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Tamerlane; after the death of this Monarch, he remained a little longer at Samarcand, where he learned to make paper, carpets and saddles, the art of book-binding, and midwifery, and then returned to Cashmeer, in the hope of being able to secure the throne at his father's death. Sultan Ali returned from Mecca as a Fakeer; when he came to Jummoo, the people persuaded him tq put aside his Fakeer's garment, and to assume the royal robe. He went to Baklee near Cashmeer; Sultan Zein Alabaddeen marched against him, defeated, and put him in a prison, where he died. Sultan Zein Alabaddeen established a library at Cashmeer, and greatly contributed to the establishment of the Mohammedan religion; therefore he was styled "Behaudur," Glorious King. He conquered Great and Little Tibet. He defeated the King of Kashgar, and established seven villages: Senakoot, Senapoor, Senadit, Seenago, Sena Gadal, Sena Lang, and Sena Baza. He was succeeded by his son Hyder, in the year 880 of the Hegira. Hassan Shah, the son of Hyder, was a profligate and a tyrant; the people of Bep rose against him, and went over to Tartar Khan of Lahore, who came to Cashmeer, and burnt the mosques. Shemsooddeen, a Fakeer from Persia, introduced the tenets of the Sheah sect into Cashmeer. He became King, and was succeeded severally by Ismael Shah, Ibrahim Shah, Futteh Shah, Ausuk Shah, and Dowlut Jack. The latter rose from the degree of a menial servant to be King. In his time, an earthquake happened, which placed the village of Husseinpoor upon the site of Hassanpoor, and the village of Hassanpoor upon the site of Husseinpoor. Black jack was dispossessed of his throne by Ghazi Khan, who took Tibet. Lastly, in the time of Youssuf Shah, Akbar Shah took possession of the country, and the period of his rule is referred to as the golden age of Cashmeer.
In the year of the Hegira 1078, Arungzebe Alumgeer came here from Delhi, and, as is well known, lavished great treasures in beautifying the valley. During his reign lived the celebrated Fakeer Khawajee Kasim, Haziz, Sadek Maysofe, and Mohammed Farookh. In later years, Cashmeer fell into the hands of Ahmed Shah, who founded the Doorranee monarchy, and it remained with his successors, till it was conquered by Runjeet Singh.
HISTORY OF SHEER SINGH, THE PRINCE GOVERNOR.
The history of this Prince is interesting. Lady Maee Sadakor, a Sikh lady, the wife of the Governor of Batala, gave her daughter to the great Runjeet Singh, who had another wife named Nagein. When Kurruk Singh was born of the latter Queen, that jealous and cunning lady, Maee Sadakor, during the absence of Runjeet Singh, took a child of another family, and put in upon the knees of her daughter, and then sent word to the Maharajah, that his wife had given him a child. Runjeet Singh said, "It is very extraordinary that I never knew she was pregnant; well, be it so, let him be my son too." And this child is Sheer Singh, the acknowledged Prince Royal, and Governor of Cashmeer.
Dewan Vesaka Singh, servant to Lady Maee Sadakor, had a quarrel with her; and whilst there was enmity between them, her daughter, the Queen, died. Dewan Vesaka Singh took the boy before Runjeet Singh, and told him, that his mother-in-law designed escaping beyond the Sutledge to Sirdhana, to the Indian Princess Begum Sumroo. Runjeet Singh then arrested her, and she lately died in prison. Her estates and possessions were given to Vesaka Singh, who is now with Sheer Singh in Cashmeer, a great tyrant and oppressor.
Sheer Singh became commander of the troops in a bloody war, where he distinguished himself as a General, and gained the confidence and favour of Runjeet Singh. When the Maharajah dies, Sheer Singh, it is supposed, will be assisted by the French General Allard and Monsieur Ventura, to dispute the succession with Runjeet's real son, and probably much blood will be shed in the country.
Shah Neamut Oollah, a Peer, a holy man of Cashmeer, is said to have prophesied 100 years ago, that 100 years after him, Cashmeer should be governed by an infidel King, who should oppress the followers of Islam. The Mussulmans in Runjeet Singh's country apply this prophecy to him, for he is very severe towards them, not allowing them to eat beef, or to cry the call to prayers. When I was in Cashmeer, the Dewan Vesaka Singh put five Mohammedans to death, on pretence of their having killed a cow; but his object was to seize their property. I remember at Vuzeerabad, Signor Avitabile was about to execute a Mohammedan for killing a cow, according to the laws of the kingdom; I begged him not to do it, but to send the offender to Runjeet Singh with a recommendation for mercy, and I afterwards heard that the Maharajah was contented with cutting off the man's nose. Several Persians from Kaseroon, Hamadan, and Tabreez called on me; I proclaimed to them Jesus Christ, and Him crucified; the "man of sorrows and acquainted with grief." They listened for two hours. Putteh Khan, who was with Meer Syud Oollah and Mr. Morecroft, called on me, and attended to my preaching. I was also visited by Mohammed Shah Nakhshbande, the Moorshed of the people of Yarkand, and considered a holy man. He read in Persian to his disciples, Mullah Mohammed from Sheher-e-Subz, and several others, the 24th and 25th chapter of Matthew; we then spoke about the necessity of being born again, and read John M. Blessed Lord Jesus, shed the light of thy truth upon their hearts, and be thou present in the power of thy Holy Spirit, wherever thy sacred word is proclaimed or read!
