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The importance of the study of Sanscrit, by young men destined for public employments in India, is demonstrated by a fact upon which Mr. von Schlegel lays no more than due stress; namely, that a person who has acquired a solid knowledge of that language, may with facility acquire, in the country, any of the popular dialects, since all, or the most important, are but Sanscrit disorganized, or deprived of its inflexions.

For example; in Haughton's Bengali Glossary, out of twelve hundred words, upwards of a thousand are pure

Sanscrit. In order to ascertain the advances made by Europeans in the knowledge of Asiatic antiquities and literature, M. de Schlegel gives a hasty review of some translations from Oriental tongues.

His opinion of Anquetil Duperron's translation of the Zend-Avesta echoes that of the learned world. Much light may be expected from the labours of M. Burnouf upon the Zend, which dubious term, M. de Schlegel suggests, may be a corruption of the Sanscrit word Chhandas, one of the most common names of the Vedas. He observes that the modern Persian retains some analogy to the Sanscrit, in the roots and remains of inflexion; and as far as we are capable of judging, the language of the ancient Medes and Persians approached very near to Sanserit; consequently, the Zend would occupy the intermediate place between the language of Darius Hystaspes and the Persian of Firdausi. The Oupnek'hat in Anquetil Duperron’s translation is little better than gibberish.

Of Sir Wm. Jones's translation of the Code of Menu, M. de Schlegel says that “it is, in general, extremely faithful; the complexion of the style, in particular, is admirable; it breathes, at the same time, the majesty of law, and as it were a holy and patriarchal simplicity.”. His versions of Sacontala and the Gita Govinda he characterizes as very free imitations, but delightful reading. Of his translation of the Hitopadésa he speaks, as might be expected, in slighting terms, and laments that both Sir William Jones and Sir Charles Wilkins should have “had the imprudence” to consult only a single manuscript, and that an erroneous and defective one. M. de Schlegel has, in an appendix, compared certain passages of the Hitópadésa, as translated by Sir Wm. Jones and Sir C. Wilkins, together, and occasionally with the text, from the Bonn edition; and we have rarely seen more glaring incongruities. “This is a salutary caution," observes M. de Schlegel, “ to the journeymen (les journaliers) in Oriental philology, who, with a superficial knowledge of the languages, sancy themselves qualified to translate anything that comes to hand : do they suppose they can avoid the rocks against which two authors of such eminent talent have been shipwrecked ?”

Mr. von Schlegel reiterates the severe censure he pronounced in the preface to his Rámáyana on the Serampore edition of the first two books of this poem. Of the translations of Mr. Colebrooke, as well as bis extracts and dissertations, he says, that they are entitled to “implicit confidence ;" that Mr. Colebrooke has joined to the merits of a translator those of a most learned and judicious editor ; that his only defect is his extreme conciseness, or laconism. “ I may cite," he observes, “as models of well-executed

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extracts, Mr. Colebrooke's treatises on the astronomy of the Hindus and on their different systems of philosophy; but if this great scholar had left it

r to the public to choose between an edition of a single work, accompanied by explanations, and a succinct summary of a variety of works, such as he bas given, I should have voted without hesitation for the first, as infinitely better calculated to enlarge our intellectual horizon.” Herein many will differ from M. de Schlegel.

His opinion of Hindu philosophy is highly complimentary to it. The peculiar flexibility and richness of the Sanscrit language seem to adapt it wonderfully to be the vehicle of metaphysical discussions, in which the mind is always hampered more or less by the fetters of language. We think in language, and in proportion to its poverty or its want of elasticity, must be the meagreness of the results of thinking. Much of the obscurity justly complained of in English translations from Sanscrit philosophical writers, arises from the utter impossibility of translating the thoughts from one tongue to the other,—from a copious vehicle to one which is penurious and confined. M. de Schlegel says of the Bhagavad Gitá, “ if the study of Sanscrit had yielded me only the satisfaction of being able to read this wonderful poem in the original, I should consider myself amply recompensed for all my pains.”

