Imagens das páginas
PDF
ePub

tents of the Turkomauns are pitched, which they can remove to any part of the desert. There are at Sarakhs nine small RoodKhoone, or beds of rivers, and near every one of these, 200 families of Turkomauns are residing, so that there are 1800 families of Turkomauns: say, Turkomauns, 1800; Timoore, partly Sheah, and partly connected with the Turkomauns in slave trade, 100; Hazarah, 200: Gulz-Bash slaves, 200 families, or 1000 souls; and two Russian slaves with their families. One of those Russian slaves is 90 years of age, and was taken on his way to Bokhara, fifty years ago. Yellantoosh Khan of Nadir Kelaat, one day in unison with Resa Koole Khan of Cochran, went with an army of Khorossaun people to Sarakhs, for the purpose of taking possession of it; they crossed the river safely, and on their arrival at Sarakhs, found several horses and camels, which the Turkomauns were not able to take with them on their flight through the desert. Yellantoosh Khan and Resa Koole Khan intended to return with their spoil to Khorossaun, when they found the bridge by which they had passed the river, broken down; and at the same moment, the Turkomauns coming up on horseback, massacred the Khorossaun army. Resa Koole Khan saved himself by swimming, but Yellantoosh Khan was made prisoner, and was obliged to restore 60 Turkomauns, which he had kept as prisonerstat Nadir Kelaat, beside surrendering all the horses he had taken from the Turkomauns, and paying a great sum of money for his ransom.

Before we entered the camp of Sarakhs, (for it cannot be called a city) we perceived suddenly about 10 Turkomauns coming to meet us: they were of Sarakhs. Goolitsh Mohammed Khan went to them; they put mutually their hands together, and exclaimed, "Amman," Safety!

Ballet, one of the Aga Sakal, or Lords with the white beards* came out, and brought us to his tents: and thus we were the Mehmoon, i. e. Guests, of one of the Turkomauns; and as soon as one is declared Mehmoon of one of the Turkomauns, there is no longer any danger in travelling among them. All the Aga Sakal, or Lords of the beards, came to see me; for I had been strongly recommended to them by Abbas Mirza: they promised me their assistance in going to Bokhara. Many of the Turkomauns at Sarakhs, who had seen me, when in slavery at Torbad, came out to welcome me.

JEWS AT SARAKHS.

Before I speak more in detail of the Turkomauns, I must be allowed to speak of the state of the Jews at Sarakhs; Since both there and elsewhere, they have been the chief object and motive of my pilgrimage in these deserts, and of my wanderings in the waste howling wilderness of Toorkestaun: for the purpose of reminding thee, my brother, of the promises given to our ancestors,

* Aga Sakal, i. e. Lords with the white beard; these are the only superiors whom the Turkomauns admit, i. e. their Elders. In the Persian tongue they are called either Ked Khoda, or Reesh Safeed, i. e. White beard, which title is the same as the Arabic Sheikh.

- and of the expectations, which thou hast still a right to cherish; for the purpose of reminding thee of days of old, of those days, when Jehovah, He, even He, carried thee on eagles' wings; when fire from heaven kindled the sacrifices upon thine altar, a sweet smelling savour unto the Lord, in thy beautiful Temple; and for the purpose of proclaiming to thee that Temple, which was broken down, and in three days built up again; of proclaiming to thee that Child of Jerusalem, that Rightful Heir to David's throne, who was rejected by his Mother, and harshly treated in the house of his Brethren; on which account Jerusalem, his Mother according to the flesh, became a widow, and his brethren fugitives and vagabonds on earth; and chiefly for the purpose of proclaiming to thee, poor Israel: "Behold, thy King comes, and his reward is with him!" These being my feelings, let me first speak about my brethren. There are eighty Jews from Meshed, who live here undisturbed by the Turkomauns. They came for two reasons: for the purpose of carrying on their trade with the Turkomauns; and, because on account of the oppression which they frequently suffered at Meshed, some turned Mussulmans; but among the Turkomauns they are allowed to practise their religion openly. Every Jew is declared the Mehmoon of one of the Aga Sakal: if something is stolen from a Jew, his host traces the footsteps of the thief, and brings back the stolen property. When on a Sabbath day a Turkomaun enters the house of a Jew, the Jew tells him, "We have our Sabbath," and the Turkomaun leaves the room instantly. I took up my abode with one of the Jews; Mullah Yakoob, Mullah Michael, Mullah Ishak, and many others called on me. I expounded to them Isaiah liii., Zachariah xii., Daniel ix., Psalm ex. They listened with intense interest; and I hope that Mullah Yakoob and Mullah Michael are sincere believers in Jesus Christ. My preaching that Jesus Christ died for our sins, brought tears from the eyes of the amiable Mullah Yakoob. Before this, he spent his nights in reading Hafiz. I may say that he believed my preaching.

