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March 6.—I received by people from Iconium, the following information respecting that place, which is mentioned in Acts xiii. 51, and xvi. 2; also 2 Tim. iii. 11. There are 40 Greek and 280 Armenian houses. The Greeks have one Bishop whose name is Anthymus. To Iconium belong forty villages, inhabited by Greeks, which are called by the Turks, Giaur Koy, (villages of infidels.) At Bultur I met with a Jew from Broosa, to whom I preached the gospel.
IMPERIAL FAST-DAY AMONG THE GREEKS.
It is said that the Emperor Constantine ate meat on the 9th March, and pieces of it remaining between his teeth, he decreed a fast to be kept on this da)'. The Greek Priests are very ignorant.
Kurios Saba Seraphim, a Greek from Cesarea, was intimately acquainted with the active and zealous missionary Mr. Gridley from America, who died at Cesarea. The Greeks here, desired me to procure for them English passports, which, they said, would protect them from the oppression of the Turks.
I learn by people from Cesarea in Pamphylia, that there are in that place 10,000 Armenians and 1,750 Greeks, and in the surrounding villages 25,000 Armenians and 15,000 Greeks. The name of the Greek bishop at Cesarea is Chrysanthos; and the name of the Armenian bishop is Hakobos Wartabet. The name of the Greek Primate is Michael Giorganjoglu, that of the Armenian Primate is Sartar Oglus Karapet. I give these names for the information of missionaries, who may be inclined to go there. At Taxiarchi Koy, near Cesarea, is the great convent called Michael Archangelos.
Sparta is only a few hours from Buldur, which, they say, was formerly colonized by Greeks from Sparta in Greece. The Greeks find there an enormous quantity of coins. If a depot of Bibles were made in the house of the Archbishop of Attalia, they might easily be sent to all these places.
COMPLAINTS MADE BY THE MUSSULMANS.
"The Nesaam (new discipline) looks well, but the strength of Islam is gone: since the Janissaries have been put down, we have had war upon war. Daud Pasha at Bagdad is a rebel, and the poor are required to pay more than they are able." The whole of this country belonged to the Genoese; the ruins of castles ascribed to them, and the memory of their name, prove the ancient grandeur of that nation.
DEPARTURE FROM BULDUR.
March 12.—I left Buldur, and arrived at Kitshiborlu. The day following, I arrived at Santokloo, which is entirely inhabited by Turks; but in the khan, (INN) I met with Greek and Armenian merchants from Akhshehir, Kiutaya and Sparta, who were very kind to me. When I asked them of what denomination they were, the Greeks replied, "We are partly Christians, partly Armenians, partly Papistian," i. e. Papists or Armenian Catholics. It is to be observed, that the Armenian Catholics there call themselves Papistian. I proclaimed to them the gospel of Christ, and his future coming.
FEAST OF BAIRAM.
March 15.—We were in a Turkish house in the village called Pasha Koy; the Turks were celebrating their Bairam. Early in the morning, they went to the mosque; after which, they invited their Mullah to their house, and had a frugal dinner. Many Christians, alas! in the East, celebrate their Easter by getting drunk. I suffered much on the road, from the sulkiness of my black servant.
March 17.—I arrived at Kiutaya in Phrygia, mentioned in Acts xvi. 6 and xviii. 23. The inhabitants of this place are, Turks 4500, Greeks 1750, Armenians 3500, and Armenian Catholics 2500.
Every one of these Christian denominations has its Bishop. I called on Theodosius, who is Archbishop of Kiutaya in Phrygia, and Angora in Galatia; he resides two years at Angora, and two years at Kiutaya; he is a good natured man, but unfortunately deaf; he gave me a room in his house, and the kind gentleman waited on me at table. He lamented, that now many Armenians at Kiutaya were turning Catholics, since the Sultan had issued a firman in favour of Roman Catholics. I preached the gospel to some Greek Priests.
The Archbishop of this place spoke highly of the amiable and active Rev. Mr. Leeves. He desired me to send some Greco-Turkish Testaments from Constantinople.
March 19.—I left Kiutaya, and arrived at Almatshek; where I conversed with the Turks about Jesus Christ. Oh, what a blessed hour it is, which is passed in speaking of our Lord Jesus Christ!
