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From The Academy , superintend the new one, the chief labour

THE UANSEATIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY, j befng entrusted to two youn- scholars, In \Yliit im-v.r,'!, 1871, a new historical natives of Livonia, and pupil i of Professor society was founded at Lu'bcck, for the pur- j Waitz, of Gbttingen, l'i . Ilolilbautn and pose of combining once more nil those , von der Ropp. The most important matecities which, in former ages, had been mem-, rials for this collection are extant in the bers of the German ILinsa. According to j archives of Prussia proper and the Gera resolution passed at the time, invitations j man provinces of Russia. The second to join this purely literary resurrection of I work, which also will soon be begun, is a

the famous old league were sent to no less than ninety-two towns, maritime and inland, and including those which long since have been separated from the body politic of Germany — the cities of Livonia and Esthonia, as well as of Holland. At the annual meeting which took place at Lii

colleution of such documents, charters, despatches, and letters, as have a moru general bearing upon the history and administration of the Hanseatic League, and which for this reason cannot be printed in the more local collections issued by the special historical societies of Liibeck. Hamburg.

beck on the 21st aud 22nd of M vy last, a Bremen, Brunswick, StraUuml, Cologne, very interesting report was brought up by j&c. A third undertaking was unanimously

the council. It states that thirty-eight of the cities have not only answered in the affirmative, but are willing to contribute, according to their means, an annual share to support the publications of the society. Considerable sums indeed will be forthcoining from Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck, from Cologne and Berlin, and from the principal towns of the Baltic and of Westphnlia. Amsterdam, Harderwijk, Venloo, Deventer, Campen, Arnheim, and even diminutive Bolsward and Zutphen, have joined the new fraternity with sums in proportion to their respective importance. Eleven ot :er places have expressed their thanks, and added their regret that they were not able to join in the same way; whilst the remaining forty-two have, up to thought it worth while to Besides this civic membership, there U another individual one, which, since last years meeting, has risen from ninety to about 120, a gathering of friends' and students of mediaeval history, government and city officials, keepers of record offices, professors of universities and highpchools, merchants, lawyers, artists, &c. An annual payment of two thalers will secure to each member a copy of the journal, the first annual number of which is to contain this year's report, and several important contributions to the history and the laws of the Hansa Confederation. During the meeting itself, a circumstantial account was communicated respecting the

this time, not answer at all.

adopted by the lato gathering, viz., an edition of the oldest version or versions of the ancient Liibeck code of laws, to which public attention has been directed by an excellent paper of Professor Frcnsdorff, of Gb'ttingcn. Dr. Wehrmann, the principal archivut at Ltibeck, then communicated to the society his researches on the origin of the ancient patrician families of that city, and their relations with and difference from the families of the nobility and gentry. Professor Mantels followed with a description of the ways and means by which th« old Liibeck traders fetched relics of the saints from England (Canterbury) and from Venice, and Professor Pauli, of Gottingcn, discussed the early use and the value of the word " Hansa" in English documents of the twelfth and thirteenth* centuries. A visit was also madu to the old archives, still kept in a lofty c'lapel of St. Mary's Church, called the "Threse" (Thesauraria), and the magnificent charters granted by the Kings of Engl.-nd to Hansa merchants, beginning with Henry III., besides many other documents referring to the Steelyard in London, were displayed and commented upon from various sides. It is not unlikely that our own Public Record Office and the Guildhall Records will soon be visited again by some collaborators of the new society, as the early share which the government and the commerce of England took in the propagation of the j Hansa has not yet been adequately eluci

two chief works which have been taken in I dated. A proper selection for publication hand by the society. The first is to be an j amongst the great masses of documents edition of the so-called Recesses, i.e., the i bearing on the subject can never be made transactions of the old Hanseatic parlia- : without repeated researches in the stores niciiis, beginning with 1431, as the earlier of such incomparable collections. The next ones down to that year are already in ' annual gathering of the Han^eatic Historicourse of publication under the direc- cal Society will be held at Brunswick, in

tion of the Munich Historical Commission. The editor of this first series will likewise

Whitsun-week 1873.