JOSEPH HASSEED, OR JOSEPH THE PIOUS.

The Jews of Sarakhs related to me the history of a singular Jew, who lives at Talkhtoon, in the territory of Mowr or Merve, among the Turkomauns. "Joseph Hasseed, or Joseph the Pious, a Jew from Meshed, has retired from the world, and lives in a house with a Turkomaun Priest, (who has the title of Khaleefa of Talkhtoon) where he spends his time in reading the Bible in the Hebrew tongue, and in meditating on the works of God, and in prayer. His head is continually bowed to the ground; no word of disputation is heard from him, no word of contention with his brethren, no lie, no profane word; his teaching is, to love all mankind, and even to love our enemies. After having read the Bible for many years, he has given up the reading of it, and meditates on its holy contents, and prays to God, in unison with the Mussulman Khaleefa, for higher light from above. He is surrounded by disciples, who follow his steps. He trades only as far as is nenecessary for his maintenance. No smile is seen on his countenance, nor tear on account of. the death of his friends. Saul, a Jew at Sarakhs, a young man of angelic countenance, was his disciple. Saul became sick; at his dying hour, angels, it is said, came near his bed, who were singing hymns to the delight of those that were present; while white horses stood ready to carry the soul swiftly to the Garden of Eden. Saul looked at his surrounding friends, smiled, pointed with his hand toward heaven, and gave up the ghost. Joseph of Talkhtoon was so united in spirit with his disciple Saul of Sarakhs, that he announced it to his people at Talkhtoon, and said, 'Brother Saul, thy love to me was wonderful.'"

The Khaleefa, a Turkomaun Priest, who resides with him, preaches to his Turkomaun brethren against their system of plundering the caravans, and does not accept from them the usual vow promised after their success in Foray or Tshapow.

Feb. 11 Mullah Baba, the Jew of Sarakhs, who was made

Khan of the Jews by Allah Kolle Khan, King of Khiva, asked me to-day with great seriousness, whether I was not the Prince Royal of England; for the rumour among the Turkomauns was going about, that I was sent by my Royal father to this country, to watch the movements of the Russians; for they had seen me sitting in the room of Abbas Mirza, with my legs stretched out, and Abbas Mirza was talking with me in the most familiar manner.

The Jews assembled in my room, and sang the following hymn, by which it appears, that the love of their Messiah has accompanied my brethren to the deserts of Toorkestaun. Oh! that love for the real King of Jerusalem may soon be awakened among them, —the love of Jesus Christ!

HYMN OF THE JEWS AT SARAKHS.

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Mighty One of the Mighty is He!

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Blessed One of the Blessed is He!

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Great One of the Great is He!

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Distinguished one of the Distinguished is He!

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Glorious One of the Glorious is He!

The King our Messiah shall come;

The Sweet One of the Sweet is He!

The King our Messiah shall come:

The Most Pitiful of the Pitiful is He! etc.

Whilst this hymn was sung, the Turkomauns stood near the room with their hands folded together, as they do in the mosque; and after every stanza, they stroked their beards, observing the Awliyan, i. e. Holy man from England, sings holy hymns with the Jews; for I sang it with them.

The Jews of Sarakhs and Khiva are suspected by the Persians of assisting the Turkomauns in getting slaves.

Doctor Milman's questions respecting the Malabar Jews, induce me to make the following general remarks, respecting the Jews of Toorkestaun, which are chiefly applicable to the Trans-Oxonian Jews. They have no other writings except those which the Jews in Europe are possessed of. The Jews of Meshed have in their own characters the poems of Hafiz, Youssuf and Soleikha, and some of the Persian poems. All their books come from Leghorn, Poland, (where they have a press at which their Talmud has been printed,) Wilna, Sklov, and other places of Europe, by way of Makariev, Orenburg, Cassan and Astrachan. They have the common tradition about the Sabbathical river;' but the Jewish Sooflfees of Meshed disbelieve it. The Talmud is scarce at Meshed and Torbad, and is not to be found at all among the Jews of Sarakhs, Mowr, Maimona and Ankhoy; while, from reasons which I shall explain hereafter, it is frequently to be found at Bokhara. They do not know the Apocryphal books of the Maccabees, Tobit, &c, as they exist among the Christians; but they are acquainted with their history, by their rabbinical writings. They have very fine Syriagogues at Meshed, from the time of Nadir Shah. Their hierarchy consists of nyr-o Priests; ciS Levites; ouai Rabbies; a,x,t Vice Rabbies; D'Nt'io Princes; w\zho Teachers. Only their Babbies speak pure Hebrew. They keep themselves entirely secludeded from their neighbours, and never intermarry with them: the Jews of Meshed do not even intermarry with those of Yazd, on account of the bad character of the latter. The Jews of Meshed, Toorkestaun and Khorossaun, have no intercourse with those of Ispahan and Teheraun, nor with those of Europe. They have no hatred towards Jesus Christ; which makes me suspect their being of the Ten Tribes, who had no share in the crucifixion of our Lord.