In a village called Dodurga, a Turkish soldier of the new discipline tried to entertain me and my landlord, by practising the exercise. My landlord, a Turk, sighed! The country is full of exiled Governors and Pashas.
It is remarkable, that in all those Turkish towns I passed through, the bakers are Greeks from Yaneena.
ARRIVAL AT BROOM,
March 24 I arrived at Broosa in Bithynia, into which country
St. Paul essayed to go, but was not permitted by the Spirit. Acts xvi. 7. I resided with Mons. Crispin, a French gentleman. Mr. Zorab lent me money to carry me to Constantinople. The inhabitants of Broosa are, Turks, 4000; Greeks, 3000; Jews, 1500; Armenians, 15000; and Armenian Catholics, 3000.
ARRIVAL AT CONSTANTINOPLE.
March 27.—I arrived at Constantinople for the third time, and was kindly received by His Excellency Sir Robert Gordon, Messrs. Cartwright, Buchanan, Kennedy and others. While I remained at Constantinople, I lectured and preached to the English, Italians, and Jews. I called on His Eminence the Greek Patriarch Constantios, formerly Archbishop of Mount Sinai, who furnished me with letters of introduction. I observed at Constantinople the steps taken by the Sultan, for bringing about the accomplishment of those prophecies, which predict the downfall of the Turkish Empire, under the emblem of the drying up of the river Euphrates. It is somewhat remarkable that the Jews at Constantinople believe it to be the place where Job lived, i. e. the land of Uz. At Constantinople are many of the sect of Shabatay Zebi, the pretended Messiah in the 17th century, who apostatized and became a Turk: nevertheless the sect still continues. I have already given a full account cf the Jews of Constantinople in my former journals. I should here mention with gratitude, that His Excellency Sir Robert Gordon offered me as much money as I might want for my journey to Persia; but, as I had a kind patron at Malta, I did not take advantage of His Excellency's generosity.
DEPARTURE FROM CONSTANTINOPLE.
April 5.—I had embarked for Trebison on board a Genoese ship; but as she put back to Buyuk Dere on the 10th, I determined to perform the journey by land.
April 21.—I took post horses, and set out for Gheha, nine hours from Constantinople. Towards evening, the postilion refused to proceed, unless I made him a present; as I would not be so imposed upon, I went on foot, and he followed.
April 22.—We arrived at Ismit in Nicodemia; this place is inhabited by Turks, 7500; Greeks, 400; Armenians, 2000; and Jews, 100.
The name of the Greek Archbishop is Apamias Benedictos, who received me very kindly into his house.
April 23.—Arrived at Sabanja, inhabited by Turks and a few ignorant Greeks. I took up my abode in the khan, (Turkish inn.) Towards evening, an Armenian Catholic arrived from Sabas near Tokat, who was lately banker to the Sultan. His name is Tenker Oglo. He was exiled in the year 1828 with the rest of the Armenian Catholics, but is now restored to his office. He gave me a letter of introduction to the Woywoda (Governor) of Gheba. From thence I went to Teraklea, and Torbalo. In the district of Torbalo, there are 1000 Armenians.
April 27 Arrived at Nali Han, inhabited by 1000 Turks, 500
Armenians, and a few Greek bakers from Yaneena. Along the whole of this road, I found that the Turks hated the Sultan.
April 20.—I arrived at Bey Bazar, inhabited by Turks. The Banker of the Governor was an Armenian, in whose house I lodged. Here I had several opportunities of speaking with the Turks about Christ.
April 30 I arrived at Ayash, a Turkish town. I resided with
a Mohammedan Mullah, where I met with Ibrahim Pasha of Goroon, who had been made a prisoner by the Russians.
ARRIVAL AT ANGORA OK ANGOROO.
