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Almost every nobleman and every Osbek Mullah has a Nogay as his guest.
Napoleon Bonaparte is well known at Bokhara: his invasion in Russia, and entrance into Moscow, caused great poverty here; for many merchants of this place had depots at Moscow.
The Armenian from Astrachan, who is here, calls often on me; he knows well Alexander Kasembeg, or Mohammed Ali, a Persian, converted by the Scotch and German Missionaries at Astrachan. He told me, that Serope (mentioned in Henry Martyn's life by the name of Serafino) is now Archbishop of Astrachan. Serafino was an Armenian Catholic, brought up at Rome, who joined afterwards the Armenian community, and was accordingly employed in the Lazarean college at Moscow.
CHIEF MULLAHS AT BOKHAKA.
Mullah Tshape Nawees; a gentleman eighty years of age, and highly respected by the King. Makhsoome Daw Mullah Calandar Jan. Daw Mullah Saleh Alem. Makhsoome Daw Mullah Kalaan.
Goosh-Bekee sent again for me, and told me, that the King had given me permission to proceed to Cabool, or wherever I pleased, I drank tea with him. A great many Mullahs were assembled in his room, and again a conversation took place; in which I told them, that the fulness of the Godhead was bodily in Jesus. Every traveller in the East will be aware that those great men are never alone: men of distinction sit around them, and the servants are standing; so that the conversation I had with Goosh-Bekee was heard by all.
The AfFghauns who are here, reside chiefly in the caravan-seray of Mullah Bedr-Addeen, whom I have already mentioned.
I must not pass over with silence the Tatshik, a mighty nation, who are spreading from Karakol to Bokhara, Balkh, Kondoz, Cabool, and Peshawr. They are the original inhabitants of those countries, and it is said of them, that they received the Mohammedan faith by conviction, and not by force of the sword: and therefore they say here, that they were styled by Mohammed, Taj Almakhlook, i. e. Crown of the creation: but this derivation is fanciful, for they had that name from time immemorial.
The Bazaar of Bokhara is visited by merchants of Kashgar, Yurkand, Kokan, Khotan, Heraut, Maimona, Ankhoy, Orgauntsh, Candahar, Meshed, Astrachan, Orenburg, and from Hindoostann. The people of Bokhara visit the great fair of Makariev, called here Makria, and go frequently with their merchandise to Saratow; and the Jews go sometimes to Sklov, in the government of Mohilev.
March 19 I visited to day some learned AfFghauns, who came from Affghanistaun, in order to teach some young men Tawarikh (history), and Ylra Illahyath (divinity), Ylm Nujum (astronomy), Mantak (rhetoric), and Falsafee (philosophy). They told me, that the Affghauns were the descendants of Khaleed the son of Waleed, who was by the father's line a Jew, and by the mother's line a Koreish.
Waleed was an inveterate enemy to Mohammed. Mohammed . prayed to God the Lord of the worlds, that some of the family of Waleed should be converted. Gabriel appeared to Mohammed and said to him, "Cease to pray, for a giant of the family of Waleed shall turn to Islam." And that giant was Khaleed the son of Waleed, a mighty man, full of truth and integrity. One day a battle was fought against the Koreish. Khaleed lost his way, and got into the midst of the camp of the enemy. The Koreish asked him, "Who art thou?" Khaleed, who never lied, replied, "I am Khaleed, the son of Waleed, a warrior in the army of the Prophet of God; I came to fight against you, and have lost my way." The Koreish, though infidels, were a highminded people; they replied, "There thou wilt find the army of Mohammed, the son of Abd Ullah; soon it will be decided, who'are the true Gods." Khaleed, the brave, replied, "God, and nothing but God, and Mohammed the prophet of God!" He swiftly rode off, the battle was fought, the victory gained, and the Koreish fled. Khaleed turned to Keis Abd Alrasheed, the Affghaun, and said to him, "Go and tell the Affghauns in the mountains of Ghor, that the battle is fought, the victory gained, and our brethren of Khaibar and the Koreish are fled; that the temple of Abraham at Mecca is ours, and the people of Arabia in the desert exclaim, "God, and nothing but God, and Mohammed the prophet of God!"
