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office of a brother in getting it for 500t. If he had not bean brother-in-law, and a descendant of the founder of the Garter, he had not gotten it so low." Nine years after J. Skeffington writes to Walter Wrottesley, March (i, 1641, offering a baronetcy, "the King having given a warrant with liberty to nominate a gentleman whom he or I think fit; gives him the first offer for 300/.; " but six days after Thomas Pudsey writes to tell Walter not to think of the baronetcy. "It is thought those which have been made shall be cauld in question, and nothing shall be done but by Parliament. The King is gone, as we heard, for Yorke, and so for Scotland. Many of the Lords have been with him to intreat him to come to the toune, but all will not do. It is reported that he will not come to the toune until the Queen doth return, and that she hath made him take an noth (oaih) ; but he has taken the prince along with him, which the Parliament are very gorry for it." A month before Pudsey writes :—" Strafford's tryal will be to-morrow senet. It is thought he will not come off well, for the axe or the rope may sarve his turne. The Bishop of Oxford is dead, and our bishop is not well. I think all have quesie stomachs, for they stand upon their good behaviour; for in the House Eome are for bishops and aome for none, and if there be any they are to be allowed a partickelar stipant, so that their pride will be abated. The Prince of Orange's «on is to come over very shortly and marry with our King's eldest daughter; the rightings are drawn all redy." On February llj 1041, Thomas Crompton says: — " On Tuesday, as it is reported, 4000 Kentish men, horse and foot, came thro" London, and went to the Parlt. House. They had all papers in their hatts, but the superscription as yet to us unknown. It is imagined they came on behalf of Sir E. Dering, Knight of the Shire, many being sorry for the censure and imprisonment upon him." On December 10, same year, he says, " The King is pleased with the entertainment in the City. Rewards and honours for the City."

Among the letters of the Dryden family in the possession of Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, (of Canons Ashby, county Northampton), is a letter dated Nov. 26, 1640, from Westminster. Sir John Dryden writes to his uncle, Richard Knightley, that he shall have his prayers, tho' he can not be so serviceable either to him or the country that hath set him (Dryden) in that place of trust. ... "I suppose that the petitions that come from several counties

i will take up some weeks, if not months, 'and then you may suppose what time they will take up in the thorough reformation of the grievances. The great business of j the week has been the raising of the 100,0001. for the maintenance of the King's army and the relief of the northern counties. The money is borrowed some pnrt from the City of London; 50,000/. is offered to be lent by one Mr. Hamson, one of the fermors of the Customs; for so many thousand pounds that shall be lent they are to be secured by bond of some gentlemen of the House until the Act be passed, and then the wentleraen are to have in their bonds. Yesterday the great charge the House of Commons has against the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was delivered to the Lords in the Painted Chamber by Mr. Pirn." About a year and a half after this a demand was made for college plate in support of the monarchical cause. Accordingly we find in Mr. Riley's report on the MSS. of Exeter College, Oxford, several letters and papers relating to this demand. The Rector and Fellows sent a petition to the King that they considered themselves bound to keep their plate. But on being reminded that "the commonwealth of learning" was in danger, "and the colleges themselves not likely to outlive his Majesty, if he shall be destroyed in this rebellion," they submitted. The following receipt was forwarded them: "Received of the Rector and Fellowes of ye Colledge of Exeter, in Oxford, in plate for his Majesty's service, by them presented as followeth: in white 2081b. 4oz. 8dwt.; for guilt plate 381b. Ooz. 3dwt.; total, 2461b. 5oz. Idwt. (Signed) Wm. Parkhurst, Thos. Bushell." The college had already given the King 300/. in the previous year. The Rector informed Mr. Riley that of the ancient college plate, a silver saltcellar and an ostrich egg, set in silver gilt, are the only articles which survived I the requisition. From an Inventory Book of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, for 1610, it seems that Fellows entered their rooms partly furnished by the college. "In three cloister chamber, now Mr. Gorseltou's. Imprimis, a fayre standing bedsted, with carved vallance, and a testerne waynscotted and a truckle-bed under it, with mats and cords to both." The latter was for the scholar, as, according to the original statutes, the scholars slept in a \ bed placed below the Fellows."