May 1.—Arrived at Angoroo, the ancient Galatia. There is a convent near this town, belonging to the Armenians, where it is believed that the Apostle Paul resided. On the first day of my arrival, I lodged in the Greek convent. The next day, the Armenian Catholic Archbishop, for whom I had letters, sent for me. He is a good natured, active old man; he offered me every assistance in his power. He is a great favourite with the Court of Rome. The inhabitants of Angoroo are, Turks, 50,000; Greeks, 1500; Jews, 500; Armenians, 250; and Armenian Catholics, 15,000. The latter were converted to the Catholic religion, one hundred and fifty years ago. There I met with Abbate Shereen, a fellow student with me at the Propaganda at Rome. I confess, that at first I was afraid that he would greatly oppose me; but on the contrary, he embraced me as an old acquaintance, and talked of the agreeable hours we had passed in the college. He only observed, "Dear Wolff, if you had remained, you would have been a bishop!" The Armenian Catholics have twenty-two Priests. If you ask an Armenian Catholic, whether he is an Armenian, he replies, "No, I am a Kotolok," i. e. a Catholic. But it cannot be denied, that the Armenians, converted to the Roman Catholic Church, are more humane, more kind, more civilized than the rest of the Armenians in Anatolia. In those parts of Asia Minor, where the Roman Catholic missionaries have not been, the native Christians are most rude and uncivilized; the Greeks at Angoroo form an honourable exception. For Seraphim of Adalyah, who was Archbishop of Angora, went to Venice, and there translated the Psalms of David into the Turkish language with Greek characters, which translation even received the sanction of the Pope. He afterwards wrote three books against the Pope, which he called 1ahm% iMyyixmi, "the Evangelical Trump." This compelled Seraphim to leave Venice and go to Angoroo, where he was first a Schoolmaster, and then an Archbishop. Dionysios Hieromonachos translated the New Testament into Greco-Turkish, with some portions of the Old Testament.
The Armenian Catholics divide themselves into two classes: into "Mehiterites," i. e. Armenians of the College of Venice; and i'Allunni della Propaganda." The Mehiterites say, that their Patriarch Ostniziwas a Roman Catholic Saint: the Propagandists declare him a heretic.
Though very unwell, I proclaimed the Gospel to the Greeks and Catholics. The Greek Primate Anastas Kupegio Oglu, took me to his house, where I had the assistance of his whole family. I convinced them of the absurdity of some of their tenets. St. Theodotion suffered martyrdom here, in the time of Diocletian.
An Armenian Catholic physician, Dr. Pietraki, expressed his desire to be useful to the British and Foreign Bible Society. There are here a great many old English Prayer books, left by the English factory, which existed here thirty-six years ago.
I had repeated interesting conversations with Greeks and Armenian Catholics, about the truth of the religion of Jesus Christ; and respecting the literal interpretation of unaccomplished prophecy, and the future Christo-archy at Jerusalem. They were all convinced, after I had read to them the 20th chapter of Revelations. The Armenian Catholic Archbishop I found to be a liberal and kind hearted man. I cannot bear to hear people chanting about the illiberality of Catholics: that there exists illiberality among them is certain; but, this is not confined to Roman Catholics. I found a similar spirit of illiberality not only among Protestants, but likewise, to a high degree, among the Neologists in Germany. Johann Heinrich Voss, the Neologer at Heidelberg, behaved with greater illiberality, intolerance, and ingratitude towards Count Stolberg, than a Roman Catholic in the 16th century would ever have done towards a Protestant.
May 4.—I dined with the Armenian Catholic Archbishop, (to whom I had been recommended by Sir Robert Gordon) and with the Primates of the Armenian Catholics. It is to be observed, that the Armenian Catholics, and Orientals in general, subject to the Pope, are frequently very liberal when not watched by Italian Priests.
JEWS OF ANGOROO.
May 5 When the Jews were driven out of Spain, they went
to all parts of Asia Minor, and the coasts of Africa. They were kindly received by the Turks, and treated as "Musaffir," i. e. Travellers. The Jews of Angoroo are the descendants of those Sefardim* that were driven out of Spain. They have lived there for these 300 years. I left them a Bible, and expounded to them the Scriptures in the synagogues. They are not in possession of the Talmudical books.
VISIT TO THE CAIN AND GOVERNOR OF ANGOROO.
Both the Cadi and Governor desired to see me. I went and explained to them the object of my mission. The Cadi observed, that people ought to live quietly at home, and not concern themselves about the religion of others. I replied, that neither Mohammed or his followers could have been of that opinion, for they were anxious that others should embrace their sentiments. He informed me that the name of Angoroo was formerly Amoorea. I had a discussion with the Director of the Police, about the authenticity of the Scriptures.
ARMENIAN, CATHOLIC, AND GREEK LADIES OF ANGOROO.
The Armenian, Catholic and Greek ladies are not, like the
* All Jews who are descendants of the Spanish Jews, are called Sefardim.