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caster is eleven miles; from Lancaster to Burton is eleven miles; from Burton to Kenrlnl is eleven miles. Now Burton is in Westmoreland; and once within her own county, Bell knew she was at home.
"Twas a perilous sort of day in which to approach the region of the Northern Lakes. In the best of weather, the great mass of mountains that stand on the margin of the sea ready to condense any moist vapours that may float in from the west and south, play sudden tricks sometimes and drown the holiday makers whom the sun had drawn out of the cottages, houses, and hotels up in the deep valleys. But here there were abundant clouds racing and chasing each other like the folks who sped over Cannobie Lea to overtake the bride of young Lochiavar; and now and again the wind wonld drive down on us the flying fringes of one of these masses of vapour producing a temporary fear. Bell cared least for these premonitions. She would not even cover herself with a cloak. Many a time we could see raindrops glimmering in her brown hair and dripping from the flowers that she had again twisted in the folds; but she sat erect and glad, with a fine colour in her face that the wet breeze only heightened. When we got up to Slyne and Bolton-le-Sands, and came in sight of the long sweep of Morecambe Bay, she paid no attention to the fact that all along; the far margin of the sea the clouds had melted into a white belt of rain. It was enough for her that the sun was out there, too; sometimes striking with a pale silvery light on the plain of the sea, sometimes throwing a stronger colour on the long curve of level sand. A wetter or windier sight never met the view of an apprehensive traveller than th.it great stretch of sea and sky. The glimmer of the sun only made the moisture in the air more apparent as the grey clouds were sent flying up from the south west. We couid not tell whether the sea was breaking white or not; but the fierce blowing of the wind was apparent in Vie hurrying trails of cloud and the rapidly shifting shafts of sunlight that now and again shot down on the sands.
"Bell," said Tita, with a little anxiety, "you used to pride your.-elf on being able to forecast the weather, when you lived up. among the hills. Don't you think we shall have a wet afternoon? — and we have nearly twenty miles to go yet."
The girl laughed.
"Mademoiselle acknowledges we shall •hare a little rain," said the Lieutenant, with a grim smile. If Bell was good at
studying the appearances of the sky, he had acquired some skill in reading the language of her eloquent face.
"Why," says one of the party, "a deaf man down in a coal-pit could tell what sort of an afternoon we shall have. The iwind is driving the clouds up. Ti.e bills I are stopping them on the way. When we 'enter Westmoreland we shall find the ! whole forces of the rain-fiends drawn oat | in array against us. But that is nothing ;to Bell, so long as we enter Westmoreland."
"Ah, you shall see," remarks Bell: "we may have a little rain this evening."
"Yes, that is very likely," said the Lieutenant, who seemed greatly tickled by this frank admission.
"But to-morrow, if this strong wind keeps up all night, would you be astonished to find Kendal with its stone houses all shining white in the sun?" "Yes. I should be astonished." "You must not provoke the prophetess," says my Lady, who is rather nervous about rainy weather," or she will turn round on you, and predict all sorts of evil."
From Tli" Pall Mall Gazette. THE MUSSULMAN IN CHINA.
