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No. 128.-WEEK ENDING JUNE 7, 1890.

Sunday, June 1.-Public Worship, followed by Communion ServiceBattell Chapel, 10.30 A. M. Rev. President Dwight. General Religious Meeting-Dwight Hall, 6.30 P. M. Address by the President.

Monday, June 2.—University Reception-Dwight Hall, 8-11 P. M. Tuesday, June 3.—Examinations for Lucius F. Robinson Latin Prizes -Alumni Hall, 2-6 P. M. Annual Reception of the Art School--Art

Building, 8-10 P. M.

Wednesday, June 4.-College Semi-Annual Examinations begin, 4 P. M. Class Prayer Meetings-Dwight Hall, 7 P. M. University Concert, under the direction of Professor Stoeckel-Battell Chapel, 7.30 P. M. (Admission by ticket only.)

Friday, June 6.—Berkeley Association (Evening Prayer)—Room 93, Dwight Hall, 7 P. M.

Programme of Commencement Week.-Saturday, June 21, 10 a. M. Speaking for the DeForest Prize Medal, in the Battell Chapel, by six members of the Senior Class in College. Sunday, June 22, 10 A. M. Baccalaureate Sermon, by the President, in the Battell Chapel. 7.30 P. M. Praise Service, in the Chapel. Monday, June 23, 11 A. M. Presentation Exercises of the Graduating Class of College, with the Class Oration and Poem, in the Battell Chapel. 2 P. M. Reading of Class Histories on the College Square, followed by planting of the class ivy. 5-6 P. M. Opening of the Chittenden Library to the graduates and the public. 8 P. M. Anniversary Exercises of the Sheffield Scientific School, in North Sheffield Hall. 9 P. M. Promenade Concert of the Senior Class, in Alumni Hall. Tuesday, June 24, 9.30 A. м. Meeting of the Alumni, in Alumni Hall. 11.30 A. M. Memorial Address on the late President Woolsey, by the President, in the Chapel. 2 P. M. Address in Medicine, in the Chapel, by Professor Francis Delafield, M.D., of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City. 2-3.30 P. M. Polls open in the Library for election of a member of the Corporation. 3.30 P. M. Anniversary Exercises of the Law School, in the Center Church, with Address by Charles J. Bonaparte, Esq., of Baltimore, and Townsend Prize Speaking by three members of the Senior Class. Meetings will also be held, at different hours on Tuesday, of members of the College Classes of 1840, 1850, 1855, 1860, 1865, 1870, 1875, 1880, 1884, and 1887. Wednesday, June 25, 9 A. M. Commencement Exercises in the Center Church. 2 P. M. Dinner of the Alumni, in Alumni Hall. 8-11 P. M. Reception by the President, in the Art School. Thursday, June 26, 9 A. M. Entrance Examinations to Yale College and the Sheffield Scientific School begin.

Examinations for Admission.-Examinations for admission to the Freshman class in Yale College and in the Sheffield Scientific School will be held in the following places, at the same time as in New Haven, beginning on Thursday, June 26, at 9 A. M.: In Concord, N. H., in the rooms of St. Paul's School; in Exeter, N. H., in the rooms of Phillips

Academy; in Andover, Mass., in the rooms of Phillips Academy; in Easthampton, Mass., in the rooms of Williston Seminary; in Norwich, Conn., in the Slater Memorial Building of the Norwich Free Academy; in New York City, on the fourth floor of the Young Men's Christian Association Building, 23d street, corner 4th avenue; in Albany, N. Y., in the rooms of the Albany Academy; in Canandaigua, N. Y., in the rooms of the Canandaigua Academy; in Buffalo, N. Y., in the Buffalo Library; in Pittsburgh, Pa., in the rooms of the Shadyside Academy; in Cincinnati, O., in the Hughes High School building, 5th street, head of Mound; in Chicago, Ill., in the rooms of Bryant's Commercial College, North-East corner of Wabash avenue and Washington street; in St. Paul, Minn., in the rooms of the Barnard School, Selby avenue, near Western; in Denver, Colorado, in the rooms of the High School; in San Francisco, Cal., in the rooms of the Urban School, 1017 Hyde street; in Portland, Oregon, in the rooms of the Bishop Scott Grammar School.

Cobden Club Essays.-Essays in competition for the Cobden Club Medal are to be handed in, at 118 North College, not later than 12 o'clock, noon, of Saturday, May 31.

Special Honors-Yale College.-Theses from candidates for Special Honors must be handed in, not later than Saturday, May 31.

University Receptions.-President and Mrs. Dwight will hold an informal reception for the University, at Dwight Hall, on Monday evening, June 2, from 8 to 11 o'clock. This is the fifth of a series of Receptions to be given in Dwight Hall, on the first Monday evening of each month, to which all members of the University are invited.

Yale School of the Fine Arts.-The School year closes on Saturday, May 31. On Tuesday evening, June 3, from 8 to 10 o'clock, the twentyfirst Annual Reception of the School will be held, in the Art Building; members of the Senior and Junior classes of other departments are invited to be present.

No. 129.-WEEK ENDING JUNE 14, 1890.