Sir George Osborn, Bart, of Chicksands, ! Beds, has a most interesting collection of i letters and papers relating to the defence 1 of Castle Cornet, in Guernsey, during the civil wnr, for the King. Some of these have been printed in a work published at Guernsey in 1831. Pacjes 158 to 105 of the Report are occupied with a description of a very curious journal of events during the same unhappy period. It is entitled Journal ft Ilcrueil des chases le.t plus remarquable.s en I'Ve de Jff'y, arrice'es pendant lea Guerres civile* sous Us reynes des rois Charles Premier el Charles Second. Par Jean Chevalier, vinytenier de la ville de St.Helier. It commences in 1043, and contains a good deal of information respecting the ra^idence of Charles Pririce of Wales and others in Jersey. The prince arrived in April 1010, having been obliged to quit Pendennis, though ho had been invited " in a loving and tender way to repair to the Parliament's quarters," which invitation, it is needless to say, was declined without thanks. His retinue consisted of about three hundred persons, of which a full account is given in the Journal. The prince was extremely affable, and soon became very popular; he was then about sixteen years of age. The loyal Sir George Carteret had his patent of knighthood confirmed, and was afterwards created a baronet, with as much ceremony as their affairs would allow. Now and then his highness dined in state, persons being admitted to gaze upon him, and the display of gold and silver plate seems to have astonished the worthy chevalier. An elegantly appointed pinnace was sent from St. Malo, in which the prince cruised about the bay. The prince left in June for France. The news of the King's death on January 30, 1049, reached Jersey on the 9th of February. In a few days the report was confirmed, and we are told " the public announcement was made, and caused consternation throughout the inland. The loyal portion of the community expressed the deepest grief, and the malcontents were too much astounded to take advantage of the circumstance." The prince, now king, came over on the 17th of September, and took up his residence, as before, in Castle Elizabeth. He conciliated all by the grace of his manners; and of the review of the insular array, 5000 in number, Chevalier says: "Et comme le roi passait devant les soldats Us levaient leurs chapeaux en haut, criant 'Vive le roi 1 — sauve le roi 1 — Dieu le mette sur son trdne I' Tellement aussi des cris de joie etaient faits par le peuple comme sa Majeste" passait devant eux.'' Charles remained here five months, the brilliant Duke of Buckingham being sent by the Queenmother to hasten his departure.

The MS. volume, Sir Edward Sou'.hcote'i Memoirs, in the library of the monastery of the Dominican Friars at Woodchester, near Stroud, contains details of the adventures of Sir Edward's father, Sir John, at the eventful period of the civil war. From Mr. Stevenson's Report we make an extract or two: —

The first adventure in which Sir John was engaged was while serving in a corps de reserve. The enemy (the Parliamentary array) observing this body of nearly 1,033 horse, fired at them with cannon, which killed several of their men and horses He fouud it very unpleasant to stand still in cold blood to be thus »!iot at in sight of the two armies, which were now closely engaged; but this was their fate for nearly an hour. By that time the King's army had forced its way through the enemy and " nailed up" the cannon. As Oliver's troops were beginning to give way the reserves were called up to pursue. This was the first occasion upon which Sir John >rri.l<' use of his little battle-axe, a weapon carried by all the King's troops. It hung to the wrist by a ribbon, and did not hinder the use of pistol or sword. It was a " dead doing thing," and, like the mason's " laithing hammer," had a sharp little axe on one side and a hammer on the other. It was a new invention. . . . The army being at no great distance from Perry Hall, our hero went thither to see his brother and sister Stanford. He roie up the staircase, and did not dismount till he reached the tablt where they were sitting at supper. They were much pleased with bis frolic, and glad to see him. ... At Newbury he was in the main body of the army, and took prisoner Captain Hall, who commanded what was culled Oliver's own troop, whom he carried first to Newbury, and next (when news came that thn King's army had been defeated) to Reading. Eight or ten days afterwards Southcoto accepted as Hall's ransom a fine managed horse, a suit of armour, a diamond ring, and a promise to the effect that if he in his turn were made prisoner he should immediately be released without exchange. For this Sir John was made a knight. After the siege of Oxford " he was exceeJingly anxious to enter the service of Prince Rupert, who was the greatest beau as well as the greatest hero in the royal army. His mode of fighting was to charge right through the enemy and then to fall upon their rear, slaughtering them with scarcely any opposition. Oue very cold morning he took a very fine laced handkerchief out of his pooket and tied it about his neck; hence originated the habit of wearing lace'l cravats. In all his attacks he was successful. A little black dog always followed him into the field, which the Roundheads fancied was the devil, and took it very ill that he would set himself against them." In the fatal battle of Noseby the Prince forced his way through the body of horse that opposed him and " nailed up " their cannon, but, meanwhile, the main body of the rebels' horse broke in upon the foot of the King's army and made • fearful carnape, leaving upwards of 20,000 dead, wounded and prisoners. The writer of the letter afterwards visited the ground and was shown the windmill in which the King got to see the battle, and the hawthorn bush where Oliver placed himself for the like purpose.