No. 1469.—August 3, 1872.

CONTENTS.

1. Thi Middle Ages And The Revival or LkMinimi, Macmillan'i Magazine, . . 269

2. Christina North. Part IIL Macmillan's Magazine, . . 270

8. Old Maids, . Slackwood't Magazine, . . 286

4. The Maid or Skeb. Part XXIIL, . . . Blackwood't Magazine, . . 297

6. Ci v vi u Fishes, Fraser'i Magazine, . . . 309

6. Tub Intellect or Old Ao«, .... Spectator 816

7. M. Triers Ami The German Treaty, . . Spectator, ..... 318

8. Thi Succession To The Turkish Throne, . . Pall Mall Gazette, . . 820

POETRY.

Ora Own Fmr Km,, . . . 258! From Thi Chinbi 296

Thi Oooo Shephebd, . . . 2581

Miscellany 296, 820

PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY BY

LITTELL & QAY, BOSTON

TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION.

Fob Kiiht Dollabr, remitted directly to the PublMeri, the Livixo Ao« will be punctually Torwarded for a year, free of pottage. But we do not prepay postage on le»» than a year, nor when we have to par commission for lorwardlng the money; nor when we club The Liriso Aoc with another periodical.

An extra copy of The Lmiro Aob la Dent gratia to any on? getting up a club of Ftro New Subscribers

Kemlttancea should be made by bank draft or cheek, or by pott-office money-order. If possible. If

neither of these can be procured, the money should be Ben: In a registered letter. All pogtmasten are

obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafta, checks and money-orders should be made

payable to the order of Littell & Gay.

OUR OWN FIRE-END.

When the frost is on the gran',

Keep your ain fire-end,
For the warmth o' summer's sun

Has our ain fire-end;
When there's dubs ye mig'nt be lair'd in,
Or snnw-wreatlis ye could be smoor'd in,
The best flower in the garden

Id our ain fire-end.

Ton and father are sib twa,

Bonn* our ain fire-end;
He mak's rabbits on the wa',

At oar ain fire-end.
Then sic fun as they are mumping.
When to touch them ye gae stumping,
They're set on your tap a-juinping,

At our ain fire-end.

Sic a bustle as ye keep

At our ain fire-end,
When ye on your whistle wheep,

Round our ain fire-end;
Now, the dog maun get a saddle,
Then a cart's made o' the ladle,
To please ye as ye daidle

Round our ain fire-end.

When your head's laid on my lap,

At our ain fire-«nd,
Taking childhood's dreamless nap,

At our ain fire-end;
Then frae lug to lag I kiss ye,
An' wi' heart o'erflowing bless ye,
And a* that's gude I wish ye,

At our ain fire-end.

When ye're far, far frae the blink

0' our ain fire-end,
Fa' monie a time ye'll think

On our ain fire-end;
On a' your gamesome ploys,
On your whistle and your toys.
And ye'll think ye hear the noise

0' our ain I'liv-uinl.

\V i Luam Mllleb.

THE GOOD SHEPHERD.

•' They know not the voice of strangers."

We wandered far on bleak and barren hill,

Through death's dark valley took our

dreary way.

Found no green pasture, drank no freshening rill; Weary our feet through all the sultry day,

And evermore we heard the jackal's cry,
And fierce wolves howling scented out their

prey:
And many forms of death were ever nigh,

But He, the one true Shepherd of the sheep. Came down in pity from the mountain high, To seek the lost, and faithful watch to keep

O'er those that sought the shelter of the

fold, True guardian still, though other shepherds

sleep:
So own we Thee, 0 Lord, yet overbold

We leave the quiet stream and grassy mead
And take our course, in stormy day and

cold.