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Sunday, June 8.--Public Worship-Battell Chapel, 10.30 a. M. Newman Smyth, D.D., of the Center Church. General · Religious Meeting-Dwight Hall, 6.30 P. M. Address by the President.

Wednesday, June 11.--Class Prayer Meetings-Dwight Hall, 7 P. M. Friday, June 13.-Last Day for return of Books-Linonian and Brothers Library, 10 A. M. to 12 M., and 1.30 to 4 P. M. Berkeley Association (Evening Prayer)-Room 93, Dwight Hall, 7 P. M.

Library Notice.-All books belonging to the Linonian and Brothers Library must be returned on or before Friday, June 13. All books belonging to the General Library of the University must be returned on or before Wednesday, June 18.

NEW ENGLANDER

AND

YALE REVIEW.

No. CCXLV.

AUGUST, 1890.

ARTICLE I.-THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE.

EIGHTY-SEVEN years ago, on the banks of the Mississippi River, where St. Louis now stands, with its mammoth storehouses, magnificent public buildings, and nearly half a million of inhabitants—then a mere trading post, with a little cluster of log cabins and cheap houses to shelter the traders from the heat of summer and the driving winds of winter-there was to be seen a party of thirty persons, under the direction of Captain Lewis and Captain Clark, constructing three rough flatbottom boats, one of twenty-two, one of seven, and one of six oars, in which, with their supplies, they were to ascend and explore the Missouri River, and all the vast unknown region drained by its waters, now estimated to be 518,000 square miles of territory. Truly an insignificant outfit for so great an undertaking!

Capt. Merriweather Lewis was born in Virginia, August 17th, 1774. He enlisted as a volunteer in the troops called out to suppress the Whisky Insurrection in Pennsylvania in 1795, and became Captain in 1800. Capt. William Clark was born

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in Virginia, August 1st, 1770. He entered the army as a private, at the age of eighteen, and spent six or seven years in active service, engaged in a crusading warfare against the Indians. He was made Lieutenant, March 7th, 1792, became Quartermaster in 1793, and served till 1796, when he resigned.

Thomas Jefferson, coming to the Presidency March 4th, 1801, selected Capt. Lewis to be his private secretary. On the 30th of April, 1803, Jefferson, through his accredited agents and ministers, bought of the French nation a large farm, and his practical eye selected these two young men, Lewis and Clark, to look it over. His instructions were very explicit, to examine minutely into the condition, traditions, and peculiar characteristics of the Indian tribes, the physical geography of the country, its rivers, mountains, temperature, animals, minerals, and vegetable products, and to make report of their doings and findings to Congress.

A herculean task was before them; but these brave men comprehended the magnitude of the undertaking, and entered their work with heroic zeal and patriotic purpose.

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Lewis was the scientific and Clark the military director of the expedition, both by fitness and common consent, but Lewis was senior officer, to whom instructions were committed.

Completing their outfit at St. Louis, they slipped their moorings, swung their floating craft out into the Mississippi River, and pulled up stream to the mouth of the Missouri River, about twenty miles above St. Louis.

Here they met with an obstacle not anticipated. The commandant of a Spanish post at that place, in conformity with the policy of his government, refused to let the expedition pass, and they retired to the opposite shore of the Mississippi River, within the unquestioned jurisdiction of the United States, and communicated the cause of their delay to the President at Washington. The difficulties of communication at that early date were so great, that they were obliged to go. into winter quarters where they were, in sight of the Spanish flag that proclaimed the omnipotence of the Spanish government over all of the territory beyond.

At the time of which we speak, the western boundary of the United States was the Mississippi River, and the Spanish flag

floated over the territory west of that river from the British Possessions on the north to Brazil on the south.

The southern boundary of the United States was the 31st parallel of latitude, and the Spanish Floridas occupied all the intervening country below that line from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River, completely shutting off the American people from all communication with the Gulf.

About forty years before this period, seven years of bloody war had come to an end in Europe, in 1762. Victory had perched upon the English banners both upon land and upon sea, in Europe and America. Quebec had surrendered to the victorious army of General Wolfe in 1759, and soon after the French government ceded to the British crown all of her Canadian possessions stretching westward from the waters of the St. Lawrence, acknowledging the supremacy of England over the Canadian Provinces.

A few years later, November 3d, 1762, France ceded to Spain "that portion of the Province of Louisiana lying east of the Mississippi River and the City of New Orleans;" and on the 13th of the same month, by a separate transaction, ceded "the said country and colony of Louisiana, and the posts thereon depending, likewise the City and Island of New Orleans, to Spain," thereby parting with her entire American dominions.

Shortly after, Spain, February 10, 1763, ceded to England all of her American possessions east of the Mississippi River, except the town of New Orleans, and we were exposed to be harassed by a British army upon the north and south, and by her navy on the east. British exactions culminated in the stirring events of the Revolution. The disasters of that war so embarassed England in the control of Florida, that, in 1783, the government ceded it back to Spain, and the Spanish flag once more floated from the eastern coast of Florida to the Pacific. October 1st, 1800, Spain, by a secret treaty, transferred "the Colony or Province of Louisiana back to France, with no restrictions as to limits, but with her ancient boundaries as they were when France in 1762 had ceded the province to Spain."

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