likewise very effective in air.


FROM the researches and experiments detailed in the present volume, it will be evident that a remarkable analogy exists between walking, swimming, and flying. It will further appear that the movements of the tail of the fish, and of the wing of the insect, bat, and bird can be readily imitated and reproduced. These facts ought to inspire the pioneer in aërial navigation with confidence. The land and water have already been successfully subjugated. The realms of the air alone are unvanquished. These, however, are so vast and so important as a highway for the nations, that science and civilisation equally demand their occupation. The history of artificial progression indorses the belief that the fields etherean will one day be traversed by a machine designed by human ingenuity, and constructed by human skill. In order to construct a successful flying machine, it is not necessary to reproduce the filmy wing of the insect, the silken pinion of the bat, or the complicated and highly differentiated wing of the bird, where every feather may be said

to have a peculiar function assigned to it; neither is it necessary to reproduce the intricacy of that machinery by which the pinion in the bat, insect, and bird is moved : all that is required is to distinguish the properties, form, extent, and manner of application of the several flying surfaces, a task attempted, however imperfectly executed, in the foregoing pages. When Vivian and Trevithick devised the locomotive, and Symington and Bell the steamboat, they did not seek to reproduce a quadruped or a fish; they simply aimed at producing motion adapted to the land and water, in accordance with natural laws, and in the presence of living models. Their success is to be measured by an involved labyrinth of railway which extends to every part of the civilized world; and by navies whose vessels are despatched without trepidation to navigate the most boisterous seas at the most inclement seasons. The aëronaut has a similar but more difficult task to perform. In attempting to produce a flying-machine he is not necessarily attempting an impossible thing. The countless swarms of flying creatures testify as to the practicability of such an undertaking, and nature supplies him at once with models and materials. If artificial flight were not attainable, the insects, bats, and birds would furnish the only examples of animals whose movements could not be reproduced. History, analogy, observation, and experiment are all opposed to this view. The success of the locomotive and steamboat is an earnest of the success of the flying machine. If the difficulties to be surmounted in its construction are manifold, the triumph and the reward will be correspondingly great. It is impossible to over-estimate the boon which would accrue to mankind from such a creation. Of the many mechanical problems before the world at present, perhaps there is none greater than that of aërial navigation. Past failures are not to be regarded as the harbingers of future defeats, for it is only within the last few years that the subject of artificial flight has been taken up in a true scientific spirit. Within a comparatively brief period an enormous mass of valuable data has been collected. As societies for the advancement of aëronautics have been established in Britain, America, France,

and other countries, there is reason to believe that our knowledge of this most difficult department of science will go on increasing until the knotty problem is finally solved. If this day should ever come, it will not be too much to affirm, that it will inaugurate a new era in the history of mankind; and that great as the destiny of our race has been hitherto, it will be quite out-lustred by the grandeur and magnitude of coming events.

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Marey, .

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AERIAL creatures not stronger than terrestrial ones, ..

Aërial flight as distinguished from sub-aquatic flight, .


Air cells in insects and birds not necessary to flight,

Albatross, flight of, compared to compass set upon gimbals, .

Amphibia have larger travelling surfaces than land animals, but less

than aërial ones, .
Artificial fins, flippers, and wings, how constructed,
Artificial wings, Borelli, .

Do. Chabrier,
Do. Straus-Durckheim,
Do. how to apply to the air,

Do. nature of forces required to propel, ...

Artificial wave wing of Pettigrew,

how to construct on insect type,

how to construct to evade the superimposed air during
the up stroke,.

can create currents and rise upon them,
can be driven at any speed ; can make new currents

and utilize old ones, . . . . 251, 255

as a propeller and aërial screw, .
Do. compound rotation of: the different parts of the wing
travel at different speeds,

Do. necessity for supplying root of, with elastic structures, 247
Artificial compound wave wing of Pettigrew,

Atmospheric pressure, effects of, on limbs,
Axioms, fundamental,

BALANCING, how effected in flight, .


Bats and birds, lax condition of shoulder-joint in,

Birds, lifting capacity of,

Body and wing reciprocate in flight, and each describes a waved track, 12
Bones, ..

Bones of the extremities twisted and spiral, .
Bones of wing of bat-spiral configuration of their articular surfaces, . (176
Bones of wing of bird—their articular surfaces, movements, etc., 178
Borelli's artificial bird, .

CHABRIER's artificial wings,

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28, 29

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