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Yonos had 13 sons.
KINGS OF THE AFFGHAUNS.
The Affghauns had 23 Kings, who governed Hindoostaun. Eighteen of them are celebrated, and five are obscure. They governed India 123 years. The following are celebrated. Sheer Shah, he governed India from the frontiers of Bengal to Cabool. Isleem Shah. Sultan Balool. Sultan Sekandar. Ibraheem Shah: these governed the whole of Hindoostaun. Sultan Ali. Sultan Shah. Sultan Ahmed Loghane. Sultan Ahmed Adal. Sultan Mahmood. Sultan Secunder, nephew of Sheer Shah. Sultan Ibraheem II. who died a Martyr. Sultan Behador. Sultan Jelal Addeen. Sultan Mohammed. Feerooz Shah. Sultan Kaloo. Sultan Ashraf. Ahmed Sultan. All these have been descendants of Bebee (Lady) Mattoo.
HISTORICAL BOOKS OF THE AFFGHAUNS.
The following historical books are said to givean exact account of the Affghauns. Tawareekh Jehaangeer, Tawareekh Nesaame, Harwee, Teskere Darweiza, Majmooa Alansaab.
My doubts about the Affghauns being descendants of the Jews, are these: they have not the Jewish physiognomy; and the tradition of their being the descendants of the Jews is not general. I have already shewn, that some believe them to be the descendants of the Copts. Their genealogy also is confused; and finally, their language does not resemble the Hebrew.
SPECIMENS OF AFFGHAUN WORDS.
Taken partly from Affghauns themselves, and partly from Elphinstone's Cabool. This language is commonly called Pushtoo.
* Those words to which the asterisk is affixed, are taken from the Persian.
EXAMPLE OF THE PUSHTOO CONSTRUCTION OF THE GRAMMAR.
Pushtana Kawoom. . . I ask.
If these words should be Coptic, the author of the book called "Mutalla Anwar," would be right in asserting the Affghauns to be descendants of the Copts, who had turned Jews in the time of Moses.
Mr. Elphinstone's name is mentioned in Affghanistaun with affection; they call him Ilfristin. Hajee Meer Abdul Khan Toorane, of the Popul Szeye, was his friend.
May 10 I asked Mullah Khodadad, whether the Sheah were
not considered as Mussulmans by the Suwanee. He replied, that the Mullahs of the Sunnee divide themselves on this point into two classes: the Muhaddeseen, and the Mawurulneheree; the Muhaddeseen are those of Cabool, who say, that as the Sheah accept the Hadees (Traditions) beside the Koran, they must be considered as Mussulmans. The Mawurulneheree are the Mullahs of Bokhara, who do not consider them as Mussulmans. The fact is, that the Sheah are so powerful in Affghanistaun, that the Sunnee there would not dare to declare them infidels. The Wahabites in Arabia are considered both by Sheah and Sunnee as infidels.
I had after this a long conversation with a Mussulman about Christ. Thus the time is spent between gathering information and conversing chiefly about the one thing needful, i. e. Jesus Christ my Saviour.
May 11.—A Persian from Kasween, Khaleel by name, called , on me; he was brought here by Ahmed Shah, after the death of Nadir Shah. He served under Nadir Shah, and went with that conqueror to Bagdad. Khaleel is 114 years of age; he was only ill once, and has retained his memory. He was here at the time the Armenians were brought here by Ahmed Shah, and he is surprised that all those people are now dead.
A fine looking young man, dressed in ragged clothes, entered
t 'W (Or) Light, is the only Hebrew word I found in the AfTghaun tongue. The construction of the Pushtoo Grammar entirely differs from that of the Hebrew.
my room; I asked who he was, he replied, "I am Jelaal Addeen, Son of a King (Shahe Zadah), who is now at Loodianah with Shoojah Almulk. Doost Mohammed Khan gives me no bread to eat, I have not eaten any thing for these three days past; I am hungry, could you not give me a few rupees?" It was Prince Jelaal Addeen, son of King Sanjaar, of the royal branch Saddo Szeye, a successor of King Timur and Lady Mattoo, who governed Hindoostaun in former times. Prince Jelaal Addeen begs at the door of his father's slave for a piece of bread, and is refused! Every additional experience in life shews more and more plainly, that there is no real permanent happiness in this world; and that the Lord pulls down the high and lofty ones of the earth; and that he is the disposer of crowns, according to his good pleasure; and that there is only one crown, which fadeth not away. Happy the man, for whom such a crown is reserved; but it is only reserved for those, who have submitted to the sweet yoke, and light burden laid upon us by Jesus Christ our Lord. "Tu fecisti nos ad te, et inquietum est cor nostrum, donee requiescat in te!" Jelaal Addeen, Shahe Zadah, begs for a piece of bread in the streets of Cabool!
DEPARTURE FROM CABOOL.
May' s —After having seen again Doost Mohammed Khan in the house of Nawaub Jabar Khan, I set off for Peshawr. The first night we stopt at But-Khak,* nine miles from Cabool, belonging to Nawaub Jabar Khan. I was surprised there to learn, that the private property of the inhabitants had been forcibly taken from them by Nawaub Jabar Khan; and whenever I came afterwards, I found that they preferred the administration of Doost Mohammed Khan, to that of my mild host Nawaub Jabar Khan, with regard to mildness and justice. I am sorry to state this fact, but it is according to truth.
