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that his heart is inclined to evil; if that be bad, how can we expect good fruits?
R. S. A medicine is necessary for the heart of man.
M. I am astonished at this answer, no Mullah has ever given me such an answer; but I ask now, what medicine is to be used for the heart?
M. S. Do you tell me the kind of medicine.
M. The Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.
R. S. Have you a Persian translation of the Gospel, which the Fakeer could read to me?
M. I will send one from Simlah, as soon as I am with the Governor General.
R. S. Do so. How is it, that you travel about for the sake of religion? for the English in general do not care about religion.
M. Your Highness would be surprised to see what activity of religious exertions there is in England. Thousands of sterling pounds of money are spent every year for the sake of religion.
R. S. Have you heard of my conference with the Nawab Lard Saheb (Lord William Bentinck), held at Roopar?
M. I heard at Bokhara of that interview.
R. S. Is it likely that the Russians will be come?
M. I do not think that they will come for the present.
R. S. Tell me sincerely, in what manner could I shew my sincere friendship to the English Government?
M. The Governor General of India is best capable of answering this question.
Immediately after my arrival, the dancing girls appeared, according to the custom of the country. His Highness asked me whether I should like to see them dance. I replied, as I was an English Brahmin I could not find pleasure in such amusements. His Highness desired them to retire. He asked me then, whether I drank wine. I replied, "Very little." He ordered wine to be brought. It was Runjeet Singh's peculiar wine, rather like a distilled spirit; it burns the mouth like fire. I wished to drink one drop of it to the health of His Majesty; but I was obliged to reject it.
R. S. Do you believe that nobodv can die without the will of God?
M. Yes, I do.
R. S. Then, why are you afraid when crossing a river in a boat? I heard that you were very much afraid, when you passed the river at Attock.
M. I can give no answer but this, that God should be shewn to be mighty in my weakness.
His Highness gave me 1100 rupees, shawls worth 1000 rupees, and a horse worth 100 rupees.
June 22.—I left the hospitable dwelling of Monsieur le Chevalier Allard, and travelling partly upon an elephant, and partly in a Palankeen, we arrived at Jendeale, twelve miles east from Umritsir, accompanied by 25 horsemen of Runjeet Singh. Here a good many of the Akalee are met with, who make the road very unsafe; for as they are priviledged saints, they frequently insult Europeans.
June 23.—I arrived at Kaboor Talah, 60 miles east from Jendeale. Here, Futteh Singh, an old and venerable Serdar (General) of Runjeet Singh, paid me great attention. In the evening we arrived at Jalandar, 10 Koss, or 30 miles east from Kaboor-Talah.
June 24 We arrived at Pagwara, 25 miles east distant; and in
the evening at Fellore, 35 miles east.
ARRIVAL AT LOODIANAH.
June 25.—I crossed the Sutledge,* and arrived at Loodianah, the first English station of the utmost northern frontier of British India. "Now," I exclaimed, "through God's infinite goodness, I am safe! after so many troubles, I am safe! and the Lord has not permitted one hair to fall from my head; and the prophesy of those of Teheran, that I should not get beyond Meshed, has not been fulfilled!"
Captain Wade, the political Agent of the Honourable E. I. Company, received me with great cordiality, and so did Dr. Murray; they introduced me to Major Faithful, where I met, for the first time after 18 months, with an English family, and this in the midst of Asia Major. . This gentleman was of the greatest assistance to me, especially in giving me exact information about the Seiks; he tells me their religion is a compound of the Christian, Hindoo, and Mohammedan religions, and he introduced me to both the Affghaun ex-Kings, Shah Zemaun, and Shujah Almulk. Poor Shah Zemaun was deprived of his eyes by Futteh Khan, one of his slaves, who experienced afterwards the same lot.
July 1.—I preached to the English inhabitants of Loodianah, and gave them two lectures.
I received to-day the following letter from Subathoo.
