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sons canonized by the Pope are called saints, and are invoked and supplicated by the professors of that religion. The church of England instituted this festival in memory of all good men defunct, proposing them as patterns for Christian imitation, but not allowing any prayers to be addressed to them. For some rural customs on this day, see T.T. for 1814, pp. 278-9.

2.-ALL SOULS. In Catholic countries, on the eve and day of All Souls, the churches are hung with black; the tombs are opened; a coffin covered with black, and surrounded with wax lights, is placed in the nave of the church, and, in one corner, figures in wood, representing the souls of the deceased, are halfway plunged into the flames.

*2. 1818.-SIR SAMUEL ROMILLY DIED. He was one of the few men, who, while they have the unbounded confidence of their own party, command the respect of their political adversaries. Though he treated most questions with the candour that is inseparable from a love of truth, and with all the fervour by which zeal in a cause is characterised, he never excited the least suspicion of his motives, even when his reasons were urged with most force and warmth. His opponents seemed invariably to respect his intentions when they combated his arguments with the greatest vehemence. Sir Samuel's opinion upon any subject made a deep impression, not so much from the ability he displayed, uncommon as it was, as from the high respectability of his character. He was impressed with a deep reverence for our excellent Constitution, which will account for the extraordinary zeal with which he resisted every thing which had the appearance of being inconsistent with its practice or spirit. He had errors, no doubt; but they were not of the heart. But that he loved his country warmly, is beyond dispute. If he erred, the fault lay in the limitation

of human mind; but his motives were unimpeached. His profound judgment, various acquirements, his skill in forensic and parliamentary speaking, and his astonishing industry, which enabled him to attend to the weighty business of his profession and to his duties in the Senate, are well known.

5.-KING WILLIAM LANDED. The glorious revolution of 1688 is commemorated on this day, when the throne of England became vested in the illustrious House of Orange. Although King William landed on the 5th of November, the almanacks still continue the mistake of marking it as the fourth.

5.-POWDER PLOT. This day is kept to commemorate the diabolical attempt of the Papists to blow up the Parliament House. The best account of this nefarious transaction is detailed in Hume's History of England, vol. vi, pp. 33-38 (8vo edition, 1802.See also T.T. for 1814, p. 280.

6.-SAINT LEONARD. Leonard, or Lienard, was a French nobleman of great reputation in the court of Clovis I; he was instructed in divinity by Remigius, Bishop of Rheims, and afterwards made Bishop of Limosin. Several miraculous stories are told of him by the monks, not worth relating. He died about the year 559, and has always been implored by prisoners as their guardian saint.

Hark! forth from the abyss a voice proceeds,
A long, low, distant murmur of dread sound,
Such as arises when a nation bleeds
With some deep and immedicable wound:
Through storm and darkness yawns the rending ground,
The gulf is thick with phantoms, but the chief
Seems royal still, though witla her head discrowned ;

And pale, but lovely, with maternal grief
She clasps a babe, to whom her breast yields no relief.


Scion of chiefs and monarchs, where art thou ?
Fond hope of many nations, art thou dead?
Could not the grave forget thee, and lay low
Some less majestic, less beloved head?
In the sad midnight, while thy heart still bled,
The mother of a moment, o'er thy boy,
Death hushed that pang for ever: with thee fed
The present happiness and promised joy
Which filled the imperial isles so full it seemed to cloy.

Peasants bring forth in safety.-Can it be,
Oh thou that wert so happy, so adored!
Those who weep not for kings shall weep for thee,
And Freedom's heart, grown heavy, cease to hoard
Her many griefs for One; for she had ponrcd
Her orisons for thee, and o'er thy head
Beheld her Iris.—Thou, too, lonely lord,

And desolate consort-vainly wert thou wed!
The linsband of a year! the father of the dead!

Of sackcloth was thy wedding garment made;
T'he bridal's fruit is ashes : in the dust
The fair-haired Daughter of the Isles is laid,
The love of millions! How we did entrust
Futurity to her! and, though it must
Darken above our bones, yet fondly deemed
Our children should obey her child, and blessed

Her and her hoped-for seed, whose promise seemed
Like stars to shepherds' eyes :~'twas but a meteor beamed.