Mullah Mohammed from Sheher-e-Subz tells me that the Oosbeks at Kokan are of the tribe of Yoos and Min; those at Samarcand of the tribe of Koptshak; the K ing of Sheher-e-Subz, he says, is of the tribe Kara Saly: and others in the neighbourhood, of the tribe Ajik Meile. He says that in his city there are several Mullahs who argue about religion; as, the Mufti Mullah Rejub, Mullah Abdal Raheem, and Mullah Shereef. According to his account, there are five celebrated colleges at Samarcand: Medressa Khanem, M. Tilla Kaaree, M. Meer Dad, M. Merza Oolokh Beyk Koree Khan, M. Ak Medressa. He confirms the statement of my Yarkand acquaintances, and of the Sheher-e-Subz people, whom I met in Cashmeer, that in Khiva, Sheher-e-Subz, Kokan, and the surrounding countries, there are 8000 Russian slaves. Hearing these people describe the state of Toorkestaun, one cannot help wishing that Russia might take possession of Northern, and England of Eastern Asia.
Oct. 19.—I held a conversation with the Brahmin Sheuram of the city of Cashmeer, who is esteemed a very learned man. Hitherto I have not met with a single Brahmin who would not agree in every thing I told him, and declare it to be also written in the Shaster; and the only way to bring them to an argument is to attack their idolatry, and try to shew them, that if their Veds approve of their idolatry, they must be false books, and not divinely inspired. I make it a point, as often as practicable, first to preach the Gospel, and then to ask for information; and this I did to-day with the venerable old Brahmin Sheuram. After having spoken to him about the death of Christ, and proclaimed to him Jesus my Saviour as the Son of God, I asked him, "In how many Gods do you believer'
Sheuram. There is one God; but he has many names. The whole earth stands upon the serpent Sheshnag; she has 1000 teeth and 2000 tongues; with every tongue she pronounces every day a new name of God, and this she has done for centuries and centuries, never repeating a name once pronounced.
Myself. Tell me the history of the creation according to your books.
S. First all was water; out of the midst of it, by the power of God, a water lily* arose; at which, when it was grown up, the four faces of Brahmah appeared; out of the four mouths of these faces, four Veds (books) proceeded: Rek Ved, Jaajor Ved, Syaam Ved, Atarban Ved. After this, Brahmah prayed 100 years, and then he saw God. He enquired of God: "Why hast thou created me?" God replied, "i' create things by the power of the Word if God" and thus, of the heart of Brahmah were born four sons: Zanak, Zanandan, Zanadan, and Zanad Komar. These four sons built no houses, but lived in the woods; they are still alive, but remain always like children of five years of age; and whoever prays with his heart is capable of seeing them. Brahmah ordered these four sons to marry; but they declined. Embarrassed at their refusal, he created other sons: Mereze, Atre, Angra, Polaste, Polah,
* Simon Ben Yohay, in his Caballistical book, entitled Zohar, or the Candle, makes a similar allusion to a water lily. It would be interesting if a thorough Sanscrit scholar would compare the Zohar (the Caballistical book published by Rabbi Simon Ben Yohay) with the Hindoo Veds.
t One thing forcibly strikes me, that the Hindoos speak more of internal devotion than I ever heard Mohammedans.
Kradoo, Pehiste, Dakshe, and Narada; but none of their forms appeared. Then the body of Brahmah divided itself; the right side became man, and the left woman; the man was called Shamboo, the woman Satropa; and of these two came the whole human race. Brahmah ordered Dakshe to make the creation appear. Dakshe begat 10,000 sons. These were commanded by Brahmah to devote their time to the worship of God. They went to Doorgah and worshipped 10,000 years. Narada went to them and said, "Make no houses, but worship." Dakshe begat other 5000 sons, and sent them to Doorgah, where they devoted their time to the worship of God. Narada went to them and said, "Make no houses, but worship." Dakshe thought that Narada had done wrong, and said to him, "Go into the world, and remain in every place not beyond one hour." Dakshe begat 60 daughters; 27 of them he married to the moon, and 17 to Kashif; from whom the whole creation came; Krishna benefits all, and appears in every thing. Sheef, or Hooter, created of the forehead of Brahman, is the destroyer. Concerning the deluge, the Shaster says, that the pious Rajah Sat Prit prayed, and God appeared to him. God became like a fish, and inundated all the world. He placed the Rajah in a ship, and that fish, which had horns, saved the vessel from the raging of the waters, by binding it on his horns.