Subathoo, June 30, 1832. My dear Mr. Wolff, I have just received your letter, and Sir Jeremiah and I are delighted to find we are to have the pleasure of seeing you on Wednesday, when every thing shall be done on our part to further your wishes; and from all we heard from Simlah, from Lord William Bentinck and others, we have no doubt that you will receive every support in the pursuit of your object. Capt. Wade will tell you how very small a party is comprehended in the station of Subathoo: at present only three persons besides ourselves; but as we hope your stay with us will be of some duration, we can consult on the
* Punjavb means five waters, for there are five rivers: Sutledge, Beyah, (the Hyphasis;) Ravee, (the Hydriotes;) Jinab; Jelum or Behut, (Hydaspes.)
The Beyah is believed to be the Pison of Genesis ii, 11. This river rises in the province of Lahore, near the mountains of cash- meer, and not far from the source of the Sutledge, which it afterwards joins; for the first 200 miles its course is to the south, after which it pursues a westerly direction.
plan you wish to be adopted, and be assured you will find in Colonel Bryant and myself, interested and eager supporters. I wish Capt. Wade could be prevailed upon to accompany you as far as Subathoo, &c.
My dear Mr. Wolff sincerely yours,
(Signed) M. A. Bryant.
DEPARTURE FROM LOODIANAH.
July 2.—I left the house of the kind hearted Captain Wade, and set out for Subathoo and Simlah, in the Himalayan mountains. I arrived at Machiawarah, thirty miles east from Loodianah.
July 3 We arrived at Roopor, where a conference had formerly taken place between Lord William and Runjeet Singh.
July 4.—We arrived at Budde, 30 miles east from Roopor. Here the Himmalayah mountains begin. I sent on a messenger to Sir Jeremiah Bryant. Towards the afternoon, a letterfrom Lady Bryant, with a hill pony, a Jampoon, or hill chair, with some provisions were sent on to meet me on the road. I arrived at Subathoo at ten o'clock at night; Sir Jeremiah and Lady Bryant received me in the most cordial manner: here I found a letter from Lady William Bentinck, inviting me to be their guest at Simlah. I stopt at Subathoo a few days, preached to the English inhabitants on a Sunday, and lectured in the house of Sir Jeremiah Bryant; and then set out for SimlaH. Half way to Simlah from Subathoo, I met with a Palankeen and bearers of Lord William Bentinck's. I alighted at his Lordship's house. Captain Byrne, the Aide-decamp of Lord William, brought me to a room that I might dress myself, and after this, I was received in the most cordial manner by Lord and Lady William Bentinck and the whole staff. I met there likewise with the Rev. H. Fisher, Chaplain to His Lordship, who was a great friend of mine when at Cambridge. I was told here, that the proclamation I had issued at Goojrawala made people suspect that I was crazy; and that was the reason why Lord William would not request Runjeet Singh to permit me to go to Dashmeer until he had seen me. In the forenoon, Colonel Churchill called on me, and introduced me to His Excellency Sir Edward and Lady Barnes, who invited me to dine with them the next day. tn the evening a large party were invited to meet me at Lord William Bentinck's. Arrangements were made for my delivering lecures. I gave about twelve, and preached several Sundays, in the louse of Lord William, and the house of Sir Edward Barnes. At he same time I employed myself in obtaining information, and conversing with Mohammedans. I one day lectured in the house if Nawab Mohammed Abd-Allah Khan. The following Mullahs >f distinction were present:
Mohammed Khan Ali Khan.
Nawab Mohammed Abd-Allah Khan.
Sayd Mohammed SakerAli.
Sheikh Mohammed Hassan Ali.
Mohammed Abd Urrahman.
Mohammed Sayd Bakht.
I called on Major General Adams, who told me the following story of Canaya, one of the incarnations of Krishna, observing in it a striking resemblance to the history of Christ.
"Canaya was born at Muttra. The name of the Rajah of that place was Konz. There was a prophecy, that a child should be born, which should deprive him of his kingdom; on which account he ordered all children under a certain age to be put to death, which was executed. The child Canaya was miraculously saved, and carried over to Gokul, where he was bred up among the shepherds. He shewed great wisdom at an early age."
TALE, CONCERNING THE AFFGHAUNS.
