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Gag Magog, by which the Mohammedans understand the same as the Christians and Jews do by Gog and Magog.

In Khorossaun the Hazarah occupy the places en, called likewise Bagharz and Dargass, and the road from Heraut to' Meshed.* They are cruel, treacherous, inhospitable, and vile robbers and murderers.

The Jews in these countries trust themselves in the hands of the Turkomauns, but do not confide in the Hazarah, especially those of the Sheah persuasion; for they share the same character as the Sheah do all over the East; there is, generally speaking, nothing good in a Sheah. Abbas Mirza, and his physician, Mirza liaba, and a few around Abbas Mirza, are honourable exceptions.


Beside the Hazarah, the Jamashoode live in Khorossaun: a mixture of Hazarah and other races of people. They profess, of course, the Mussulman religion, and are Sheah; but they are in secret understanding with the Turkomauns, and sell Sheah to them. Frequently a Jamashoode will hire a Sheah servant, and on his arrival at Sarakhs,^: sell him to the Turkomauns.

Hindoo merchants are to be found at Meshed, at Toorsheesh, Burjund, Torbad-Hydarea, and atTabas, who are chiefly merchants from Checarpoor, in the Scind country; they generally do business as brokers and bankers, and are reported to be very great cheats, which is their universal character.


There are very splendid caravan-serays in this place, particularly those for the Osbek, Affghauns, &c.


The number of pilgrims at Meshed, who arrive every year at the tomb of Imam Resa, amount to 20000; they come from Lucknow, Delhi, Hydrabad in Hindoostaun, from Cabool and Heraut in Affghanistaun, from the whole of Persia, and Najaf in Arabia. These pilgrims are generally the most immoral people of the Mohammedans.


It is remarkable, that wherever there are places of pilgrimages, or convents, the people of those places are most particularly im

* They are likewise to be found throughout Toorkestaun, as far as Yurkand, and on the way to Cabool from Bokhara, and around Candabar.

t Jamashoode, derived from jama, collected; and shadax having become.

t Sarakhs, a little to the south of the cenfrejof a dine, drawn between Meshed and Merve. >

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moral; as for instance, Mecca, Medinah, Kerbelay in Arabia, Mazaur in Toorkestaun, and Meshed in Khorossaun. It is generally reported, that from the wives of the Mujtehed, down to those of the lowest Mullahs, are all prostitutes; but crimes much worse are committed at Meshed.

The people there are so corrupt, that several of them are regularly paid by the Turkomauns, for giving them notice when caravans are coming, which they may attack and plunder: some of them actually betray their servants and children to the Turkomauns, so that when I wanted to take a Sheah, at Meshed, to accompany ma as a servant to Toorkestaun, Mr. Shee and Mirza Baba were obliged to pledge themselves that they would ransom him, if I were to sell him.

Men cannot save themselves: the work of salvation must be carried on in them by the Lord alone: hence, it is not to be wondered at, that a system of will-worship, proceeding upon principles directly opposite to the Gospel, should be accompanied by a more intense degree of moral darkness; whether in a corrupt Church, or in such an heretical apostacy, as that of Mohammed.


A few days before my departure from Meshed, I made the acquaintance of Kerbelay Mowrwaree, a very respectable merchant, who trades to Bokhara; he lived at Bokhara, had left his wife there, and was then himself residing at Meshed. Any European, who would wish to go to Bokhara, via Meshed, should be recommended to this merchant.

Jew Nisim came to meet me there; he has been at Khiva, Astrachan, Capusta, and Leipsic, to which places he frequently goes, to bring Bibles and rabbinical books to Meshed. He had brought the Hebrew New Testament, in which the name of Mr. Macpherson was written, who was formerly missionary in Astrachan, and after this at Alexandria in Egypt. Nisim is a complete infidel in sentiments: at Meshed he is a Mussulman, and a Jew at Sarakhs, Khiva, and on his journeys to Europe. He gives a very bad account of the Jews of Khiva, which account I heard confirmed all over Toorkestaun; they are traitors, despisers of the Law, have Mussulman concubines, and rob foreign Jews, who go among them. The Jews of Khiva are called Mamserim, i. e. bastards, even by those of Bokhara, as Nisim assures me; for all of them left Bokhara on account of their ill conduct.

