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River, and his sleepless eye watched with jealous care all the movements in reference, not only to Spanish possessions stretching westward from the east coast of Florida to the Mississippi River, but also he had longing desires to extend our domain west of the Mississippi, and Mr. Monroe felt authorized, by conversations with Jefferson, to exceed the limits of his instructions, and he took the whole of the French possessions in America, pledging the credit of the nation for its purchase. It was a large sum for our country to assume at that early date, and yet, the sum paid for the entire purchase is not equal to the product of the mines in Montana for one year, or the wheat of Kansas, or the corn of Iowa, for a single


Jefferson, though doubting his constitutional right to make the purchase, was greatly pleased with the result of the negotiations, though many of his countrymen were displeased with what seemed to them the enormous price to be paid. Jefferson encountered fierce opposition by reason thereof throughout our scattered population, but Congress promptly ratified the treaty, and opposition soon turned to praise.

When Jefferson prepared his instructions to Lewis and Clark, he spoke of all that western territory as foreign land. We find in his instructions the following:

"As your movements while within the limits of the United States will be better directed by occasional communications adapted to circumstances as they arise, will not be noticed here. What follows will respect your proceedings after your departure from the United States.

"Your mission has been communicated to the Ministers here from France, Spain, and Great Britain, and through them to their governments and such assurances given them as to its objects as we trust will satisfy them. The country of Louisiana, having been ceded by Spain to France, the passport you have from the Minister of France, the representative of the present sovereign of the country, will be a protection of all its subjects, and that from the Minister of England will entitle you to the friendly aid of the traders of that allegiance with whom you may happen to meet.”

Armed with these passports, and backed with assistance and orders of our government, the expedition started, and faithfully completed the work assigned them, returning to St. Louis, September 23d, 1806, having crossed the country from

the mouth of the Missouri River to the mouth of the Columbia on the Pacific coast and back again.

General Sherman's march to the sea was not attended with more anxiety to the government and the country than was the absence of this little band unheard of for more than two years. Their return to St. Louis was heralded with delight all over the country, and a great burden of suspense lifted from the heart of the nation.

Many of the rivers, mountains, rocks, and places received names from them which they bear to-day.

Their observant eyes, practical wisdom, and marvelous surmounting of difficulties, will not cease to be a wonder to all who are acquainted with their great work. The writer, having traveled by easy conveyance thousands of miles over the country by the route they pursued, can never cease to wonder at the marvelous achievements of those brave, persevering men.

Capt. Lewis soon after his return was made Governor of the territory of Louisiana, and Capt. Clark, General of its Militia, and agent of the United States for Indian affairs in that department.

Lewis, with poor health, and a constitution shattered by the fatigues and exposures of the expedition, committed suicide near Nashville, Tennessee, on his way from St. Louis to Washington, October 11th, 1809.

President Madison appointed Capt. Clark Governor of Missouri in 1813, which position he held until Missouri was admitted into the Union.

In 1822 he was appointed Superintendent of Indian affairs, which office he held at his death in St. Louis, Sept. 1st, 1838.

A debt of gratitude to the men who composed the Lewis and Clark expedition was recognized by Congress, and a donation of public lands was made which at that early day was of small value. Men of less public consideration have received greater public rewards.

How much this nation and the world at large is indebted to Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe, for the peaceful acquisition of this territory amid threatening and impending difficulties, can never be told or comprehended.

This purchase gave us the breadth of the continent from ocean to ocean, the command of its rivers and harbors, the wealth of its mountains, its plains and valleys, a country sweeping from the Gulf to the Lakes and the Lakes to the Sea, in which is being worked out the sublimest problems of human life and of self-government in the interests of the people.

We cannot speak particularly of each State and Territory carved out of the "Louisiana Purchase." A country so vast, extending through so many degrees of latitude and longitude, embracing so many States and Territories, such a variety of climate and natural features, cannot be individualized or grouped together in a single paper.

Each State and Territory has its own individuality, in many respects different from its fellows. The writer has only shown the Genealogical Tree from which these several States and Territories have sprung, and brought together such data as it may be desirable to remember.

Possibly enough has been said to lead up to other fascinating fields of inquiry, where investigation will be rewarded with pleasure and profit.



SOME years since the writer while idling in a London hotel reading-room casually picked up a copy of the St. James's Gazette of the day, and in glancing over the pages, his attention was arrested by a letter purporting to be written by Clara Vere de Vere to her niece, who (as it appeared by the context) had repeatedly importuned her aunt to give her the true version of the tragic incident of the suicide of "young Laurence," so unsparingly denounced by the poet as being the direct result of this haughty lady's unfeeling coquetry in her youthful days. The letter was a most admirable and artistic piece of literary work; assuming and maintaining a verisimilitude of reality in all of its details, and reproducing in a very life-like way the characteristics of the famous "Lady Clara Vere de Vere," as stamped upon her portraiture for all time in the poet's scathing lines. There were the same patrician calmness and impassivity in the tone of the reply which she made to her young correspondent's inquiries that might be expected, but along with this, and in place of the lofty superciliousness with which she might be supposed to treat the subject, the easy dignity and apparent sincerity with which she met and repelled the early poetic scandal attached to her name were a surprise to the reader. In effect (as it is now recalled) her version was that the "young person" referred to by the poet was no other than the son of the head-gardener (or perhaps game-keeper) of the family estate, whom she knew merely as such, and was scarcely aware of his existence at all until some circumstances connected with his untimely death (entirely dissociated from herself in their origin) brought him to her notice, when she rendered some kindly service to the mother of the young man, for which instead of the "bitter word" which the poet alleges he "heard" the mother speak, she received appropriate thanks, and was regarded somewhat as a benefactress. I am not able from memory to do any justice either to the substance or style of the very cleverly

conceived disclaimer made by the "Lady Clara" of any personal responsibility for or concern in this famous poetic tragedy; but it was so very good in its way that it made something more than a passing impression as a literary trifle; so much so that it led to a careful re-reading of "Lady Clara's" letter with a view to get from it a more distinct impression of the suggestion it contained of some new fact underlying this episode which was made to appear like a bit of genuine biography. This closer reading led to the imagined discovery, under the calm and high-bred mixture of frankness and reserve with which the "Lady Clara" brushed aside an unfounded poetic slander, of an unmistakable undertone of regretful reminiscence in which she was concerned, and in which some one else than "young Laurence" was concerned with her, namely, the poet himself. This suggestion, combined with the significant dating of the letter from "The Towers," indicating that she had never changed her residence from the time when she was scornfully left to "pine among your halls and towers," and the signature of her maiden name of Clara Vere de Vere, pointed to the possibility of there being quite another side to this story which has never been told. This new view of the matter was followed by a kind of idler's revery of trying to imagine what kind of a reply certain other ladies, whose names have become almost household words through the medium of the same poet, would make to similar inquiries about the reputed escapades in which they are made to figure in the earlier Tennysonian verses. Of these, the first to occur to mind was "Cousin Amy," almost or quite a contemporary of "Lady Clara Vere de Vere" in her poetic advent upon the scene, where she is first made the subject of ecstatically amatory followed by bitterly cynical verses in "Locksley Hall." Then came "Maud" of the Garden and the dark tragedy so despairingly bewailed. Again, memory recalled the lighter and rather grimly amusing escapade of "little Letty" by the "Lake"each and all bearing the common impress of a "course of true love that did not run smooth," and each by incidents and catastrophe suggesting one and the same severe heart-break, with a never-ending heart-ache venting itself in different moods. Without attempting to invent any such clever correspondence

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