A Mohammedan, and an English gentleman of a facetious temper, called on me. The Mohammedan told me the following fable of the Affghauns, and the origin of their name. "There was a King, who sent his people to several parts of the world, to procure him some slave girls. In a short time they brought a considerable number to their king, who allowed them a quarter in his apartment. In the morning, to the king's great surprise, they were found pregnant. This created a dislike m the king towards them, and he sent them to a desert. There, at the expiration of nine months, they brought forth children, and were at a loss for some time what name to give to them. At last they agreed to adopt the name of Affghaun, i. e. Aff, the Dog barking, and Ghaun, a crow crowing, which happened at their birth." The English gentleman present, told afterwards his friends, that he had made me believe a story about the origin of the Affghauns, which I had written down as a matter of fact. The gentleman, to whom he told the story, was my friend; he came and told me the sport, which the gentleman wanted to make with me, and desired me to scratch it out of my journal; however, I set him right, respecting it, by telling him that the gentleman had made sport of him; for in fact the story was not his invention, but one that passes current with the Mohammedans.
I gathered the following moral sentences. Mohammed says in the Haddees: "It is almost impossible for a man, when it lies in his power to gratify his brutal passions, to refrain from it; therefore a man should, in the first stage of life, guard himself against those evils, which are produced by our senses."
Abool Olaw, a dervish, says, "A man should not look at the clothes of a woman, nor allow his nose to partake of the sweet smell which arises from her body, nor his ears to hear her melodious voice; nay a man should not pass through a road where he thinks he shall be seen by women; for beauty is the seed of lust, and when it has once taken root in the mind, it cannot be extirpated by the force of virtue. A man should therefore avoid looking at a beautiful woman, and she at a handsome man; except those who are united to each other by the laws, which justify their enjoyments of mutual affections, which were before prohibited."
Whilst at Simlah, I entered into correspondence with Captain Riley, the best Arabic scholar in India, and' with the Roman Catholic Bishop of Agra. I think it worth while to communicate to the public the letters which they wrote to me. •
LETTER OF CAPTAIN RILEY OF
Nusseerabad, August 9, 1832. Dear sir,
I am duly favoured with yours of the 2nd, from Simlah, under cover from his Lordship's Military Secretary, and proceed with equal pleasure and interest to furnish you with any information I possess, in the queries set forth in your friendly conversation.
That you had arrived at Loodianah, from your travels amongst nations, whose religious persuasions obstinately hold out against the introduction of truth, wherever such may militate in contradiction to their received opinions, had reached me from the papers; and it was no later than yesterday, I was expressing a desire of an opportunity to be known to you, to hear from yourself the result of your enquiries in those countries, as they may more or less concern the double object of human welfare and general policy. I am happy to hear that after enduring the difficulties your laudable intentions could not but anticipate, you are now refreshed by your abode under the hospitable roof of British India's chief Ruler.
There is no subject you could introduce to me, in which I take more pleasure than the consideration of things, having for their end the propagation of truth, Truth, however repugnant such may be to the conflicting interests of individuals. Truth, however averse the endless variety of particular prejudices may be to its discovery. Disclaiming then all intemperate zeal, and desiring only to place within the reach of others, the humanizing principles we ourselves profess as the foundation of national superiority, we without fear of emulation seek to discharge an incumbent duty, increase respect and attachment for ourselves, and conform at once to views, which, with all the mildness of universal toleration, still suppose religious persuasions intimately connected with occurrences not unfrequently determining the fate of empires. I do myself the pleasure of replying to your queries, seriatim.
You observe that "Readers of the Talmud cannot but be struck with the conviction, that the writers of the Koran had been well acquainted with Jewish Doctors."
When the pseudo prophet made his appearance, the great doctrinal points, both of Jews and Christians, with more or less accuracy, according to the heresies prevalent in his day, were generally known to the Arabians; but to most of them much in the same way as the legends of Hindoos and the religious ordinances of Moohummud are known to the unlearned in Hindoostaun. We cannot be deceived in this, the Qoor-aun avowing Varuquh ibn Nouful; a Nestorian Christian and reader of the Gospels in Syriac, a relation of Moohummed's first wife Khudeejuh, without other assistance, which there was no dearth of, from other quarters, could have supplied him with every information necessary for his scheme,