Having passed in review the different branches of Hindu literature, M. de Schlegel insists he has shown, that the study of the originals, the collection of manuscripts, and other laborious researches, should have preceded translations, in order that the latter should deserve the confidence of an enlightened public. He thinks the study of Sanscrit has made great progress of late years, especially in France and Germany, where its ultimate success seems now certain ; and he asks, significantly, “ Is it the same in England ?" A slight knowledge of the learned languages of the East, he observes, is not merely useless,-it is prejudicial and dangerous, inasmuch as it inspires presumption, which he proves by example as well as argument. He remarks that, formerly, amongst the inquirers into Hindu antiquity, the sect of believers, those who admitted without scruple the most extravagant fictions of the Brahminical mythology, was very numerous; this sect is now nearly extinct, and that of the deniers has succeeded, who doubt everything, and speak of the civilization of India as a thing of yesterday or the day before. “Superficial readers," he remarks, “ take this for a mark of sagacity; but a person may betray his want of tact and discernment as much by doubting and denying, as by an excess of credulity.” A third sect of Hindu antiquaries, he says, who have had too much success, are the Buddhomaniacs, who maintain that Buddhism was more ancient than Brahmanism; that the former was heretofore the general religion of India, and that the Brahmans are modern intruders and usurpers ; “which is just as reasonable as to say that the Jews are apostates from Islamism, and that their rabbis substituted the law of Moses for the Koran.The Buddhists themselves, he observes, do not lay claim to this priority; they have not even dethroned the Brahminical deities, having only placed their prophet above all. He surrenders the Buddhomaniacs to the care of Mr. Cole


brooke and Mr. Erskine, who have sufficiently refuted their notions. Another sect M. de Schlegel designates as the Painters in dark colours," those who designate a nation consisting of a hundred millions of souls, the descendants of those Indians whom the Greeks denominated the most just of mankind, as a mass of villains, cowards, and idiots. It would be strange, indeed, he observes, if their sufferings for eight centuries should not have deteriorated the moral condition of the Hindus; but he appeals to the honourable testimony rendered to the character of the existing generation of Hindus before the British parliament, as a counterpoise to the hypothesis of these peintres en noir, who, be observes, have little of the amiable about them, and manufacture dull and tiresome books: “I am sorry,” he adds, “ to observe the missionaries amongst the adherents of this sect.”

In conclusion, M. de Schlegel suggests, as a means of preventing the total abandonment of Oriental studies in England, the foundation of an academy in London, for the exclusive cultivation of Asiatic philology, history, and antiquities; which should be sufficiently endowed to support its members and to defray the expense of costly publications, and be provided with a polyglot press and every thing necessary for its purpose. He shews that such an institution would not languish for want of employment, by an exposition of the immense labours which it might undertake in the different departments of Oriental literature, accompanied by sound and judicious suggestions as to the manner in which the several labours should be conducted. This part of the letter is by no means the least valuable; it discovers abundant marks of the extensive knowledge of the writer; but we should impair the effect of his remarks by mutilating them. We terminate, therefore, our notice of this letter, by recommending the reflections it contains, with a few exceptions, to the attention of all who feel the least interest in Oriental learning.

of the second letter, addressed to Mr. Wilson, we shall say nothing, for reasons which, we are sure, will appear satisfactory even to Mr. von Schlegel himself. Admitting his expostulation and his criticisms upon Mr. Wilson's translations to be just, which is conceding, perhaps, too much, this will prove no more than what that gentleman would probably be the first to acknowledge, namely, that he is not infallible; and by intermeddling in the matter of dispute we might exasperate a wound, which, at present, seems far from incurable. Time and the judicious offices of mutual friends will, no doubt, soon heal this slight difference between two individuals, whose extraordinary endowments were bestowed not for the purpose of being employed against each other, but for the benefit of mankind.



Reigning Emperor.— Taou kwang, son of Kea king, late emperor; born 10th of 8th moon, 1781; succeeded his father, 24th (or 25th) August 1821.