In the same volume is a curious account of the living of the writer's grandfather at Standon: —

Walter Lord Aston, grandfather to the present lord, married the Lady Mar; Wcston. His father was many years ambassador in Spain. The estate of Standon coming to him through his wife, a descendant of the great Sir Ralph S,vller, he removed thither and there began his magnificent way of living; he had 101 persons in his family. The writer resided there for three or four months every summer, from the time he was six until about his fourteenth year The table was served with three courses, carih | of twenty ilishes; and these were brought up by j twenty men, who stamped up the great stair like thunder at every course. My lord had four servants behind his own chair. He was very curious in his wine; but first of all drank at one draught a whole quart cither of malt drink or wine and water, as a remedy for stone and gravel. At all the inns he lodged at in travelling they kept a quart glass called my lord Astoo's glass. Sir .Edward Southcote saw one at the Altar Stone at Banbury not many years ago. The servants all dined together in the hall, and what was left was thrown together into a tub, which two men took on their shoulders to the court gate, where every day forty or fifty poor people were served with it. When my lord did not go hawking in the afternoon, he always played at ombre with his two sons for an hour, and at four o'clock returned to a covered seat in his vineyard. There he sat alone, and none durst approach him. At five o'clock his chariot, with a pair of his six grey Flanders mares (the chariot was made so narrow that none could sit by him) took him " a trole" about the park for five or six miles. He returned at seven, and by eight would be in bed. He always lay in bed without pillow, bolster, or night-cap. Winter tod cummer he rose at four, and entertained himself with books till it was time to go a-huntiog or hawking at wild ducks. He would never allow any but hunted venison at his table. Every day but Sunday one buck was killed at the least, but most commonly a brace. He never made or returned any visit, the oourt and address of that county being nude to him.

There are thirteen letters by Charles I. in the muniments of the Duke of Montrose at Buchanan Castle; but as these are of no particular interest, we pass on to note those addressed to James Marquis of Montrose, by Queen Henrietta Maria, and Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia sister of Charles I. One letter from Henrietta Maria will suffice as a specimen of the

LIVING AGK. VOL. XXVI. 1201

rest, translated from the French by Mr. Fraser: —

Paris, 10th March, 1649.

Having received his letter by Pooley, and seen by it the assurances of the continuance of the Marquess's affection for the service of the King, her son, as he had always shown for that of the late King, her husb.inil, whose murder ought to arouse in all his servants the passion of seeking all means to avenge a death so abominable, she doubted not that he would be well pleased to find opportunities, and that for that effect he would do all that lay in his power, and conjured him to unite with all those of his nation who regarded that death with just indignation, and to forget all past differences.

Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the Queen of Hearts, was the eldest daughter of James I., and married, in 1613, Frederiok, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia. Of ten letters we select this : —

The Hagh, 9th December, 1619. Had received the Marquis's of the 4th of November this last week, and the next day, by Sir William Fleming, one from the King of the same date from Jersey; who assured her he was not changed in his affections nor his design, which he would show to the world very suddenly. Robert le Diable (her son Prince Rupert) is about Sillie with seven good ships. She doubted not but the Marquis had seen by that time the proclamation against Morton and Kinnoull, and all the adherents of " that detestable bloodie murderer and excommunicated traitour, James Qream." The Turks never called the Christians so. In a P.S. the Queen adds " Uulde Bramford says he is now too oulde to be a knave, having been honest ever."

We observe from another part of the Report that Sir C. Cottrell was steward of the household to the Queen of Bohemia, and Mr Cottrell-Dormer (of Rousham, near Oxford) possesses many interesting letters and papers relating to the residence of the royal family abroad.

A very interesting collection of letters and papers relating to the Cromwell family is in the possession of Mrs. Prescott (nee Cromwell Russell) of Oxford Square. This lady is a lineal descendant of the Protector, and possesses two swords used by him, a hat worn when he dissolved the Long Parliament, a beautiful cabinet of Florentine mosaic, presented to him by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and a medicine cabinet of black wood with silver cups. Among the letters we note one, dated June 15, 1655 : —" Order to Mr. Waterhouse to pay Mr. Robert Walker 242. for a draught of his Highnesses picture (Signed, Simon Cannon), and the receipt below, signed by H. Walker." 1658, in which representatives of the Ormonde line were engaged from the twelfth to the fifteenth century."

