Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

PAGE

14

Phillips, :

ELYTRA or wing cases and membranous wings, . . . .

170
FEATHERS, primary, secondary, and tertiary, . .

180
Fins, flippers, and wings form mobile helices or screws,
Flight, weight necessary to,

*$ 3, 4, 110, 111, 112, 113

. .
Flight the poetry of motion,
Flight the least fatiguing kind of motion,
Flight under water, .
Flight of the flying-fish, .
Flight, horizontal, in part due to weight of flying mass,
Flight—the regular and irregular,
Flight-how to ascend, descend, and turn, .
Flight of birds referrible to muscular exertion and weight,
Fluids, mechanical effects of, on animals immersed in them,
Fluids, resistance of, .
Flying machine, Henson, .

212
Do. Stringfellow, .

213
Do. Cayley, .

215
Do.

216
Do.
. M. de la Landelle,

217
Do. Borelli,

219
A flying machine possible,
Forces which propel the wings of insects, bats, and birds,

186, 189
Fulcra, yielding, .

. . . 8, 104. 165
GRAVITY, the legs moye by the force of, . .
Gravity, centre of. . . : : : : : 18
HISTORY of the figure-of-8 theory of walking, swimming, and flying, .
JOINTS, . . . . . . . . . 23
KITE-LIKE action of the wings,
Kite-how kite formed by wing differs from boy's kite,

166
Laws of natural and artificial progression the same,
Legs, moved by the force of gravity, .
Lever—the wing one of the third order, .
Levers, the three orders of,
Life linked to motion, .
Lifting capacity of birds, .
Ligaments,
Ligaments, elastic, position and action of, in wing of pheasant, snipe,

crested crane, swan, etc.,
Ligaments, elastic, more highly differentiated in wings which' vibrate

quickly, .
Loconuotion, the active organs of, : :
Locomotion, the passive organs of,
Locomotion of the horse, . .
Locomotion of the ostrich,
Locomotion of man, . . . .
MAREY's artificial wings,
Membranous wings,
Motion associated with the life and well-being of animals,
Motion not confined to the animal kingdom,
Motion, natural and artificial, . . . . . .

[graphic]

JOINTS

.. 4, 17

COV

236

103

15, 16

PAGE
Motion, of uniform,
Motion uniformly varied, .
Muscles, their properties, mode of action, etc., ..
Muscles arranged in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique spiral lines, .
Muscles, oblique spiral, necessary for spiral bones and joints, .
Muscles take precedence of bones in animal movements,
Muscula
Muscular cycles, . :
Muscular waves, .

: : : : :
PENDULUMS, the extremities of animals act as, in walking, 9, 18, 56, 57
Plane, inclined, as applied to the air, .

. . 211
Pettigrew's method of constructing and applying artificial wings as

contradistinguished from that of Borelli, Chabrier, Durckheim,
Marey, etc., : : :

235
Pettigrew's wave wing, ..
Pettigrew's compound wave wing,

242
Progression on the land, .

Do. on or in the water, .

Do. in or through the air,
QUADRUPEDS walk, fishes swim, and insects, bats, and birds fly, by

figure-of-8 movements, .
SCREWS—the wing of the bird and the extremity of the biped and

quadruped screws, structurally and functionally, .
Screws-difference between those formed by the wings and those em-

ployed in navigation,
Sculling action of the wing,

231
Speed attained by insects,

188
Speed of wing movements partly accounted for,

120
Spine, spiral movements of, transferred to the extremities,

33
Straus-Durckheim's artificial wings, .
Swimming of the fish, whale, porpoise, etc.,
Swimming of the seal, sea-bear, and walrus, .
Swimming of man,
Swimming of the turtle, triton, crocodile, etc., ..
TERRESTRIAL animals have smaller travelling surfaces than amphibia,

amphibia than fishes, and fishes than insects, bats, and birds,
The travelling surfaces of animals increase as the density of the media

traversed decreases, .
The travelling surfaces of animals variously modified and adapted to

the media on or in which they move,
WALKING, swimming, and flying correlated, .
Walking of the quadruped, biped, etc., .
Wave wing of Pettigrew,

236
Do. how to construct on insect type,

240
Do. how to construct to evade the superimposed air during the

up stroke, . .

151

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

can be driven at any speed, :

:

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

251, 255

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

256

can create currents and rise upon them, .
can make new currents and utilize existing ones,
as a propeller, . . .
as an aërial screw, .
forces required to apply to the air, .
necessity for supplying root of, with elastic structures,

[ocr errors]

245, 246
. 247

112

114

W

12

12

149

PAGE
Wave wing, compound, .

242
Weight necessary to fight : : : : : : 110

110
Weight contributes to flight,
Weight, momentum, and power to a certain extent synonymous in

flight,,
The wing of the bird and the extremity of the biped and quadruped are

screws, structurally and functionally,
ing in flight describes figure of 8 curves
Wing during its action reverses its planes and describes a figure-of-8
track in space,

140
Wing when advancing with the body describes looped and waved tracks, 143
Wing, margins of, thrown into opposite curves during extension and
flexion,

146
Wing, tip of, describes an ellipse,

147
Wing and body reciprocate in flight, and each describes a wave track,
Wing moves in opposite curves to body,

168
Wing ascends when body descends, and vice versa, .

159
Wing during its vibrations produces a cross pulsation, ..

148
Wing vibrates unequally with reference to a given line,

150, 231
Wing, compound rotation of, .
Wing a lever of the third order,

103
Wing acts on yielding fulcra, .

8, 104, 165
Wings, their form, etc., all wings screws, structurally and functionally, 136
Wing capable of change of form in all its parts, . ..
Wing-area variable and in excess,
Wing-area decreases as the size and weight of the volant animal in-

creases,
Wing, natural, when elevated and depressed must move forwards,
Wing, angles formed by, when in action,

167
Wing acts as true kite both during down and up strokes, i
Wing, traces of design in,
Wing of bird not always opened up to same extent in up stroke,
Wing, flexion of, necessary to flight of birds,

183
Wing flexed and partly elevated by action of elastic ligaments,

191
Wing, power of, to what owing, :
Wing, effective stroke of, why delivered downwards and forwards,
Wing acts as an elevator, propeller, and sustainer both during exten-

sion and flexion, .
Wings, points wherein the screws formed by, differ from those in ordi-

nary use,
Wings at all times thoroughly under control, i
Wings of insects, consideration of forces which propel, .
Wings of bats and birds, consideration of forces which propel, . .