The same Mullahs at Bokhara repeated to me the story, that their language was the language of Hell; and Affghana, who was the architect employed by Solomon in building the temple, had learned that language of the demon who was chained by Solomon.
I heard the Affghauns in the caravan-seray of Mullah BedrAddeen sing the following song:
Who is a King without the name'? , ~' i • . , .
Chorus II. - '. -,\j L. * .'
It is Doost Mohammed Khan.
What bold slave took up arms against his master,'? , r
Chorus I and II. >
It is Doost Mohammed Khan,
Who put to flight Shah Kamran.
It is Doost Mohammed Khan,
Who has his Seraglio filled with Frank-like
White girls of the Siyapoosh Kaffrestaun.
Chorus I and II.
After the death of Shah Mahmood, King of the AlTghauns, Futteh Khan, Doost Mohammed Khan, Kohandeel Khan, Peer Khan, and Sultan Mohammed, his slaves, rebelled. Futteh Khan, who had taken Heraut, was first blinded, and then killed by Shah Kamran of the old dynasty. Doost Mohammed Khan, his brother, took possession of Cabool. Kohandeel Khan took possession of Candahar with some of his other brothers; and Sultan Mohammed Khan with Peer Khan, of Peshawar. Doost Mohammed Khan is the most clever of the brothers. As my friend, Lieut. Arthur Conolly, has given an exact account of the political change of Affghanistaun, I abstain from doing so.
One of the Affghauns observed, "As soon as the Franks (Engglish) let loose Shoojah Almoolk, there will neither be a Doost Mohammed, nor a Kohandeel Khan, nor a Sultan Mohammed Khan. AfTghanistaun must be governed again by a crowned King; we are neither Balkhwee,* nor Hazarah, nor Turkomauns. Hindoostaun has belonged to us, now we are afraid of Runjud Singh, an infidel. Let the Franks give us a King, and we are their humble slaves! The Franks have taken Hindoostaun, not by the sword, but by knowledge, justice and equity; and they shall take the world by knowledge. Let us look at their women at Bombay, with their graceful and high breasts, firm like a wall; and who know to read and to write."
The oriental people are after all the most clever and extensive travellers in their country. I frequently saw, when travelling in the desert of Egypt, men and women eighty years of age, performing their pilgrimages to Jerusalem. Thus I met here an old Osbek Mullah, who had travelled in Yarkand, China, Tibet, Cashmeer, Calcutta, Bombay, Mecca, Egypt and Constantinople; he went from Bombay to Calcutta in a ship commanded by a Captain Taylor. He desired me to read some portion of the Bible to him, which I did. He observed that I would be received well at Samarcand, "The ornament of the face of the Earth," as it is called.
ARMIES OF THE DIFFERENT KINGS IN TOORKESTAUN.
The King of Bokhara cannot place in the field above 20,000 men, who would mostly consist of cavalry; for though he has 100 cannons, he has no men who know well the use of them.
* Balkhwee are Barbarian Nomades, wandering about in the mountains of Hindoo Koosh, between Kholm and Cabool; they are robbers and murderers.
Mohammed Moorad Beyk, King of Kondoz, has not above 12,000 men. King of Khiva, 30,000 men. The King of Shahr Sabz, whose name is Yadkar Beyk, son of Attalek, can place 4000 men. Daniel, Kin of Kokan, can place 100,000 men. There are re collects filled with Mullahs: the books they read are, Jelaal, Beidaavee, and all the ancient commentators of the Koran: they take all their Astronomical, Astrological, Medical and Philosophical knowledge from the Koran and its commentators. The Sooffees of Bokhara are quite different from those of Sheeras, and Meshed: those of Sheeras and Meshed are mystical infidels, and antinomians; but the Sooffees of Bokhara strictly believe in the Koran, and try to regulate their life accordingly; they are not addicted to such abominable crimes as the rest of the Mohammedans at Bokhara are, and try to come near to God. The Kings of Bokhara and Khiva have established order in their capitals, and in their neighbouring territories. The King of Bukhara has established order as far as Balkh, and the King of Khiva throughout his country.