Important sixteenth century MSS., mentioned in the Report, are contained in Lord Calthorpe's collection. These are known as the zelverton MSS., formed by Robert Beale, Clerk of the Council to Queen Elizabeth, and many important papers relating to Mary Queen of Scots are contained in them. Documents relating to the same century are in the collections of Messrs. Bromley Davenport and Cottrell Dormer. A MS. found by Mr. W. H. Turner, of Turl Street, Oxford, now in the Bodleian, is an exceedingly interesting illustration of the usages of the period. It is an inventory, circa 1551, of the effects of John, Viscount Lisle, and Earl of Warwick, afterwards Duke of Northumberland, beheaded in 1553. The destination of all the articles is given; and it will surprise many to learn that the old coats were chiefly given to his sons, the old shirts were cut up to make handkerchiefs for his lordship; articles lost or stolen when staying at different houses are duly recorded; and it is quite evident that economy was by no means unstudied in this nobleman's establishment. A number of entries in the MSS. of the Corporation of Abingdon relate to payments made to players. We transcribe a few of these. "1551. Item. Geven in reward to my Lord of Wostars (Worcester's) players vis. xd. Item, geven in reward to therle of Darbes players vs. 1580. Item, paid to my Lord of Shrosbures playars vis. 1579. Item, geven in reward to the Lord Barcleys playars, at the commandment of Mr. Mayot, mayor, and by the hands of Mr. Leonell Bostock vs. Item, geven the tomblars that plad befor Mr. Mayor and his company in reward iiis. ixd. Item, paid to therle of Baths playars in reward vs." There are many entries of this nature, showing that the worshipful mayor and corporation of the borough were not above witnessing such dramatic representations.

We now select and arrange in chronological order the most interesting documents in the Report, relating to the great events of the seventeenth century, so as to form a series of neW illustrations of the history and manners of a most eventful period.

The Camden Society are to be congratulated in having just published a selection from the valuable MSS. of the Hon. G. M. j Fortescue, of Dropmore. The collection seems to have been made by John Packer,-1 Secretary to the Duke of Buckingham,

and contains letters from Buckingham, Secretaries Lake, Calvert, Naunton, and Conway, the Earls of Suffolk, Middlesex, and Nottingham ; and last, not least, letters from James I. and his daughter Elizabeth of Bohemia. More than five hundred of these letters are catalogued in the Report. Mr. Fitzmaurice points out that the most interesting is James's letter to the Commissioners for the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh. The king tells them he has read their letter, and objects to both the courses which they propose. A narrative of his proceedings not sufficient, and a public calling of him before the Council will make him too popular, and will be too much honour for him. He recommended that lie should be called before those who have hitherto examined him, and charged, and after the sentence for his execution a declaration can be issued 1

In the collection of Mr. Ormsby-Gore (of Brogyntyn, Salop) there is a vellum roll thirty feet long, showing "the funerall proceeding of Queen Anne from Denmark House in the Stronde to Westminster Abbey the 27 daie of May 1619," giving the order of the procession with banners, Sec, beautifully coloured. Among the letters of this period in this collection is a copy, circa 1621, of one from James I. to Secretary Calvert, reproving the Commons about their assertion of their privileges. They said it was their inheritance, the monarch that it was by the grace and permission of his ancestors. Here we have the high regal ideas of the Stuarts which occasioned the downfall of their house.

Mr. Fitzmaurice states that since the publication of the First Report, the immense collection of Mr. Harvey, of Ickwell Bury, Beds, of printed pamphlets, broadsides, &c., relating to the political history of the seventeenth century, has been catalogued. He says, " It is probably as complete a collection as any can be of the publications of that time relating to the current events of the day, and it is luckily also in an admirable state of preservation."

