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of palaces : the state of traffic great and rich : the customs, notwithstanding these wars and interruptions, not fallen : many profitable trades, many honourable discoveries : and lastly, to make an end wbere no end is, the shipping of this realm so advanced, and made so mighty and potent, as this island is bem come, as the natural site thereof deserved, the lady of the sea ; a point of so high consequence, as it may be truly said, that the commandment of the sea is an abridgment or a quintessence of a universal monarchy.

Lastly, to touch the mighty general merit of this queen, bear in mind that her benignity and beneficence hath been as large as the oppression and ambition of Spain. For to begin with the church of Rome, that pretended apostolic see is become but a donative cell of the King of Spain; the vicar of Christ is become the King of Spain's chaplain; he parteth the coming in of the new Pope for the treasuse of the old : he was wont to exclude but some two or three cardinals, and to leave the election of the rest ; but now he doth include, and present directly some small number, all incapable and incompatible with the conclave, put in only for colour, except one or two. The states of Italy, they be like little quillets of freehold being intermixed in the midst of a great honour or lordship. France is turned upside down, the subject against the king, cut and mangled infinitely, a country of Rodomonts and Roytelets, farmers of the ways: Portugal usurped by no other title than strength and vicinity: the Low Countries warred upon, because he seeketh not to possess them, for they were possessed by him before, but to plant there an absolute and martial government, and to suppress their liberties : the like at this day attempted upon Arragon: the poor Indies, whereas the Christian religion generally brought enfranchisement of slaves in all places where it came, in a contrary course are brought from freemen to be slaves, and slaves of most miserable condition: sundry trains and practices of this king's ambition in Germany, Denmark, Scotland, the east towns, are not unknown Then it is her government, and her government alone, that hath been the sconce and fort of all Europe, which hath let this proud nation from overrunning all. If any state be yet free from his factions erected in the bowels thereof;

if there be any state under his protection upon whom he usurpeth not; if there be any subject to him that enjoyeth moderate liberty, upon whom he tyrannizeth not; let them all know, it is by the mercy of this renowned queen, that standeth between them and their misfortunes. These be some of the beams of noble and radiant magnanimity, in contempt of peril

which so manifestly, in contempt of profit which so many adlmire, and in merit of the world which so many include in themselves; set forth in my simplicity of speech, with much loss of lustre, but with near approach of truth; as the sun is seen in the water.

If this be presumption, let him bear the blame that owneth the verses. What shall I speak of her rare qualities of compli. ment; which as they be excellent in the things themselves, so they have always besides somewhat of a queen: and as queens use shadows and veils with their rich apparel, methinks in all her qualities there is somewhat that flieth from ostentation, and yet iuviteth the mind to contemplate her more,

What should I speak of her excellent gift of speech, being a character of the greatness of her conceit, the height of her degree, and the sweetness of her nature? What life, what edge is there in those words and glances wherewith at pleasure she can give a man long to think; be it that she mean to daunt him, to encourage him, or to amaze him! How admirable is her discourse, whether it be in learning, state, or love! What variety of knowledge, what rareness of conceit, wbat choice of words, what grace of utterance! Doth it not appear, that though her wit be as the adamant of excellences, which draweth out of any book ancient or new, out of any writing or speech, the best; yet she refineth it, she enricheth it far above the value wherein it is received? And is her speech only that language which the child learneth with pleasure, and not those which the studious learn with industry ? Hath she not attained, besides her rare eloquence in her own language, infinitely polished since her happy times, changes of her language both learned and modern ? So that she is able to negotiate with di. vers ambassadors in their own languages; and that with no disadvantage unto them, who I think cannot but have a great part of their wits distracted from their matters in hand to the contemplation and admiration of such perfections. What should I wander on to speak of the excellences of her nature, which cannot endure to be looked on with a discontented eye: of the constancy of her favours, which maketh service as a journey by land, whereas the service of other princes is like an embarking by sea. For her royal wisdom and policy of goverument, he that shall note and observe the prudent temper she useth in admitting access ; of the one side maintaining the majesty of her degree, and on the other side not prejudicing herself by looking to her estate through too few windows : her exquisite judgment in choosing and finding good servants, a point be