The arrival of the Burmese Embassy has so completely overshadowed the less numerous but far more interesting mission of the Panthays from Yunnan in Southwestern China that few probably are aware of the presence of these strangers among us. There has been little or no heralding of their approach, and so the arrival of three respectably but not ostentatiously dressed Chinamen at the Charing cross Hotel has been allowed to pass unnoticed. Possibly the separation of all commercial objects from the aims of this mission has consigned it to neglect, but to those who have watc'ied the Mahommednn revival in Asia the presence of these envoys from the Court of a man who has carved for himself a Mussulman! Empire out of the possessions of the Son of Heaven will naturally excite a lively interest. The existence of the large Muhoramedan population in the province of Yunnan is variously accounted for by themselves. By some it is said that they are the descendants of Arab merchants who visited Canton by sea, and who afterwards made their way northwards to Ningno and Shanerhae, and then westward to Nanking and Yunnan. But the most probable explanation of their presence in this out-of-the-way corner of the empire is, that during the Tang dynasty their ancestors formed part of a Mahommedan army sent to .-i • i -i the Emperor Satsung against a powerful rebel force, and these auxiliaries, when peace was restored, became Bo unmanageable that, in accordance with a common practice of Chinese Governments, they were banished to the province of Yunnan. Beyond occasional edicts as to the mode of treatment to be adopted towards them, little is to be gathered from Chinese annals of the subsequent career of these colonists. It seems to have been the wise determination of each successive Emperor to leave them unmolested in the practice of their religion and the observance of their social rites, until at an unfortunate moment the late Emperor conceived the idea of exterminating them altogether. A quarrel between the Panthay workmen and the Chinese officials at the mouth of a silver mine supplied the spark which set the smouldering passions of the Panthays in a blaze. As one man they rose against their oppressors, the Chinese mandarins, and massacred them without mercy. The disorderly Mussulman mobs were soon formed iuto organized forces, and Suleiman, the present ruler of the kingdom of Tali, placed himself at their head. In a short time the greater part of the province of Yunnan fell into his hands, and has since remained to all intents and purposes an independent State. A complete system of government has been instituted within its limits, and laws in accordance wit'.i the •pirit of the Koran have been promulgated. Prince Hassam, the envoy now in London, is the son of the Sultan Suleiman, and has taken an active part in consolidating his father's power, and in organizing a concerted movement in his favour throughout the north and west of China. With this latter object he lately made a tour through the northern part of the Empire, visiting all the large towns and Bounding the opinions and political inclinations of the Mahommedan populations scattered far and wide. The Peking officials will probably be surprised to hear that he was for some time lodged in the capital, engaged in spying out the land and in forming a party favourable to his father's cause; ami if the Burmese police had exercised a litt'.e more vigilance in examining the luggage of the three commercial-looking Chinamen who lately travelled overland from Yunnan to Ava, and from thence down the Irrawaddy to Rangoon, they would have discovered in
the boxes of the youngest of the three hU credentials as envoy of their obnoxious neighbour. It speaks well for the power 'of the Sultan Suleiman that, though exposed to constant attack by the Chinese | and to open hostility on the part of Burm.-iii, he has yet been able to maintain his position for sixteen years. But as during that period he has been absolutely depend; ent on his own resources, it is only natural I that the necessity of further action should | have presented itself to him. Nor has he been idle. His newly formed kingdom of Tali is rather larger in extent than England and Wales put together, and in the I neighbouring provinces of Kwei-chow, ! Sze-chuen, and Kansuh ore considerable I tracts of country over which the Peking j Government has long ceased to exercise control. A complete system of communii cation has been established between these ! various Mauommedan bodies, and thus has been secured combined action for the attainment of the one object now uppermost in the mind of every Mussulman in China. The aim of Prince Ilassam's mission is probably to seek the support of the English Government in the general movement which may be looked for soon, and which, if pushed energetically, may be attended with results as important as any which may be found in the history of Mahomme| dan campaigns. A successful advance of : the combined Mahommedan armies would attract to their banners all their cc-reltgI ionists in the line of their march who are I now kept down »i et armis. • The work of . proselytism has been so quietly carried on j in China that few are aware of the great I progress which the religion has of late j made in thai country. The prevalent idea i that Mahommcdanism in China is confined I to those districts which have openly ] thrown off the Chinese yoke is sufficiently 'disproved by the security which attended Prince Hassam in his lengthened tour i through the northern provinces, and the 'testimony of recent trustworthy travellers I bear evidence to the existence of a powerI ful element of danger for the reigning dyj nasty. la Peking itself there are at the • present time no fewer than 23,000 Mahom; medan families who worship at thirteen mosques. At Si-ngan-foo, the capital of the province of Shensi, 50,000 Mahommedans have for months been prisoners within the city walls in deadly antagonism i to the rest of the inhabitants, who threaten with instant death any follower of the Prophet who attempts to make his escape from the town. At Tsing-chow-foo, the ancient capital of the province of Shantung, the register of Mahommedans shows a total of 4,500 souls, and Paou-ting-foo, in the Imperial Province, is the home of 1,000 believers in Mahommed. Beyond the Great Wall their number is legion. In the Imperial city of Jehoh 500 families obey the Koran, and at Kirin, in Manchuria, the number of these reaches a total of 15,000 souls.