Imperial Family.—Yih • wei, eldest son of the emperor, by the late empress, died 1831. Yib shun, second son, by a Chinese concubine, consequently illegitimate. Yih, supposed to be a daughter. Yin choo, son by a Manchoo concubine, born 6th moon 1831. Yih tsung, son by a Manchoo concubine, born same month. Yung tseun (title E tsing wang), elder brother of Kea king, consequently uncle of the emperor. Meen - (title Tun tsin wang), brother of the emperor. Mëen hin (title Hwuy keun wang), brother of the emperor, lately degraded from the title of Suy tsin wang. Yih shaou (title Ting tsin wang), nephew of the emperor,


The Nuy ko, or cabinet, consists of first, the Ta Heð sze, namely, Tð tsin, first minister, a Manchoo of the bordered yellow standard, too tung of the Manchoo white standard, titular guardian and explainer of classics to the emperor,

Tsaou chin yung, a Chinese of Gan hwuy province, inspector of imperial edicts, chief president of the Han lin yuen, guardian, explainer of classics, recorder of the imperial words and actions; Chang ling, a Mongol of the white standard, too tung of the Manchoo red standard, superintendent of the Le fan yuen, or colonial office, hereditary noble of the first order, guardian, minister of the imperial presence, explainer of classics ; Loo yin foo, a Chinese of Shan tung province, guardian, explainer of classics ;- secondly, the Hěč pan ta heð sze, namely, Foo tsin or Foo tseun, a Mongol of the yellow standard, president of the colonial office, too tung of the Chinese bordered yellow standard, guardian, explainer of the classics ; Le hung pin, a Chinese of Keang se province, late governor general of Kwang tung (Canton) and Kwang se provinces ; thirdly, the Nuy heð sze, namely, Keih lun tae, a Manchoo, of the bordered yellow standard ; Lung wan, a Manchoo, of the red standard, foo tung of the Chinese bordered white standard; King min, a Manchoo, of the bordered yellow standard; Yih ke, a Manchoo, of the bordered red standard and of the imperial house ; Leen shun, a Manchoo, of the bordered red standard ; Yu ching, a Manchoo, of the bordered yellow standard ; Chin ke, a Chinese of Kcang soo; Múh hung tseuen, a Chinese of Fúh këen; Chin yung kwang, a Chinese of Keang se; Chin sung king, a Chinese of Che keang. The Chung shoo ko appears to be a kind of heralds' office under the cabinet. The Keun ke ta chin, or privy council, is selected from all the higher stations, without rule as to rank or number. The names of the members are not published. The Tsung jin foo, an office for the control of the imperial kindred, consists of Ting tsin wang Yih shaou, the tsung ling, or president; suh tsin wang King min and Juy tsin wang, tsung chings; Pei tsze Meen sae and Pei lih Mëen yu, tsung jins.

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The Lew Poo, or six supreme tribunals at Pekin, are as follow:--the Le poo, or tribupal of civil office, consists of the shang shoos, or presidents, Wan foo, a Manchoo, with several military titles, and Fan she ngan, a Chinese of Keang soo; the she langs, or vice-presidents, Paou hing, a Manchoo, Too ngo, a Chinese of Shan tung; Ylh king, a Manchoo, and Shin ke bëen, a Chinese of Ho nan, superintendent of Peking.

The Hoo poo, or tribunal of revenue, consists of the presidents He ngan, a Manchoo; Wang ting, a Chinese of Shen se ; the vice-presidents, King ching, a Manchoo ; Wang show ho, a Chinese of Keang se; Kwei lun, a Mongol; Le tsung fang, a Chinese of Keang soo; and the “ Lords of the Three Treasuries,” Můh chang ah, and Foo tsin, both Manchoos.

• Yih is a prefix borne by all the children of the reigning emperor, as meen was that of the preceding. Yih, as applied to families, denotes “ of long continuance."

