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Turkish and Armenian ladies of Anatolia, shut up in their harems; but welcome strangers, and exhibit a modest and ladylike deportment.
SIGNOR ANASTAS KUPEGIO OGLIT
Is a Greek merchant, but well acquainted with the Greek Fathers of the Church, and is an able Divine. I lived latterly in his house, and conversed freely with him on all points. He has the good of his nation at heart, and tried by arguments to put a stop to the progress of the Catholics.
An amiable and inquisitive Greek; he is desirous that their 1 iturgy should be in the Turkish language, as nobody here, except Kupegio Oglu, understands ancient Greek. Thus we see, that in every country there are people who see the want of a reform in certain points; but reform often ends in pulling down, instead of building up.
CONVERSION OF A JEW IN ANATOLIA.
Demetraki is in possession of a Greek manuscript, which contains the following account of a Jew converted to Christianity, written by himself. He relates, that he performed miracles by his power with devils. A young man called upon him one day, and promised him a large sum of money, if he would cause the affections of a certain girl to be so disposed towards him, as to consent to marry him. The Jew applied his art for this purpose, but produced no effect upon the girl. On asking her the reason of it, she said that she was a Christian, and to a Christian witchcraft can do no harm. This circumstance induced him to become a Christian, and he took the name of Cyprianus. He has written a book, in which he recommends, that when a person is not able to sleep, he should read Psalm 131. He has also given in his book the names of Archangels and Devils; which I insert, as it may be useful to etymologists.
NAMES OF ARCHANGELS.
NAMES OF DEVILS.
16 Pada Serea.
15 Khoro Samuel.
41 Kara jio lia.
Isthanos, six hours from Angoroo, is an interesting place, inhabited by 5000 Armenians, who speak only the ancient Armenian language. There are among them 150 Mohammedans.
May 7.—The Armenian Catholic Archbishop permitted me to take the following copy of a letter addressed to the Archbishop by Cardinal Capellari, now Pope, on the Armenian Catholics being exiled from Constantinople. It appears, that the Archbishop had reported, and with truth, that the Armenians, who do not recognise the Roman Pontiff, had been the instigators of that decree, issued by the Sultan, against the Armenian Catholics. The answer is written with the utmost prudence: it is in the style of a mother who excuses her disobedient and rebellious children, and even tries to exculpate their misbehaviour. The following is a copy of the original.
Illustrissimo e Rmo. Signore,
Si è ricevuta la lettera di V. S. scritta da Kiutaya, in data dei 30 del passato Maggio. Il contenuto di questa lettera mi eccita a far con V. S. tutte quelle dichiarazioni che possono servire nelle presenti circostanze, a sollevar il di lei spirito dalle idee che lo turbano. Ella si è però persuaso, che la congregazione fa di lei tutta quella stima eh' ella merita, e che fa tutti gli elogi della pazienza, della esemplarità è dello zelo dimostrato da lei: anche in mezzo alle più gran tribolazioni. Non è però sola la S. Congregazione, a far di V. S. questi elogi, ma le di lei ottime qualità sono cognite anche ai di lei connazionali. Si hanno positivi riscontri sulli veri motivi che tuttora impediscono a V. S. il ritorno in quella capitale. Non deve Ella considerare i suoi connazionali come causa di questo male, ma deve attribuirlo al diverso punto di vista, con cui il Governo Turco riguarda i firmani di esilio rilasciati nominatamente contro persone particolari; posso poi assicurarla che i suoi connazionali medesimi di Costantinopoli hanno fatto e fanno il possible, perchè venga tolto 1' ostacolo al di lei ritorno. Confidiamo però nella provvidenza, ed aspettiamo dal Signore il termine totale delle present! angustie. Per quello che riguarda li regime ecclesiastico per la gia seguita consacrazione del nuovo Arci vescovo Metropolitano Primate di Costantinopoli, sono in essa trasferite tutte le facolta e giurisdizioni, che avea Monsignor Coressi, relativamente agli Armeni Cattolici che sono nella estensione delle provincie Ottomane, e che da lui dipendevano. Monsignor Nurigiano pero ha scritto alio stesso Monsignor Coressi, pregandolo a continuare come prima fino al suo arrivo in Costantinopoli. Esso ha per lei grande stima ed amicizia, e desidera poterlaaver seco. Tanto esso che la sua congregazione non cessa di averla in vista, per provveder nella miglior maniera possibile al di lei decoro, ed intanto resto pregando il Signore, che lungamente la conservi, e la prosperi.
Roma della Propaganda
29. Luglio 1831. di V. S. come fratello affmo.
May 7.—I left Angoroo and stopped at a pleasant Turkish village, called Hassan Oglu.
May 8.—I arrived at Galatshik, anciently the capital of Galatia; it is situated near a river called Ghizl Armak, inhabited by 2000 Turks and 500 Armenians; the latter have one church and one Priest.
May 9.—I crossed the Ghizl Armak, flowing between two mountains. The country around is fertile and romantic. The Curds feed their flocks in the fields, and live in tents. The villages are inhabited by Turkomans.* In the evening we arrived at the village called Kojoo, where the Turkomans seemed to be very much interested in my pursuits and intended journey to Bokhara; which place they knew well through information received from Dervishes.