MOULAVIE KHAIR ADDEEN.
Moulavie Khair Addeen, writer of the history of Cashmeer, called upon me. He is in possession of the book written against Christianity by the unfortunate Nathaniel Sabat, well known at Calcutta. Moulavie Khair Addeen read to the Hindoos, who were then with me, Matthew v. vi. vii. I had then a discussion with him about the divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, which lasted four hours. One of his proofs for the truth of the Mohammedan religion was, that all the Christian Powers are subjects of, and give tribute to, the Sultan of Constantinople. I confused him with mentioning the battle of Navarino. Pundit Rahan, and another Brahmin present, listened with great attention.
Shaun Singh, one of the military Fakeers, called Akalee, was pointed out to me as a very brave soldier. I never saw such a venerable looking, beautiful, and at the same time warrior-like face in my life: dressed in a long black garment, with his flowing white beard, light piercing eyes, and rosy cheeks, he had the appearance of a supernatural being.
There are now at Cashmeer 21 places inhabited by Mohammedan Fakeers, to whom the people of Toorkestaun go on pilgrimage. One very esteemed place is that of Syud Ahmud Samaree, who composed the book called "Tanaweer;" and another that of Syud Mohammed Khawaree, who wrote the books "Shirrah-e-Samaree," and "Khawar Namah."
Dewan Vesaka Singh, the Prince's Minister, called upon me, and I took a walk with him through the city. This town improves the more one sees of it; situated as it is in a large valley, and surrounded by high mountains. It is not very wide, but it is situated in a broad plain, through which a beautiful park extends, called Meisoome. There are 28 mosques of some note, the principal ones of which are, the Juma Musjid, and the Musjid-e-Sung; and there are 11 Dhurmsals or Hindoo temples, the chief of which are, Dar Matarig and Shahabad. Afterwards I called again on the Prince Governor, who had his room illuminated. Mookhtarjoo, the horse-keeper of Mohammed Shah Nakhshbande, called on me; and again, Moulavie Khair Addeen. They observed, that since Cashmeer had existed, no Frank had come there for the purpose of talking about Jesus; and that they were convinced my coming was a sign that the Christians would soon govern the whole world. The last belief, they said, was warranted by the Huddees.
The following is the information I got from Mohammed Shah Nakhsbande, and Moulavie Khair Addeen.
To the province of Cashmeer belong 36 districts, and 5270 villages. The names of the districts are, Sirree Nugger, Woollar, Yetshee, Nagam, Wehoo, Adween, Anderkood, Berooe, Brenk, Baukel, Behak, Batoo, Battan, Barraspoor, Deelagam, Deewesar, Dejen Paree, Densoo, Gahowiparee, Seinapoor, Seinageer, Sayerol Mawajee, Sabza Samman, Shokroo, Shawre, Martand, Islamabad, Shahabad, Goodahar, Dejnow Kahawaree, Krooken, Kohee Hamoon, Kamray, Mohummudabad, Mah Jahamoon-Laal. The Prince Governor told me that the country of Cashmeer may contain a population of 600,000 souls.
I sailed with His Royal Highness in his boat, upon the beautiful lake called Dall, where we had much conversation. We went to see his country-house, called Char-Chenar; and the gardens called Baugh Neshar, Jellalabad, and Neseem; and to the mountain Tukht-e-Suleiman, or, as the Hindoos call it, Shaukhrajahraj^ a Hindoo temple dedicated to Sheef, is on this mountain; and here several Jews lie buried.
The Prince told me, that he intended to attack Little Thibet and Ladak next summer. The revenues of Little Thibet, he said, amounted to not more than 30,000 rupees per annum; those of Great Thibet to 600,000; but he declared that he did not wish to take these countries on account of their revenue, but for the name and the fame of the conquest. "For, (said he,) in time of war, the soldier's name becomes illustrious." He assured me, that he wished to open the road to Thibet and China for the English; he wants to establish Dawks (posts) in his country, on the English plan, and is most anxious to see Calcutta.
In the course of conversation, His Royal Highness asked me, what punishment would be inflicted upon a person who should try to kill the King by. sorcery; as, according to the Minister, a witch is to be exiled, after her hands and tongue have been cut off; and the wife and children of a wizard, moreover, become slaves to the