Passing on to the reign of Charles I. we find in the report of Lord Wrottesley's MSS. an evidence that Charles was not much better than his father in the sale of dignities: " London, near Essex Gate. 1632. Sir William Devereux to Sir Hugh Wrottesley. Understands that somebody had possessed him that Sir Thomas Blother, of the Privy Chamber, offered him to be a baronet for 300/., and that the King would make many for 200/. or 300/.; that the Kin £ was reserved; one offered 800/., and could not get it. Thought he had performed the office of a brother in getting it for 500'. If be had not been brother-in-law, and a descendant of the founder of the Garter, he had not gotten it so low." Nine years after J. Skeffington writes to Walter Wrottesley. March 0, 1011, offering a baronetcy, "the King having given a warrant with liberty to nominate a gentleman whom he or I think fit; gives him the first offer for 300/.; " but six days after Thomas Pudsey writes to tell Walter not to think of the baronetcy. "It is thought those which have been made shall be cauld in question, and nothing shall be done but by Parliament. The King is gone, as we heard, for Yorke, and so for Scotland. Many of the Lords have been with him to intreat him to come to the toune, but all will not do. It is reported that he will not come to the toune until the Queen doth return, and that sho hath made him take an noth (oath) ; but he has taken the prince along with him, which the Parliament are very •ony for it." A month before Pudsey writes:—"Stratford's tryal will be to-morrow genet. It is thought he will not come off well, for the axe or the rope may sarve his turne. The Bishop of Oxford is dead, aad our bishop is not well. I think all have quesie stomachs, for they stand upon their good behaviour; for in the House some are for bishops and some for none, and if there be any they are to be allowed a partickelar etipant, so that their pride will be abated. The Prince of Orange's Sod is to come over very shortly and marry with our King's eldest daughter; the rightiiigs are drawn all redy." On February 11.1041, Thomas Crompton says: — " On Tuesday, as it is reported, 4000 Kentish men, horse and foot, came thro' London, and vent to the Parlt. House. Tiny had all papers in their hatts, but the superscription as yet to us unknown. It is imagined they came on behalf of Sir E. Dering. Knight of the Shire, many being sorry for the censure and imprisonment upon him." On December 10, same year, he *ay«, uThe King is pleased with the entertainment in the City. Rewards and honours for the City."

Among the letters of the Dryden family in the possession of Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, (of Canons Ashby, county Northampton), is a letter dated Nov. 20, 1040, from Westminster. Sir John Dryden writes to his uncle, Richard Knightley, that he shall have his prayers, tho' he can sot he to serviceable either to him or the eoantry that hath set him (Dryden) in that place of trust. ... "I suppose that the petitions that come from several counties

will take up some weeks, if not months, and then you may suppose what time they will take up in the thorough reformation of the grievances. The great business of the week has been the raising of the 100,000/. for the maintenance of the King's army and the relief of the northern counties. The money is borrowed some part from the City of London; 50,000/. is offered to be lent by one Mr. Harrison, one of the fermors of the Customs; for so many thousand pounds that shall be lent they are to be secured by bond of some gentlemen of the House until the Act be passed, and then the gentlemen are to have in their bonds. Yesterday the great charge the House of Commons has against the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was delivered to the Lords in the Painted Chamber by Mr. Pirn." About a year and a half after this a demand was made for college plate in support of the monarchical cause. Accordingly we find in Mr. Riley's report on the MSS. of Exeter College, Oxford, several letters and papers relating to this demand. The Rector and Fellows sent a petition to the King that they considered themselves bound to keep their plate. But on beiug reminded that "the commonwealth of learning" was in danger, "and the colleges themselves not likely to outlive his Majesty, if he shall be destroyed in this rebellion," they submitted. The following receipt was forwarded them: "Received of the Rector and Fellowes of ye Colledge of Exeter, in Oxford, in plate for his Majesty's service, by them presented as followeth: in white 2081b. 4oz. 8dwt.; for guilt plate 381b. Ooz. 3d\vt.; total, 2401b. 5oz. ldwt. (Signed) Wm. Parkhurst, Thos. Bushell." The college had already given the King 300/. iu the previous year. The Rector informed Mr. Riley that of the ancient college plate, a silver saltcellar and an ostrich egg, set in silver gilt, are the only articles which survived the requisition. From an Inventory Book of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, for 1010, it seems that Fellows entered their rooms partly furnished by the college. "In three cloister chamber, now Mr. Gorselton's. Imprimis, a fayre standing bedsted, with carved vallance, and a testerne waynscotted and a truckle-bed under it, with mats and cords to both." The latter was for the scholar, as, according to the original statutes, the scholars slept in a bed placed below the Fellows."

Sir George Osborn, Bart, of Chicksands, Beds, has a most interesting collection of letters and papers relating to the defence of Castle Cornet, in Guernsey, during the

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