147
124

156

165

0

[ocr errors]

194

195

..

.

.

.

PRINTED BY T. AND A, CONSTABLE, PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY,

AT THE EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS.

A CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE OF HENRY S. KING & Co.'s PUBLICATIONS.

PAGE

CONTENTS.

PAGE IIISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY.. I INDIA AND THE EAST. ..19 VOYAGES AND TRAVEL . . . 5 BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG, &c. . 21 SCIENCE . . . . . . . 7 POETRY . . . · · · · · 24 Essays, LECTURES, AND COL

LECTED PAPERS . . . . 12 THEOLOGICAL. . . . . . . 31 MILITARY WORKS . . . . . 15 CORNHILL LIBRARY OF FICTION 36

FICTION

.

.

.

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY.

THE NORMAN PEOPLE, AND THEIR EXISTING DESCENDANTS IN THE

BRITISH DOMINIONS AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. One handsome vol. Svo. Price 21s.

[In the Press. This work is the result of many years of the work the early history of the whole of research into the history of the Norman aristocracy is revised, reconstructed, and race in England. It is generally supposed | very many thousands of families are shown to have become extinct; but careful study to be Norman which have never before has shown that it exists and forms a large been accounted for.

part of the English people. In the course A MEMOIR OF THE LATE REVEREND DR. ROWLAND

WILLIAMS, With selections from his Note-books and Correspondence.
Edited by Mrs. Rowland Williams. With a Photographic Portrait.

(In the Press. THE RUSSIANS IN CENTRAL ASIA. A Critical Examination,

down to the present time, of the Geography and History of Central Asia. By Baron F. Von Hellwald, Member of the Geographical Societies of Paris, Geneva, Vienna, &c., &c. Translated by Lieut.-Col. Theodore Wirgman, LL.B., late 6th Inniskilling Dragoons ; formerly of the Austrian Service; Translator into English verse of Schiller's “ Wallenstein's Camp.”

[Nearly ready.

65, Cornhill ; @

12, Paternoster Row, London.

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY-continued. THE GOVERNMENT OF THE NATIONAL DEFENCE. From

the 30th June to the 31st October, 1870. The Plain Statement of a Member. By Mons. Jules Favre. I vol. Demy 8vo. 1os. 64.

BOKHARA : ITS HISTORY AND CONQUEST. By Professor

Arminius Vámbéry, of the University of Pesth, Author of “ Travels in Central Asia,” &c. Demy Svo. Price 18s.

“ We conclude with a cordial recommendation of this valuable book. In the present work his moderation, scholarship, insight, and occasionally very impressive style, have raised him to the dignity of an historian." - Saturday Review.

“ Almost every page abounds with composition of peculiar merit, as well as with an account of some thrilling event more exciting than any to be found in an ordinary work of fiction."-Morning Post.

THE RELIGIOUS HISTORY OF IRELAND: PRIMITIVE, PAPAL,

AND PROTESTANT; including the Evangelical Missions, Catholic Agitations, and Church Progress of the last half century. By James Godkin, Author of “Ireland, her Churches,” &c. I vol. Svo. Price 125.

“For those who shun blue books, and ! “Mr. Godkin writes with evident honesty, yet desire some of the information they and the topic on which he writes is one contain, these latter chapters on the statis- ! about which an honest book is greatly tics of the various religiou is denominations wanted."-Examiner. will be welcomed."--Evening Standard. I

'ILÂM EN NÂS. Historical Tales and Anecdotes of the Times of the Early

Khalifahs. Translated from the Arabic Originals. By Mrs. Godfrey
Clerk, Author of “The Antipodes and Round the World." Crown Svo.
Price 75.

“But there is a high tone about them, | illustrated and explained by copious notes,
a love of justice, of truth and integrity, indicating considerable learning and re-
a sense of honour and manliness, and a search." - Saturday Review.
simple devotion to religious duty, which “Those who like stories full of the
however mistaken according to our lights, genuine colour and fragrance of the East,
is deserving of every respect. The should by all means read Mrs. Godfrey
translation is the work of a lady, and a Clerk's volume."-Spectator.
very excellent and scholar-like translation As full of valuable information as it is
it is, clearly and pleasantly written, and I of amusing incident."-Evening Standard.

ECHOES OF A FAMOUS YEAR. By Harriet Parr, Author of

“The Life of Jeanne d'Arc,” “In the Silver Age,” &c. Crown Svo. 8s. 6d.

A graceful and touching, as well as, “Miss Parr has the great gift of charmtruthful account of the Franco-Prussian ing simplicity of style ; and if children are War. Those who are in the habit of read not interested in her book, many of their ing books to children will find this at seniors will be."-British Quarterly Reonce instructive and delightful."-Public view. Opinion.

65, Cornhill ; & 12, Paternoster Row, London.

« AnteriorContinuar »