May 10.—I arrived in the small town called Sangorloo, 54 miles from Galatshik. Here are 2000 Turks, 300 Armenians, and 70 Greeks. I met here with Armenians from Erivan, which place was lately taken by the Russians. "We travel now with Russian passports," said they with great delight.
May 11.—I arrived at Alatsha, 24 miles from Sangorloo, inhabited by 300 Turks and 30 Armenians, who are very ignorant.
May 12.—I rode 39 miles and arrived at Karasheesh. My mind was greatly refreshed and supported with thoughts of my Saviour. Wretch is the missionary, who does not feel every day and every hour, the necessity of imploring the support of his Saviour and Redeemer, the Lord Jesus Christ: he may for a while carry on his work among Jews and Gentiles, with apparent holy zeal, but if
* These must have come from Turkeestaun: their physiognomy betrays their origin.
not invigorated and upheld by continual supplies of divine grace, he must certainly fall.
May 13.—I arrived at Seela, inhabited by 6000 Turks and 1000 Armenians. I lodged in the house of a kind hearted Armenian. Seela is 36 miles from Tokat.
ARRIVAL AT TOKAT.
May 14.—I arrived at Tokat, formerly called Eudoxoplis, 204 miles from Angoroo. There are at Tokat 4500 Armenians and 150 Jews. I lived first with the Armenian Catholic Bogos Bambugtshi, the most respectable of the native Christians there. As yet they have not built a church for themselves; but they were very anxious to do so; which made the rest of the Armenians very jealous. They had a priest from the convent Kereim, in Mount Lebanon, who spoke Italian. The Armenians have two convents and seven churches. Within the convent called Yoakim Anna, St. John Chrysostom slept in a well, when persecuted. The Jews have a synagogue and two colleges. The name of the principal Rabbi is Yishak Arab. I was at this time too unwell to go amongst the people, but Rabbi Leon Shmerel brought some Jews to me; he was from Safet, and knew me well, as also the Rev. Messrs. Nicolayson, and Lewis. He translated the words inai inn (empty and void) thus: the earth was inn (Tohu) i. e. Chaos; I Jehovah, a in, in it was: "Jehovah was in it." He continued, that the world was in God, as a chicken in an egg.
May 15 As I had a letter for the Armenian Aglakan, I left the
house of Bambugtshi, and went to live with Aglakan; by which I offended Bambugtshi. It was imprudent in me; for Aglakan was an intolerant Armenian, who endeavoured to persuade me, that the Catholic Armenians worship the god of the Druses.
May 17.—I left Tokat with a worthy man, a Tatar, named Baba Kujuk Aref, Tatar of the Sublime Porte. I mention his name, for he is deserving of the notice of other travellers. I arrived at Niksar, the ancient Neo Cesarea. We crossed the Ghizl Armak in a boat. There are the ruins of a beautiful bridge, said to be built by the Genoese. I asked my Tatar, why the Turkish government did not rebuild it? he replied, "It is not the custom of the Sultan to do such things: he ruins, but never builds." Niksar was formerly the seat of the Greek Bishop; it contains at this time 200 Greeks and 1500 Armenians.
May 19 We arrived near a ruinous place, called Kol-Hizar,
formerly a Bishoprick, where Johannes Kolasios fed his flock with the Gospel. No Christian resides here now.
May 20.—Arrived at Shebin Kara-Hizar, the Nicopolis of Armenia. It is inhabited by 4000 Armenians and 200 Greeks. I was very hospitably received by Yoannikios Nikopoleos, the Greek Bishop. I was very weak when I arrived, having performed a journey of twelve hours in the rain; the road was so bad, that I was frequently obliged to go on foot. As this journal is written chiefly for the edification of the Church, I trust to be excused in occasionally pouring out my soul and telling them, that during my missionary wanderings I frequently, very frequently, felt the need of being supported by an increase of divine grace, in order that I might not fall into vain glory and self conceit, whilst the flight of the spirit carried me from Malta to the Oxus.
The archbishop's jurisdiction extends over 18 places; their names are as follows:
1 Shebin Kara-Hizar. 7 Palzana. 13 Awatshik.
2 Khakhawla. 8 Karakewesit. 11 Keilik.
3 Ispahimahalla. 9 Koressa. 15 Katshikoy.
4 Trobtshe. 10 Katokhori. 16 Eskona.
5 Alessar. 11 Lizeze. 17 Sopaki. 6 Kalatshik. 12 Koyenek. 18 Koskoy.
This list may perhaps be useful to missionaries and travellers. The diocese contains 2260 Greeks, who speak a strange jargon of modern Greek mixed with a rude dialect of Turkish. The Armenian Bishop of Shebin Kara-Hizar has nine villages with a population of 4800 Armenians.
Is 72 miles from Shebin Kara-Hizar; and is the ancient city Sebaste.
NAMES OF THE GREEK ARCHBISHOPRICS AND BISHOPRICS THROUGHOUT ANATOLIA.
INFORMATION RESPECTING THE ARMENIANS.
May 22.—The Armenian Bishop of Shebin Kara-Hizar, Hakobus