A conversation about the divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ took place, when suddenly one of the Mullahs exclaimed, "There is no God!" He said this, in order to provoke me to an argument about it; but I replied, "The fool saith in his heart, there is no God."

Kerbelay Mowrwaree then said to me, "You are now my friend, and have eaten bread and salt with me; let me therefore advise you not to go to Bokhara; for at Bokhara they are Haram Zadah, (Sons of bastards,) who are capable of killing you." I replied, "When people advised Paul not to go to Jerusalem, he replied, that he was ready to die at Jerusalem." My friend replied, "Now I cannot answer any thing."


The following personages have accompanied Abbas Mirza to Meshed.

1. Mirza Abool Kasem, Kayem Makaam of Abbas Mirza; he is the son of Mirza Buzurk, the former Kayem Makaam of Abbas Mirza, who wrote a book against Henry Martyn. Mirza Abool Musem is considered to be a great poet; and when he was in disgrace with Abbas Mirza, and not employed during the late war with Russia, he wrote a satirical poem, in which he said of the Persian army:

"They faced cucumbers,

Like Rustam;

And they shewed, like Gorgeen,*

Their back

To the Muscovites."?

2. Mohammed Hussein Khan, the Ishk Agase, or Master of Ceremonies, asked me if I could tell him, whether he would become exalted in dignity, and whether his life would be prolonged. I confessed my ignorance as to these matters, but told him, that he would he highly honoured by his Prince and the people, if he acted justly and with uprightness.

3. Mirza Moosa Khan, Vizier, very much devoted to his religion.

4. Mirza Sadek, Nayebe Vizier, or Vice Vizier.

5. Yahyah Khan, Golam Agase, the Master of the Horses; a most immoral person.

6. Mirza Balm, Hakeem Bashee, Chief Physician: he has studied medicine in London, and is the confidential adviser of Abbas Mirza.

7. Mirza Baker, Monshee Bashee, Chief Secretary of State; and sixteen other gentlemen.


The deputies of the Turkomauns from the countries around the Caspian sea, and those of Sarakhs and Khiva, came to Meshed, to promise Abbas Mirza, that they would desist from their practice of Tshapow (plundering expeditions). They were standing in the court-yard, opposite to the window of the room in which Abbas Mirza was seated. They were previously dressed with the Khelat, or robe of honour, by His Royal Highness, consisting of a purple robe. He reminded them, that there were many Sunnees in his country, especially in Aderbijan, and throughout Persia, who enjoyed complete protection under his government, and none of

* Gorgeen is a famous coward among the Persians, t Mirza Abool Kasem has since been put to death by the- present King of Persia—Mahmood.

them had ever been made slaves. He further reminded them, that the Sheah believed in the Koran as well as themselves, and performed their pilgrimages to Mecca and Medina, and that it was therefore very unjust of the King of Bokhara, and the Khan of Khiva, to encourage the Turkomauns to make slaves of the Persians; that he (His Royal Highness) had the best understanding with the Sultan of Constantinople, who was a Sunnee, with the Emperor of Russia, and with England; therefore he would first send Ambassadors to Bokhara and Khiva, and if those two Chiefs come to his terms, well; if not, he will bring fire and sword with his army to both places. The Turkomauns on their side promised not to enter Khorossaun any more for the purpose of making slaves, and agreed to receive at Sarakhs one of the agents of Abbas Mirza, who may ascertain whether they keep their word or not. Whilst they were agreeing to these points, a party of Turkomauns came to the very gate of Meshed, and carried away six slaves. Yahyah Khan was sent after them with horsemen, and accompanied by some of the Turkomaun deputies, who led Yahyah Khan on purpose another road, so that they did not meet with the Turkomaun party.