Through tangled brake and maze of rotting reed; Ah! would that we no other voice might

hear

Than His who stands as priest to intercede, To Thee, Our Shepherd, still abiding near, And as Thou leadest, going out and in; So should we dwell secure from each dark

fear,

Nor crop the poisoned flowers of pleasant sin, Nor heed the stranger when he fain would

lure, And with feigned words and wandering

fancies win;

But meadows green, and waters clear and pure, These should be ours from youth to ripened

age.

And clinging love would fail not to endure, But follow Thee through all its pilgrimage.

And we too are as shepherds; each must

care For souls around him, each his warfare

wage,

For sheep that wander, brave the chill night air, Against the robbers fight with fearless heart, And to the fold the lost one gently bear; Ah! be it ours to shun the hireling's part;

True shepherds whom the porter's voice

will own, To guard with Bubtle trath, and guileless

art,

To the great Shepherd like in look and tone. Still working bravely while our watch we

keep, Till we shall stand with palms around the

throne:

And then we too shall know the other sheep, Not of this fold, which He will one day

bring,

O'er moorland wild, bleak heath, and mountain steep. And when the world's lavt suns their shadows

fling,

One flock, one Shepherd in the eternal fold,
Shall own their God, their Father, and their

King.
Sunday Magazine. E. H. Plcmptbe.

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PART I.

Towards the close of the fifth century of our era the Roman Empire of the West formally came to an end by the resignation of the puppet-monarch who, by a strange irony of fate, bore the name of Romulus.

A certain number, or rather an uncertain number, of centuries which followed, are known in history as "the Middle Ages." Such designations, necessary though they be, are apt to be misleading unless we bear in mind that they are merely conventional terms, adopted for the convenience of the historian, who must mark out his portion of the boundless field, and fix somewhere his point of departure and his goal. But in using them, we must remember that there are, in fact, no breaks in the long chain of cause and effect; no pauses in the activity of man, any more than in that of nature; no cataclysm and re-creation, but endless evolution ; old forms decaying and new forms growing, in obedience to laws which the faith of Science holds to be eternal and immutable, like their Divine Author, even though the complexity of the phenomena may baffle her efforts to classify them and refer them to their causes. The hidden forces which wrought during the Middle Ages, silently and gradually changing the life, the language, and re ligion of the nations of Western Europe, had been as actively at work for centuries before, undermining and corrupting the whole system, political, social, and religious, of Imperial Rome: and the fall of the last Augustus was an event only important as furnishing a convenient epoch for the conclusion or the beginning of the historian's survey. It is not so easy to agree upon an epoch at which the Middle Ages may be supposed to cease. It may be convenient, with some writers, to fix upon the year 1100, which baa tlie advantage of being a round number, and therefore easily remembered. If we want a date which has a more serious justification, we must first inquire what great event,

• Two Lecture* delivered before the Edinburgh Literary and Philosophical Institution.

Or events, had the moat influence in turn

new channels, and in remoulding their so

, . _ » • » i i • /» />

cial and political life after a new pattern. Shall we say the revival of classical literature and art? or the growth of a national literature among the several nations of the West? or the destruction of feudalism? or the change in warfare brought about by the use of artillery? or the invention of printing? or the discovery of America? or the Reformation? It is obvious that the historian would choose by preference one or other of these events aa the point of contrary flexure, marking the end of the medieval and the beginning of the modern world, in reference to his own special theme, according as he was writing upon forms of government, or military tactics, or letters, or commerce, or art, or religion. And it is equally clear that our modern life is the product of all these in combination, together with many minor events which escape our notice, and many occult forces which defy our penetration.