May 13.—We arrived at Tesseen, a large village, inhabited by Affghauns, 20 miles east from the former place. We passed seven mountains, called Gabra Jabar Kotel.f
May 14.—We stopped at Tesseen among Affghauns of the tribe of the Galitshei and Kakaree, mentioned in the chronicles of the Affghauns, which I have noticed in the preceding pages. They entered my room, and wanted to sleep in the same room with me; but the escort, sent with me by Nawaub Jabar Khan, ordered them to leave the room; without stirring, they said, "It shall be known."' I remonstrated with them; they continually replied, "It shall be known." At last I wanted to leave the room, when they suddenly got up, and left me alone. They are considered as great robbers, but they were afraid of the men of Nawaub Jabar Khan.
May 15 We passed over high mountains, and arrived at Gun
damack, 30 English miles from Tesseen, inhabited by the Ga
« But-Khak means "Dust of Idols," from Sultan Mahmud, King of the Affghauns, having here broken in pieces the idols of the Hindoos.
t Kotel means pass.
litshei and Kakaree tribe of the Affghauns. From this place, the road to Peshawr begins to be safe. What a wide distance had I now traversed from Malta to this place! And have I made all this journey entirely for my Master's glory? This is a question, which will be answered before some higher tribunal.
May 16.—I arrived at Tatang, 18 English miles from Gundamack. It is a beautiful place, covered with mulberry trees; it belonged to Nawaub Jabar Khan, but his brother Doost Mohammed Khan had begged it of him for himself.
Mullah Abd Alkader from Cashmeer, now residing at Tatang, called on me; as he was averse to a religious discussion, I asked him for some information. What he told me, I afterwards heard repeated, almost verbatim, by the Mussulmans at Cashmeer. He said, that the water of the flood remained upon the mountains of Cashmeer until Solomon was carried by the Genii to the spot, where Cashmeer stands; he ordered the Dew (Genius) Kash to draw away the water, and a certain Meer* built a town there, which in the time of Jesus Christ was destroyed; and Parwarzeen, one of the Hindoo Kings of Cashmeer, built the present Cashmeer. In the time of Rehtang Shah, a Fakeer, Pulpul Shah by named appeared, and converted Rehtang Shah, King of Cashmeer, to the Mohammedan religion.
In the year of the Hegira 760 (A. D. 1346), during the reign of Allae Deen, Emeer Sayd Ali, Hamadane, a holy Dervish, appeared at Cashmeer. A Hindoo, Parme Hamoz by name, was living at that time at Cashmeer; he was such a holy man that he could fly towards heaven, and predict whether a woman would have a son or a daughter. The Hindoos said to Sayd Ali Hamadane, if he should convert Parme Hamoz, they all should follow his example. Sayd Ali Hamadane succeeded in converting him, and the rest turned Mohammedans.
The same Mullah informed me, that a Persian manuscript, called "Rawsat Alahbab," contains the history of Mohammed and the two journies he made; the one with his uncle Aboo Taleb, and the other as a merchant, employed by his wife Hadijah, the daughter of Khuwailad. A book, entitled "Juwaher Attafseer," is a com
*Mr. Treveleyan,' a Sanscrit scholar, assures me, that Meer in Sanscrit means Hill, so that it means the Hill of Cash. Alexander's historians speak of the Caashe, as inhabiting these hills, and the name Kashgar, is called after them. It appears to me, that rt3 (Rush) in Gen. ii. which is translated Ethiopia, may be the Caashe. It was an idea of Herder, that the Garden of Eden may have been in the valley of Cashmeer; for the Gihon (Oxus) has its origin at Cashmeer.
t The distinguished Fakeers, or Dervishes, have in Persia, Affghanistaun and Cashmeer the title of Shah, King.
mentary of the Koran, highly esteemed by the Mullahs of Cashmeer.
Around Tatang, the Khaibaree are residing; an independent and warlike tribe, inhabiting a mountainous region, between Caboo) and Peshaur. They divide themselves into the following tribes: Moomand Kohe, Shinwaree, Afreedee, Orok Szeye. They are perhaps the descendants of the Jews of Khaibar, who fought against Mohammed?
EMIGRANTS FROM CASHMEER.
From the time that Runjeet Singh took possession of Cashmeer. many Mussulmans preferred living as exiles under a Mohammedan Government, to being the subjects of a Prince whom they consider as a Kafer; and beside this, the estates of the principal Mussulmans at Cashmeer have been confiscated by the great Maharajah of the Seiks. Khoja Mohammed Sadek, and his brother Khoj.a Mohammed Aseem, both amiable and respectable gentlemen, D.: were friends of Mr. Morecroft, when at Cashmeer, iive now at Tatang, supported by the bounty of the Chief of Cabool. These nr Cashmerians told me the names of the numbers, and of the days «' the week, in the language of Cashmeer.
May 20 We left Tatang, and arrived at Jelaalabad. nine English miles distant, where we slept in the house of the Mufti.
May 21.—We entered a boat, composed of skins stretched upon a frame of wood, and went down the river called Jala. We arrived in the evening at Lalpore, where Saadat Khan, an Affghauc Chief of the tribe of Momand resides. The mountainous situation of his territory makes him independent, as well of the Khan of