Yellantoosh Khan of Nadir Kelaat, Mohammed Khan of Tsholaye, and several other Khans, came to Meshed, to prove their submission to Abbas Mirza. Mohammed Ishak Khan Kerahe of Torbad Hydarea, Resa Koole Khan of Cochran, and Nujuf Ali Khan of Bujnurd, wrote that they would come; but carried on at the same time, (as the Jews, who had good information, told me,) a secret correspondence with the Kings of Khiva and Bokhara. Assad Ullah Khan of Burjund wrote, that he would come, as did also the Khan of Tabas. Mohammed Takee Khan of Toorsheesh openly resisted, but his fortress was taken, and he himself made prisoner.


Abbas Mirza having heard, that Shah Kamran of Heraut had written to the Kings of Bokhara and Khiva, persuading them, that Abbas Mirza had come to take vengeance on all the Sunnees, sent Mirza Mohammed Ali, as Ambassador to Heraut, to bring Shah Kamran to terms. Whilst all this was going on, I prepared for my


His Royal Highness Abbas Mirza sent for the sixteen deputies of the Turkomauns from Sarakhs, and desired them to give their signatures, by which they would be pledged to bring me safely to Bokhara, by the way of Sarakhs; which signature they gave. It is very remarkable that semi-barbarous nations have a great superstition respecting signatures; they believe, that having once given their word in writing, they have consigned a certain magic power to that person in whose possession it is.

This belief is current among Jews, Mohammedans, Guebres, Hindoos, and many of the Oriental Christians; and therefore I was frequently accused by the Jews of Jerusalem, and even lately by a Jew at Malta, of having desired their signatures, for the purpose of making them Christians.

As it was, the Turkomauns stroked their beards, gave their signatures, and promised His Royal Highness to bring me safely to Bokhara.

Capt. Shee, Mirza Baba, and the five English Serjeants,accompanied me out of the town of Meshed. I was also escorted by Goolitsh Mohammed Khan, a Turkomaun of the Yamoot tribe, who was sent by Abbas Mirza to Sarakhs, for the purpose of observing the movements of the Turkomauns there. I left Meshed on January 29.

We arrived that evening at Goskoon,* belonging to Doost Mohammed Khan Timoore; sixteen miles from Meshed.

Jan. 30.—We slept near a village, called Mastroon, 32 English miles from the former place.

Jan. 31.—We passed a fort belonging to Khorossaun, called Karawl, which means 'Guard," for a guard of observation is placed there, to watch the movements of the Turkomauns. Here is the boundary of Khorossaun.

In the evening we slept in an open field, with shepherds from Sarakhs. Here I met with the first Guzl-Bashf slave, who kept the flock of one of the Turkomaun families of Sarakhs; he was born at Burjund.

February 1.—Arrived at Sarakhs in Toorkestaun.


Before I begin to speak of my reception at Sarakhs, I must give a short sketch of the sayings of the Turkomauns there, respecting the origin of Sarakhs. They relate that Adam, who had lived his last days at Balkh, came every day from Balkh to this place, for the purpose of sowing seed; and sowing is in Arabic, Cara; hence the name of Zaraghs: but others give a more reasonable derivation of the name of Sarakhs: they derive it from the Arabic sarak, to steal; for it is the centre of stealing slaves, from the Guzl-Bash and Russians.


Coming from Khorossaun to Sarakhs, about 4 miles from the latter place, a river must be crossed, over which a bridge is built. On the east of Sarakhs, an old ruined fort, called Kalaa, is observable, in which there is only one cannon to be found, of which the Turkomauns do not understand the use. Near this fort, the reed

* This place is partly inhabited by Sheah, partly by Sunnee; but both were in good understanding with the Turkomauns, before the' arrival of Abbas Mirza in Khorossaun.

t The Persians are generally so called by the Turkomauns; the word signifies 'Red head.'

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