Again, the Middle Ages may be said to have terminated at different times in different countries, according to their advancement in the arts of war and peace. For example, the national literature of Italy owes its rise to the Sicilian poets at the court of Frederick II., at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and to Brunetto Latini and the predecessors of Dante at its close, a hundred years before Wicliff and Chaucer created a literature in England. The origin of French and Provencal literature is still earlier than that of Italy, while the latter country unquestionably takes the lead of all in the revival of classical learning and art. Germany claims the invention of printing, but a national German literature can scarcely be said to have existed before the time of Luther. The Reformation, which really reformed England, Scotland, and North Germany, and profoundly affected France, never gained a serious hold on Italy. In England the civilization begun by Chaucer and Wicliff was quenched by cruel persecution and disastrous civil war, so that the historian of mediaeval England could not fitly end his task before the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. The "Canterbury Tales" belong to modern literature, but the Wars of the Roses to the Middle Ages.

On the whole, we cannot say when the Middle Ages ended, but we may use the term as a convenient notation generally intelligible. We know what "spring" and " winter " mean, though we cannot say when the one begins and the other ends. We may fix March 21st as a convenient date, though many a spring-like day may come before, and many a wintry day after. And the snow may lie thick upon the highlands long after the violets and primroses of the valleys have stolen into bloom.

For us the Middle Ages mean specially the period which elapsed between the decline of ancient learning and its revival.

But from this point of view the Middle Ages are commonly called by another mime which is more questionable—"the dark ages." Now this might mean the ages which are dark to us, with respect to which we are in the dark. As a humble confession of ignorance this would be unobjectionable, only we might have to extend the term to other ages. But it is generally used with a feeling of complacent superiority on the part of the scholar towards people who wrote barbarous Latin and could not read Greek, or on the part of the enlightened Protestant towards benighted Papists. I know not who invented the phrase, but the feeling of contempt which prompted it is very conspicuous in the Italian literature of the Renaissance, and in the French and English literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When John Evelyn sees a great cathedral, he condescendingly says that it is "Gothic, but fair." The very word "Gothic," which to us expresses the most beautiful style of architecture, was first applied in contempt. The term "dark ages" is frequently used by Gibbon {e.g. iii. 340), who despised them more for what they knew than for what they did not know, more for their devotion to Christian theology than for their indifference to ancient learning. I believe it was Doctor Johnson who said— "I know nothing of those ages which knew nothing," and thought his ignorance a proof of wisdom. But for the last fifty years or more, a great reaction has been in progress, due to many conflu

ent tendencies of the age, most powerfully helped forward in Britain by tin genius of Walter Scott, but felt in all the nations of Western Europe; and now men are ready to adore what their fathers would willingly have burned. Our architects build houses for us after a mediaeval pattern, "with windows that exclude the light, and passages that lead to nothing," with battlements and loopholes highly suitable for bow and arrow practice against an assailing enemy, but not otherwise useful. And one great writer, in his " Past and Present," contrasts the thirteenth century as an age of manly earnestness and honest sincerity with our nineteenth century as an age of shams, hypocrisies, and make-believes. Let us guard against exaggeration on either side. To affirm that these Middle Ages had no light of reason and conscience for their guide, no culture and no art, is to slander Christianity and natural religion, to ignore the evidence of extant monuments and of history; to say on the other hand that we must look to them as guides and examples, not only in art, but in politics and religion, is to deny the great consoling doctrine of human progress proclaimed by the poet:

"Yet, I doubt not, through the ages one increasing purpose runs.

Anil the thoughts of men are widened by the process of the suns."

Even in the darkest period of the dark ages the light of ancient literature and ancient civilization was never wholly extinguished. Successive hordes of barbarians first wasted and ravaged and held to ransom, then conquered and settled in Italy, France, and Spain, but they ended by learning the language and adopting the manners of the conquered. In Britain, indeed, the Angles and Saxons swept away all trace of Roman culture, but then in all likelihood Britain had never been so completely romanized as France or Spain, and its invaders bore a far larger proportion to the native inhabitants. In Italy, France, and Spain, the conquerors, chiefly of Teutonic origin, like those of Britain, and belonging to a race naturally tenacious of old customs, were forced by their paucity of numbers to learn the language of their

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