The great Patron Saint of Bokhara, lived some hundred years ago, and was, as the Dervishes explain it, drunk with the love of God, walking about naked in the streets of Bokhara. Baba Deen was highly respected by the King of Bokhara. At present, pilgrimages are performed to him; and the King of Kondoz, notwithstanding the deadly enmity he bears to the King of Bokhara, sends every year an offering of rice for Baba Deen at Bokhara. The memory of this Dervish is highly revered; but the Dervishes now living, are generally hated by the stiff orthodox Mullahs. In every denomination of religion, there are among its professors two kinds of people: first, those who content themselves with a cold orthodox creed, whilst they do not seek after internal religion, and close communion with God. This is the case among the professors of the Christian religion, and this I found to be the case with the Mohammedans. To the first class, the Mullahs of Bokhara belong; to the second class, the Dervishes of Bokhara, who are generally Sooffees, but of a different character from those of Persia. The Sooffees of Bokhara, are people who really try, as they express themselves, “to come nearer to God,” by a moral life, separation from the world, meditation, prayer, and reading the books of other religious sects. Many of them are like Cornelius of Cesarea, whose prayers and alms went up as a memorial before God. These are termed hypocrites by the Mullahs; and as there are some hypocrites among the Bokhara Soolfees, they believe it right to reject the whole sect. Whilst at Bokhara, I remember having heard a conversation be
tween two Jewesses at the house of one Ruben, a Jew from Meshed. The gossip was precisely of that turn, so common even amongst the fashionable circles of women in E urope, especially in ball rooms; marking out certain ladies of their acquaintance, as assuming a degree of piety and modesty, with which their conduct on some occasions was known not very strictly to accord; observing that they were very gay in their younger days; that one does not become worse by going to balls; that enthusiasm does a vast deal of harm, especially among young people; that many fine, beautiful ladies do not get husbands on that very account. Tell a Turkomaun woman, that a certain lady is of an ancient tribe, and another will instantly relate something to detract from the character of her ancestors. The world is everywhere the same; there is not the least difference between the nature of an unconverted Turkomaun woman, and that of a fashionable lady in high circles of society in England, or like a spinster 36 years of age, anxious to get a husband and jealous of the happy lot of a girl of seventeen years of age.
DEPARTURE FROM BOKHARA.
I prepared for leaving Bokhara. Some of the inhabitants called on me the evening before, and related to me how harshly they had been treated by Tshingis Khan on his arrival in that town.
The King of Bokhara sent me my passport, through an officer of the Custom-house: I have before me the original, of which I
Sive the translation, made by the private Monshee of Lord William entinck, Governor General in India, when at Simlah.
"The high order has been issued, that Joseph Wolff, the Englishman, return to his country. It is therefore ordered, that no one shall detain or molest him on his road. This command is to be executed. Bokhara, Shabaan 1247. Hegira."
March 21.—Goosh-Bekee sent for the chief of the caravan and for Yehoodah Cashi, a Jew from Balkh, who were leaving Bokhara for that place. He particularly recommended me to their protection, and I set out with them; three more Jews joined us on the road. I proclaimed the Gospel of Christ to Yehoodah Cashi from Balkh.
March 22.—We made about 28 English miles in the desert.
March 23 Again 28 miles through the desert. A Mullah from
Balkh, and some of the servants of Aishaun Khoja, Governor of Balkh, who were our travelling companions, shewed me very great attention. There were people from Ankhoy and Cabool in the caravan. I never remained with the caravan, but always rode on before with the Mullah from Balkh, who spoke Arabic, and became my great friend.
March 24.—I arrived at Jendeer. This village is inhabited by Turkomauns, subject to the King of Bokhara. We stopt there till
March 26.—When we arrived in the evening among the Kara Turkomauns, they came out to touch my Bible, for which they have a great veneration. Here we arrived at the banks of the Oxus, called "Labbe Darya," (Lip of the sea.)