The Lee poo, or tribunal of rites; presidents, Ke ying, a Manchoo, and Wang yin che, a Chinese of Keang soo; vice-presidents, Shoo ying, a Manchoo, Chin sung king, a Chinese of Che keang, and Sih kih tsing ih, a Manchoo. The superintendent of the translators' and interpreters' office is Sung sew, a Manchoo. The superintendents of the Yoo poo, or musical board, are Ting tsin wang and He ngan, the latter a Manchoo.

The Ping poo, or tribunal of war; presidents, Muh chang ah, a Manchoo, and Wang tsung ching, a Chinese of Gan hwuy; vice-presidents, Na tan choo, a Manchoo ; Chang lin, a Chinese of Cbě keang, Tëě lin, a Manchoo, and Tang kin chaou, a Chinese of Chě keang. Governor-generals of provinces are er officio presidents of this board, and foo yuens, or deputy governors, vice-presidents.

The Hing poo, or tribunal of punishments; superintendent, Loo yin foo, a Chinese of Shan tung; presidents, Ming shan, a Manchoo, and Chin jð lan, a Chinese of Fủh këen ; vice-presidents, Kwei king, a Manchoo, Tae tun yuen, a Chinese of Fuh këen, Tih tang ih, a Manchoo, and Tae tsung yuen, a Chinese of Gan hwuy.

The Kung to, or tribunal of public works; superintendent, Tsaou chin yung, a Chinese of Gan hwuy; presidents, Foo tsin, a Mongol ; Choo sze yen, a Chinese of Keang soo; vice-presidents, Hwuy bëen, a Manchoo, Woo chun, a Chinese of Gan hwuy; A urh pang ah and Kwie ling, both Tartarized Chinese. The Keae taou ya mun, or office for superintending the streets and roads in and about Peking, is under the Kung Poo.

Other tribunals and offices independerit of the six Poo:

The Le fan yuen, or foreign or colonial office, consists of Chang ling, a Mongol, Pở ke too, Poo paou, and Hang kih, Manchoos, and Ma ha pa la, a Mongol.

The Too cha yuen, or censorate, consists of Na tsing an, a Manchoo, and Pyh yung, a Chinese of Peking district, chief censors; and Maou shih seun, a Chinese of Shan tung, Tih ping, a Manchoo, and Tseang tseang che, a Chinese of Hoo pih, secondary


The Lew ko, censors of tribunals and offices at Peking and of the provinces.


The Han lin yuen, or grand national college, includes the Kee keu chooe, or office for recording the emperor's daily words and actions. The presidents of the college are Tsaou chin yung, a Chinese of Gan hwuy, and Muh chang ah, a Manchoo.

The Chen sze foo, for preparing public documents, &c. and examining in history and general literature, under the presidents of the Han lin yuen.

The Woo king po sze, in the Han lin yuen, are descendants of Confucius, Mencius, and their most distinguished disciples. The direct hereditary successor of Confucius holds the title of Yen shing kung, 'most sacred duke;' the name of the one now living is Kung king yung.

The Tung ching sze sze, for receiving memorials (if not secret and sealed) from the provinces, correcting and forwarding them to the cabinet, is composed of Wan king, a Manchoo, and Kung show ching, a Chinese of Chě keang.

The Ta le sue is a criminal tribunal, secondary to, but independent of, the Hing Poo.

The Tae chang sze, for attending to the appointed sacrifices and rites at the public altars and temples at Peking, is composed of Ke ying, Shoo ying, and Sih kih tsing ih, Manchoos.

The Kwang luh sze, for providing food, liquors, &c. at imperial entertainments, victims, incense, &c. at public sacrifices; Shoo ying, a Manchoo, superintendent.

The Tae puh sze, for keeping the imperial stud.

The Hung loo sze, for directing ceremonies on court days and at imperial sacrifices, &c.; Ke ying, a Manchoo, superintendent.

The Kwð tsze këen, or college for the instruction of Manchoo, Mongol, and Chinese literary graduates ; Le tsung fang, a Chinese of Keang soo, superintendent.

The Kin tëen köen, or imperial astronomical board; King ching, a Manchoo, superintendent.

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