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he wrote on this subject to the Governor General of India, and thus the matter remained, till the time, when we were obliged to give the Koroas, i. e. 1,000,000 of rupees to the Russians; and Sir J. Mac Donald, knowing how we were pressed for money, offered 200,000 Tomauns as an indemnification for the loss of the two articles in the treaty: we refused, saying, "You Sir John Mac Donald promised 400,000 Tomauns, through Doctor Cormick; and now you offer only 200,000." He said, 'I can give no more,' and induced the Russians not to leave Tabreez, until the 7 Koroas were completely paid; for he himself was conscious, that it was beyond our power to pay the whole sum at that moment, and also knew, that the sooner the Russian army evacuated Tabreez, the more it would be to our advantage; for we might have collected the revenues of Aderbijan. Under these circumstances we were obliged to collect as much money as we could, immediately, and in such a critical moment he offered us 200,000 Tomauns, which we were obliged to accept: at the same time giving us hopes, that he would use his influence with the British Government to obtain the other 200,000 Tomauns. At the same time I procured the consent of the Shah to agree to the proposal. Sir J. Mac Donald died, and nothing was done towards obtaining the other 200,000 Tomauns. Should I not obtain the rest, the Shah will no longer give me his confidence, and my enemies at court will try to weaken my influence, and thwart my prospects. Considering all these circumstances, three objects are lost: first, the money; Secondly, the defacing of the articles of the treaty; and thirdly, the confidence of the nation. I have no objection that those two articles should only nominally remain in the treaty, by which I might convince other Powers that I can call for such assistance in case of need; this would be a check on their operations against me, and convince them, that the English take an interest in me. Another request of importance is, one which would be of no prejudice to the British Government, and of great use to me; it is, that they should order their agents to leave to my disposal a certain sum of money in case of need, for the equipment of my army, at the time of the death of the Shah: should I be obliged to draw, I would willingly repay, with great gratitude, after my ascension to the throne. After the treaty was confirmed with Russia, Sir John Mac Donald, on the part of the Governor General of India, promised 1200 muskets, which I have not received. Those promises not having been fulfilled, the minds of the surrounding Powers are prejudiced against me, as well as the Persian nation; and they doubt my having the power of prosecuting my views. Knowing that you are a Mullah of influence, and a traveller, I have given you my confidence."*

I desired His Royal Highness Abbas Mirza to write to me something with his own hand. As travellers, who have made their

* I wrote down this conversation in the room of Mirza Baba, who understands English, and he read it over to Abbas Mirza.

way through these countries by disavowing their nation and religion, and pretending to be Mussulmans, have chosen to assert, that the natives did not know that I was a Christian clergyman, and an European, I annex the autograph, in order to prove, that it is possible to travel in those countries as a preacher, and that it is even the safest way of travelling; far preferable to going in disguise, as some travellers in Arabia did. His Royal Highness wrote to me the following in Persian.

"The exalted Padre Joseph Wolff is one of the sincere friends of us Prince Regent. We have seen him before; but this time, when he waited upon us at Toos (Meshed), we paid him much more attention than the first time. He is a truly religious man, and has undertaken a long journey, and full of danger; but he is not afraid of any danger. We hope to see him again well and safe, after he shall have finished his journey to Bokhara, and Mowralnehar."*

And now I give the translation of some Persian, written in my journal by Ali Moorad Khan of Jevian, abigotted Mussulman.

"During the time of the liberal, His Lordship and His Royal Highness, the Prince Regent. In the house of my kind brother Mirza Baba, the chief physician, I met the learned infidel Mullah Joseph Wolff; f in truth, he is a very good man, very good tempered, very sincere, and a good companion. I am delighted with his mode of life. In Holy Meshed these few lines are written, as a remembrance of Ali Moorad Khan, the Governor of Jevian, in Khorossaun, in the moon of Shahbaan 1247." (January 1832.)


I wrote a proclamation to all the Turkomauns of Khiva and Sarakhs, exhorting them to renounce their unlawful practice of plundering the caravans, and to repent; and stuck up these proclamations at the houses, and even at the Mosque of Imam Resa at Meshed; for a good many Turkomauns were arrived at Meshed to pay their homage to Abbas Mirza, being apprehensive of his marching towards Khiva and Bokhara.


I always preached at Meshed on Sundays in the English tongue, in the room of Capt. Shee, in his presence, and the five Serjeants: Mullah Mohammed Ali, the Sooffee, was also present out of curiosity, though he did not understand one word of the language. There is a certain adventurer from Poland who, with cold blood, told me that he had formed the plan of putting to death theEmpe

* This is a literal translation of it, not by myself: it was translated after my arrival at Simlah, by the private Monshee of Lord William Bentinck.

t The word mittrasee in the original, means infidel; a nomination with which a bigotted Mussulman in Khorossaun will honour a Christian or a Jew.

ror of Russia. A fine specimen of the spirit of liberality of the present day!!!


There is a rumour throughout Khorossaun, that Abbas Mirza had married a Russian Princess; and in Toorkestaun I afterwards heard added, that he had embraced the Russian religion, and that the Russians would assist him with 50,000 men, in subduing Khorossaun by way of Khiva.


Almost every month caravans are going from Meshed to Bokhara and Khiva, always accompanied by some Turkomaun of Sarakhs or Mowr: they carry sugar, pepper, Kerman shawls, cinnamon, cardamon, &c. From Bokhara they bring furs to Meshed. These caravans are always 40 camels in number.

Mirza Baker, one of the secretaries of Abbas Mirza, assisted me in composing addresses in the Persian language, directed to the Jews of Meshed, which were stuck up on the walls of several shops at Meshed. In these I cited several prophecies respecting our Lord Jesus Christ, and exhorted the Jews to turn to him, as their Saviour. They were addressed to the Jews only; but the Mussulmans also read them without being offended.


There is in Khorossaun, Affghanistaun, and Badaghjan, a tribe, i which ought to be noticed. The Hazarah, a tribe and descendants of Moguls, and of Tshingis Khan; most of them are totally destitute of beards; they are partly Sunnees, and partly Sheahs. They are divided into two principal tribes: Dai-Konti, and Dai-Zengi. The Dai-Konti divide themselves again into the following tribes: Seymat; Kondolan; Mamaka; Pazanghere; Gaga;* Ezombogha; Baibogha; Laghere; Mirmorag; PaJghoor; Etshga; Pasekoy; Parate; Ferotson.

The Dai-Zengi divide themselves into, Sai-foolat; Sate-Kalan; Sate-Mahmood; Avghan-Jejelat; Abagha-Sooffee; Peje-Ali; PejeHaje; Karakol-Daghe; Meer-Aktan; Maggag or Mangag.f

I am indebted for this information to a learned Turkomaun at Delhi, of whom I hope to speak more particularly, who gave me afterwards all those names with Persian characters, which the Hazarah at Meshed did not do; by this means I found that they spell Gaga and Maggag or Mangag either majaj or manjuj, which entirely corresponds with the Hebrew Jijci Ju or the Arabic name

* Is this not the Gog of Ezechiel xxxviii. 2, 3, 16, 18, and xxxix. 11, for it is generally believed, among Mohammedans, as well as among Jews and Christians, that Gog and Magog are two Northern nations. < *

.ij> t See the Magog of Genesis x. 2, Ezechiel xxxviii. 2, xxx. C, Revelation xx. 8. Besides this, it should be observed, that alflhese Northern tribes speak of themselves as being sons of Japheth.

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