9.-LORD MAYOR'S DAY. The word mayor, if we adopt the etymology of Verstegan, comes from the antient English maier, able or potent, of the verb mayor can. King Richard I, A.D. 1189, first changed the bailiffs of London into Mayors; by whose example others were afterwards appointed. See T. T. for 1818, p. 278, for some lines on this day.

An old writer (1575) gives a minute description of the Lord Mayor's show or procession as it was managed in his time. The Lord Mayor goeth by water to Westmynster in most tryvmplyke maner. His barge (wherin also all the Aldermen be) beinge garnished with the armes of the Citie: and nere the sayd barge goeth a shyppbote of the Quenes Malle,

beinge trymed vpp, and rigged lyke a shippe of warre, with dyvers peces of ordenance, standards, penons, and targetts, of the proper armes of the sayd Mayor, the armes of the Citie, of his Company; and of the marchaunts adventurers, or of the staple, or of the company of the newe trades, (if he be any of the sayd iij companies of merchants), next before hym goeth the barge of the lyvery of his owne company, decked with their owne proper armes, then the bachelers barge, and so all the companies in London, in order, euery one havinge their owne proper barge garnished with the armes of their company. And so passinge alonge the Thamise, landeth at Westmynster, where he taketh his othe in Thexcheker, beffore the judge there, (whiche is one of the chiefe judges of England,) whiche done, he retorneth by water as afforsayd, and landeth at powles wharfe, where he and the reste of the Aldermen take their horses, and in great pompe passe throwgh the greate streete of the citie, called Cheapsyde, as follows. Fyrste, it is to be vnderstanded, that the lyveries of euery companye do lande before the Lord Mayor, and are redy in Cheapsyde before his comynge, standinge a longe the street, redy as he passeth by. And to make waye in the streetes, there are certayne men apparelled lyke devells, and wylde men, with skybbs and certayne beadells. And fyrste of all cometh ij great estandarts, one havinge the armes of the citie, and the other the armes of the Mayor's company; next them ij drommes and a flute, then an ensigne of the citie, and then about lxx or lxxx poore men marchinge ij and two togeather in blewe gownes, with redd sleeves and capps, every one bearinge a pyke and a target, wheron is paynted the armes of all them that have byn Mayor of the same company that this newe mayor is of. Then ij banners one of the kynges armes, the other of the Mayor's owne proper armes. Then a sett of hautboits playinge, and after them certayne wytflers, in velvett cotes, and chaynes of golde, with white staves in their handes; then the pageant of Tryvmphe rychly decked, whervppon by certayne fygures and wrytinges, (partly towchinge the name of the sayd Mayor,) some matter towchinge justice, and the office of a maiestrate is represented. Then xvj trompeters viij and viij in a company, havinge banners of the Mayor's company. Then certayne wyfflers in velvet cotes and chaynes, with white staves as aforesayde. Then the bachelers ij, and two together, in longe gownen, with crymson hoodes on their shoulders of sattyn; whiche bachelers are chosen euery yeare of the same company that the Mayor is of, (but not of the lyvery,) and serve as gentlemen on that and other festivall daies, to wayte on the Mayor, beinge in nomber accordinge to the quantetie of the company, sometimes 60, 80, or 100. After them xij trompeters more, with banners of the Mayor's company, then the dromme and flute of the citie, and an ensigne of the Mayor's company, and after, the waytes of citie in blewe gownes, redd sleeves and cappes, every one havinge his silver coller about his neck. Then they of the liverey in their longe gownes, euery one havinge his hood on his lefte shoulder, halfe black and halfe redd, the nomber of them is accordinge to the greatnes of the companye whereof they are. After them followe Sheriffes officers, and then the Mayor's officers, with other officers of the citie, as the comon sergent, and the chamberlayne; next before the Mayor goeth the sword bearer, having on bis headd the cappe of honor, and the sworde of the citie in his right hande, in a riche skabarde, sett with pearle, and on his left hand goeth the comon cryer of the cittie, with his great mace on his shoulder, all gilt. The Mayor hathe on a long gowne of skarlet, and on his lefte shoulder a hood of black velvet, and a riche coller of gold of SS. about his neck, and with

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