• All the Jews of Toorkestaun assert, that the Turkomauns are the descendants of Togarmah, one of the sons of Gomer, mentioned in Genesis x. 3; and the Turkomauns are called by the . Jews Togarmah, or Garmah. The Turkomauns themselves say, that they are descendants of Garaman and Yalawatsh.f

The following is a list of the names of the tribes of Turks, from Bokhara and Khiva to Chinese Tartary; I insert it here for the use of Historians or Philologists. The Turkomauns are a branch of the Turk.

Mankid, of which tribe the King of Bokhara is descended. Neyman. Seray. Burkut. Bahareen. Yamoo. Yaboo. Sa

* This tradition is related in another part of the journal.

t Who is not struck with the resemblance of Garaman and German? And beside this, Germany is called by the Jews Ashkenaz, who was the brother of Togarmah; and one cannot but be struck with the resemblance between the German and Turkomaun countenances, especially of the women.

rekh. Khetay. Karakejak. Khetay Kejak.* Karakalpak. Jomojoole. Kyjele. Daas. Kenekas. Konghorat. Korama. Manaas. Barlaas. Dorman. Semees. Lakay. Kesemeer. Kadaghan. Metan. Karaghle. Sonk. Tshosman. Mink. Xoos. Kirk. Ajamyle. Karatakmyle. Jakhalwyle. Yaflak. Karakoyle. Jelekar. Maseet. Tamah. Galetshee. Kantshekhale. Jojele. Kashtakmale. Batshegah. Ooak. Karatakmale. Molaghale. Balkhale. Toorkmaun. Keat. Jelayer. Tekka. Yaraoot. Karlogh. Olmas. Olam. Karataghle. Aghtaghle. Kalmak (Calmook). Kasaac (Cosas). Metanle. Manas. Karakonghrat. Kara-Symis. Akhsenis. Kirgees (Girgees). Ghaze-Aghlee. Salor (who had two sons, Garman and Yalawatsh). The Turkomauns of Sarakhs are of the tribe of Salor, and these are their names: Yatshe. Bagash. Toora Timoon Bokhara. Bashartsha. Doos, (corresponds with Duisco.) Karaktsha-Aga. Arslam Bolook. Yakoob. Sakar. Ajab. Moosa. Ismael. Yeika. Alam. Jolam. Artoo-Khoja. Sakar. Beyk-Bolook. Telemen. Arwan-Mink. To all these tribes they prefix the word tarah, i. e. tribe Joomaj-Mink. TaaseBoyle. Tashgasyar. Kaltatay. Koshtagmale. Katakolagh. Akoyrog.

FORM OF GOVERNMENT AT SARAKHS.

The Turkomauns of Sarakhs have no Chief, properly so called. Every tribe has an Aga Sakal, i. e. Lord of the beard; in Persian they are simply called Reesh Safeed, i. e. white beard. If a dispute arises among them, the whole tribe of the respective parties take a part in it, and the matter is settled by the Aga Sakal; not by an order (Hokkam,) but by Iltimas, (Intercession,) saying to the contending parties, "Boys, look at our white beards!" However they give some presents, sometimes to the King of Khiva, and sometimes to the King of Bokhara, and now to Abbas Mirza, just as it suits their purpose; for which they receive d presents. They are mostly afraid of the King of Khiva. Ask a Turkomaun, why no order exists among them; he replies, we have no King. ("In those days there was no King in Israel,but every man did that which was right in his own eyes." Judges xvii. 6.) In the vast Empire of Russia, one can travel with safety, and in the cities and villages order is to be found; for monarchical power, the most biblical, is established there.

A Turkomaun never beats his child, in order that he may not lose his natural courage; he never divorces his wife; and he has generally only one.

AL-AMAN.

The Turkomauns collected, united, and marching for Tshapow

* Khetay Kejak is Cochin China.

t The word ri-vo was used already in the Biblein Genesis xxv. 16, Numbers xxxi. 10, where it means fold of the Nomades, a village of huts, or hordes.

« AnteriorContinuar »