These are some of the figures which the researches of recent travellers enable us to arrive at. The numbers which remain untold exceed the power of computation, but those given above are sufficient to show that the Chinese Government has to contend with no inconsiderable foe. But apart from their numerical force, the Mahommedans possess the advantage of having on their side that fervent religious zeal which has stood them in such good stead in many a warfare in all parts of the world. Superstition also favours them, and though Western sceptics will laugh at the credulity of a people who attach importance to prophecy, yet the history of Mahommedan conquests in Europe and Africa shows us how strongly implicit faith in the words of a reputed prophet may affect the destiny of nations. Two enigmatical prophecies have for a long time been in the mouths of every Mahommedau in China. An attempt to translate them would be useless, as their point consists in significant play on the Chinese characters: but both agree in asserting that the time for the final conquest of the Mahommedan power over the reigning dynasty of China is fast approaching.
From The Fall Hall Gazette. THE USE OF KAILUOADS IN WAB.
The current number of the " Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution" contains a valuable paper communicated by Major-General Sir David Wood, and written, if we may judge from intrinsic evidence, by a German officer, on "The Use of Railroads in War." This paper contains some calculations which will probably startle those who assign to railroads an importance in war which they do not really possess. Passing by the facts that the railroad is of use only in certain directions — that troops travelling by this means cannot change their direction at any moment, and that this limited power of direction necessitates that troops travelling by rail shall be covered by other troops — not always an easy matter over long dis
tances — that it is scarcely possible to execute a concealed movement by rail, and that the effect upon the discipline of young troops is unavoidably bad, while such journeys diminishes their usefulness as marches increase it — we reach certain considerations which are certainly worthy of attention. For example, the movement of troops by rail necessitates very considerable rolling stock of a particular kind. You cannot improvise railway carriages and locomotives of the exact dimensions required for a particular line, and yet no movement along the line can take place without such carriages and locomotives. When the railways are private undertakings, it is not to be expected that they will commonly possess the amount of rolling stock necessary to satisfy the requirements of war; and the author of this paper suggests whether the State would not do well to keep in reserve a sufficient number of railway carriages to supplement the private resources of the country — including proper carriages for the transport of the wounded and for ammunition. What the amount of rolling stock required for the transport of even a single corps d'armee ia few persons perhaps understand. The paper now under consideration contains some valuable statistics upon this subject. Taking an army corps of the German strength, viz. 25 battalions of infantry, 0 cavalry regiment;, 1G batteries, 1 pioneer battalion with a light pontoon train, 3 light field hospitals and 1 heavy ditto, with at least 8 provision or ammunition trains, we find that no fewer than 83 trains, each consisting of from CO to 80 carriages, would be required (or, omitting at a pinch the ammunition and provisions, 01 trains); and this train, from its weight, could only travel at the rate of a heavy goods train, besides having to make pauses at the different stations. The greatest speed which can be calculated upon is, therefore, from 140 to 170 English miles in the twenty-four liours. Again, "the time between the . trains depends on the line being single or double, unless there are enough trains at the starting-point for the whole transport, so that none need be returned." The complication and delay in the case of a single line, on which the returning trains can only pass the advancing trains at the stations, are enormous. Further, the delays en route are in any case necessarily considerable, as the men have to be fed and the horses watered at certain stations, to ba determined on beforehand, and this, it is stated, even with the best preparations, " cannot take less than an hour, not including the getting
in and out." These remarks bring us to some surprise is expressed in this paper some rather startling practical conclusions, that the French did not take advantage of In the first place, even on a double line, an it more frequently — as they might have interval of not less than two hours be-! done in the second fight around Orleans tween the trains is necessary. Only when —during the battles in and around the the journey is Bo short — say twelve hours. woods of Marchenoir. — that no refreshment is necessary, can But the main use, the author thinks, of