yond the former : her profound discretion in yssigning and appropriating every of them to their aptest employment: her penetrating sight in discovering every man's ends and drifts ; her wonderful art in keeping servants in satisfaction, and yet in appetite: her inventing wit in contriving plots and overturns : her exact caution in censuring the propositions of others for her service : her foreseeing events : her usage of occasions :-he that shall consider of these, and other things that may not well be touched, as he shall never cease to wonder at such a queen, so he shall wonder the less, that in so dangerous times, when wits are so cunning, humours extravagant, passions so violent, the corruptions so great, the dissimulations so deep, factions so many, she hath notwithstanding done such great things, and reigned in felicity.

To speak of her fortune, that which I did reserve for a garland of her honour; and that is, that she liveth a virgin, and hath no children; so it is that which maketh all her other virtues and acts more sacred, more august, more divine. Let them leave children that leave no other memory in their times. “ Brutorum æternitas, soboles." Revolve in histories the memories of happy men, and you shall not find any of rare felicity but either he died childless, or his line spent soon after his death, or else was unfortunate in his children. Should a man have them to be slain by his vassals, as the posthumus of Alexander the Great was ? or to call them his imposthumes, as Augustus Cæsar called his ? Peruse the catalogue: Cornelius Sylla, Julius Cæsar, Flavius Vespasianus, Severus, Constantinus the Great, and many more. “Generare et liberi, humana : creare et operari, divina."

In the Low Countries, the Lammas-day, the retreat of Ghent, the day of Zutphen, and the prosperous progress of this summer; the bravado in Portugal, and the honourable exploits in the aid of the French king, besides the memorable voyages in the Indies ; and lastly, the good entertainment of the invincible navy, which was chased till the chasers were weary, after infinite loss, without taking a cock-boat, without firing a sheepcot, sailed on the mercies of the wind and the discretion of their adventures, making a perambulation or pilgrimage about the northern seas, and ignobling many shores and points of land by shipwreck; and so returned home with scorn and dishonour much greater than the terror and expectation of their setting forth.

These virtues and perfections, with so great felicity, have made ber the honour of her times, the admiration of the world,

the suit and aspiring of greatest kings and princes, who yet durst never have aspired unto her, but as their minds were raised by love.

But why do I forget that words do extenuate and embase matters of so great weight? Time is her best commender, which never brought forth such a prince, whose imperial virtues contend with the excellency of her person; both virtues contend with her fortune, and both virtue and fortune contend with her fame.

“ Orbis amor, famæ carmen, cælique pupilla ;

Tu decus omne tuis, tu decus ipsa tibi!" The piece entitled “The Praise of Henry Prince of Wales' (In Henricum Principem Wallice Elogium Francisci Baconi), was first published in the original Latin, by Birch, along with an English Translation of his own, in his Letters, Speeches, &c., of Francis Bacon,' 1763.

PART II.

BACON'S PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS.

INTRODUCTION.

All Bacon's philosophical writings may be reduced to the scheme of his Instauratio Magna—may be arranged as either parts or appendages of that work. The spacious plan of the Instauratio, as sketched by Bacon himself, comprehends alike those of them that were published before it was conceived or announced, and whatever he afterwards wrote.

In our examination or analvsis, therefore, of these writings, we shall take them in the order in which they stand, or may most naturally be placed, in the Instauratio ; but it will be convenient, for cléarness of reference, that we also enumerate here the successive dates at which they were severally published.

The · Fragment of the Colours of Good and Evil, otherwise entitled · Places of Persuasion and Dissuasi was published, with the first edition of the Essays, in 1597. This tract, as we shall find, has been incorporated by Bacon himself in the De Augmentis Scientiarum, or First Part of the Instauratio.

The “ 'Two Books of the Proficience and Advancement of Learning,' were published in English in 1605. They were afterwards expanded by the author into the Nine Books of the Latin Treatise De Augmentis Scientiarum.

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