railroads in war is the conveyance of provisions and reserve of all sorts. "In this
the trains follow each other at intervals of half an hour. Practically it will be found that no greater rate of advance than the j the railroad does such good service that by following is possible: — Upon single lines, j its means alone can war on the large scale aii to seven trains per day; upon double < of the present day be carried on. Armies lines, ten trains per day. It follows, then, ' have become so large that the land will not that 30,000 men in fighting order require support them if they have to remain long for a journey of 140 to 170 miles 9 3-10 in one place." There are then some interdays on a double, and 14 days on a single esting calculations which our space will not line (counting one day for the time they j permit us to deal with on the subject of are actually moving, and 8 3-10 days for provisions, the broad result of winch is the rate at which the required trains can that a railroad with five trains of sixty run on a double line, and 13 days for the j waggons each can secure the maintenance rate at which the same trains can run on a of an army of 300,000 men and 00,000 single line). No doubt a certain proper- horses for one day. This paper is full of
tion of the men will arrive at the end of the first day and some more each succeeding day; but if the whole corps is required,
most valuable statistics, and may advantageously be commended to the attention of our military authorities. Unfortunate
the time will be as above stated. Now, it1 ly, we have no special "Intelligence Deis calculated that this force would in seven [ partnwnt " — as we ought to have — by days be able to march eighty-four English j which such information as the article conmiles, and in eleven days 126 English miles, tains can be assimilated, without making forced inarches. So that if the distance is less than eighty-four English miles, " a body of 30,000 men will reach their destination sooner by marching than if sent by a double line of railroad, and up to a distance of 120 English miles marching will be preferable in point of
i From The Examiner.
TURKEY AND THE EASTERN QUESTION.
Tin: Eastern Question, that favourite bugbear of the alarmists of Europe, had
time to a single line of rails." If
troops are not wanted immediately, and the | happily sank almost completely out of march is not hurried, then 30,000 men sight during most of the years since the wonld arrive sooner by a double railroad Crimean War. Down to the outbreak of than by marching, when the distance does : the Franco-German War at any rate it was not exceed ninety-eight miles. The broad understood that Russia had enough to do, conclusion can best be given in the author's in carrying through the immense work of own words: — "By double lines troops can internal reform which centuries of uninteronly be brought into battle by the railroad rupted barbarism had left to be performed, with advantage when the number of miles without any active prosecution of those (English) is more than two-and-a-half designs against the Sick Man of the Bostimes the number of thousands of the ' phorus which the Czar Nicholas had detroops, and by single lines only when it is clared so prematurely, and which the Czar three-and-a-half times the number of thon- j Alexander II. had been compelled so disasgands. . . . For instance, 00,000 men which | trously to abandon. Of course, it was are wanted for battle will arrive at the j also understood that the sedulous surveilgame time from a distance of 140 miles,; lance which Russia has always maintained whether they go by rail or march; under! over the condition of the Turkish Empire 140 miles they will arrive sooner march-'was not relaxed merely because for the ing; over 140 miles sooner by rail. When I present the Northern Bear was fain to the rail is single, they would march 210' content himself with "taking notes." For miles in the same time as they would take the present, however, the process of noteby rail; under 210 miles they will arrive taking could not have been very agreeable sooner marching; over 210 miles sooner I to the astute agents who represent the by rail." There is, however, one way by ' traditions of Peter the Great in the capiwhich the rail may be greatly utilized, and tals of the degenerate descendants of
<L Sultan Lightning." The alliance and influence of England and France, the Western Powers, maintained peace, if it could not restore strength, in the Turkish dominions; and no Ion;? as peace endured, if little wfis being achieved to prevent the inevitable decay of Mussulman supremacy, every day of quiet and order afforded the necessary opportunity of development to the Christian nationalities, which, from being the slaves, had become the vassals, and promised to be the heirs, of the enfeebled Ottoman. However much Russia assumes to be tjie natural protector of the Christian nationalities, and however much Roumania and Servia may be disposed to appeal to the favourable dispositions of the Court of St. Petersburg, there is nothing more certain than.that, in a certain aspect, the mutual interests of Russia and the Christian nationalities are as diametrically opposed as are the mutual interests of Russia and Turkey itself. The triumph of Russian policy means the definite vassalage or rather incorporation of Roumania and Servia to at least as full an extent as was implied by the triumph of the old policy of Turkey. When the heir of the Romanovs sits on the throne of Constantinople, it cannot be doubted that the independent development of the Christian nationalities will have been definitely determined with the downfall of their old oppressors. On the other han>l, Belgrade and Bucharest have no longer anything to fear from the Sublime Porte. The best thing that can possibly happen to them is that the present gradual decay, the crumbling, of the Turkish power should continue without acceleration from without. While Turkey is fading away, and Russia is being kept at a distance. Servia, Roumania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, and the Herzegovina are growing in strength, are multiplying relations, are tightening the bonds of brotherhood and fellowship. If time is only granted, all the odds are in favour of a free Confederacy on the Lower Danube, largely permeated with western ideas and democratic principles, and capable of supplying the place of Turkey without involving the aggrandisement of Russia. The Eastern Question will be solved by no Eastern Question being left to solve. Neither will the true interests of Russia be injuriously affected. That mighty empire, with its enormous nnd increasing population, is fully worthy of the whole of its own attention and statesmanship. Too large already, Russia may menace Europe, but cannot benefit itself, by further aggrandisement.
| According to these principles, which sum themselves up in the preservation of the status qu:> in Turkey, pending the time when the Vassal States will be in a condition to guard themselves, it becomes a matter of the first moment to prevent the premature outbreak of internal convulsions in the Ottoman Empire. On the
| other hand, if Russia is to be able to incorporate the Vassal States in the overgrown body of the Muscovite dominions, the break-up of the Ottoman Empire must oo
1 cur before the present unformed or halfformed nationalities are fit to succeed to the inheritance of the Mussulman. Unfortunately, it is stated, and the statement is repeated in quarters which do not usually lend credence to rat-re rumours, that an intrigue is on foot, and continually threatens to come to a head, which is in the highest degree calculated to provoke the occurrence of all those complications which we have signalized as equally dangerous for the existence of the Ottoman Empire and for the autonomy and liberty of the nationalities of the Lower Danube. As we have said, down to the FrancoGerman war the influence of France and England was omnipotent in Turkey. Aali Pashi, the Vizier, was the firm friend of the Western Powers, and the belief in the invincibility of the Anglo-French influence secured on the side of the Vizier the sentiments of Sultan and population alike. By the war of 1870-1 the respect which had been entertained for France and England was, in the eyes of the Turks, most seriously diminished at a blow. Sedan laid France at the feet of Prussia, and the important modification of the Black Sea Treaty by Prince Gortschakov was regarded as the Sedan of England in the affairs of the East. Magnified by the lessening of all rivals, Russia seemed to tower above all competition; and Turkey, which saw that France was helpless and that England was not disposed to act alone, came suddenly to believe that the only course that remained open was to endeavour to conciliate the tremendous neighbour whom it was no longer safe to contemn. By the utter failure of the policy of fifty years of arduous diplomacy the heart of Aali Pasha was broken. His successors are men of a very different stamp. Just as Anli Pasha looked to England and France, Mahmound Pasha and Server Pasha look to Russia and to Russia's Macchiavellian ambassador, the Panslavist General Ignatief. But General Ignatief, like-a skilful diplomatist, knows how to further the interests of his country, not