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the Koran attempts to persuade, that his likeness only was crucified.
Haje Sheikh Mohammed looked into my journal, and desired me to translate something for him; I translated to him a prayer; he seemed to be delighted with it. Denamack was the last place of Irak.
Sept. 29.—We arrived at Lasgird, the first small place in the province of Khorossaun. In this place, some of the Persians speak the Pehlevee language; for on asking them what language they spoke, they replied, the Pehlevee, of which only a few words were intelligible to me, and this was confirmed to me by the Guebres of Semnan, who spoke the same language, as it appeared to me, and gave it the same name.
ARRIVAL AT SEMNAN.
Sept. 30.—We arrived at Semnan. Bahman Mirza, son of the King of Persia, is Governor of this place, as well as of Damghan. I had several letters of recommendation to him: one from his mother, the other from Khosroe Khan, and the third from the Sille Sultan and from his brother Malek Kasem Mirza. As His Royal Highness had just made an excursion to Damghan, I sent the letters after him, by one of the Guebres, who were building his palace at Semnan; for the Guebres are to this day skilful.in building. The plague was just raging at Semnan; we were therefore not admitted into the town, more especially as the Prince was absent. Semnan is 24 miles from Lasgird, containing perhaps 12,000 inhabitants.
Semnan, Bustan and Meshed, are the only three places in Khorossaun, governed by royal Princes of Persia; all the rest of Khorossaun is ruled by Khans, who, up to the time of my arrival in Khorossaun, were only slightly subject to the King of Persia. E very village in this country is fortified, on account of the continual invasions of the Turkomans, of which I' shall have occasion to speak more at large.
The Khans keep this country in continual disturbance by feuds among themselves; some of them being in secret understanding with the Turkomauns. Even Bahman Mirza, the Prince Governor of Semnan, had just gone to Damghan, for the purpose of driving out from thence Mohammed Ali Khan, whom he placed there as Vice Governor, and who had rebelled against his authority; he succeeded in driving him out, but that Governor retired to a fortress, called Dawlat-Abad. Bahman Mirza marched with 1000 men, for the purpose of driving him from thence; but Arghuwan Mirza, the son of Hassan Ali Mirza, late Prince Governor of Meshed, though nephew of Bahman Mirza, assisted Mohammed Ali Khan against Bahman Mirza, so that the latter was obliged to retire from Dawlat-Abad.
The Guebres of Semnan were very kind to me; I preached the Gospel to them. These amiable people have still their ancient Parsee names: as Key Khosroe, Shahr-Baar, Jamsheed, Bijand, Mehraboo, Rostam, Rasheed, Seroosh, &c.
October 1.—We arrived in the caravan-seray of Aghwan, 24 miles from Seaman. Imam Resa is said to have performed a miracle here.
Oct. 2.—We arrived near Dawlat-Abad, the place of the rebel Mohammed Ali Khan; who says however, that as soon as the King shall order him to deliver Dawlat-Abad to Bahman Mirza, he will be ready to do so: but it is said, that Mohammed Ali Khan had bribed the King, so that he did not send such an order. Mohammed Ali Khan ordered the gates of Dawlat-Abad to be shut; and incase Bahman Mirza should pass the, town on his way from Danighan to Semnan, salutes should be fired; but His Royal Highness should not be permitted to come into town. I learnt that Abbas Mirza was expected to come to Khorossaun, on his way to Khiva and Bokhara.
DEFINITION OF AN EASTERN KING.
Haje Sheikh Mohammed gives me the following definition of an Eastern King. "A tyrant, who robs others of their property, commits violence, eats and drinks well, blackens his beard, and does nothing for the good of his country."
ARRIVAL OF BAHMAN MIRZA.
Bahman Mirza passing my tent, told me that he had received letters respecting me, and therefore gave me a letter of recommendation to his brother Ismael Mirza, Prince Governor of Bustah. He left an officer to accompany me as far as Damghan.
In the evening I arrived at Damghan, where I took up my abode with Mohammed Wale Khan, the Vice-Governor of Damghan. I met there Abbas Khan, of the Kajar tribe; the same tribe as that of Fatullah Shah.
The people coming to Mohammed Wale Khan, had the appearance of being in a disturbed state of mind; they were continually expressing apprehensions of Mohammed Ali Khan of DawlatAbad surprising the town at night, and whilst they were talking, soldiers of Mohammed Ali Khan had actually made an attempt to enter the town, but soon after retired.
Mohammed Wale Khan asked me the difference between those Christians who have beards, and those who have none. I told him, that among Europeans, Friars only have beards. I told him the object of my travels, and offered Mohammed Wale Khan a Bible; but he declined my offer. Hitherto the people have been rather kind to me than otherwise.
SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF DAMGHAN.
Damghan is at present inhabited by 5000 Mussulmans, mostly Khorossaun people, and a few Turkomauns.
Damghan is said to have been built by King Hushenk, 5247 years ago. It was formerly a flourishing city, but was ruined by the tyranny of Nadir Shah, and after his death, Assad Khan of Cabool came, and carried the inhabitants of Damghan captives to Cabool.
Balk in Bactria, Nishapoor and Damghan in Khorossaun, are considered by the Mussulmans of Khorossaun, to be the most ancient cities in the world. Around Dawlat-Abad, Damghan, Sharoot and Boostan, the country is beautiful; it is a complete paradise, full of vineyards and pomegranate trees.
Oct. 4.—I set out for Boostan, a city built fifty years ago. The castles which are found in every village of Khorossaun, are called by the natives Ark, which seems to correspond with the English word ark, and the German arche (the name of Noah's ship); or else they are called Boorg, which corresponds with the English and the German word burg.
We passed the village called Kaker Abad, where formerly a Vizier of Nadir Shah resided. We came near Haddada, governed by Mohammed Hakeem Khan. Just before we approached the place, we saw a Khorossaun Mussulman running swiftly, saying that his wife had run away with another man. We rode after him, to see what he would say to her; for she was not distant from us. On meeting her, he spoke kindly to her, and persuaded her to go back with him. She was, as the Persians call such women, a Oowly (a loose character); she sat upon her ass, and rode back. This reminded me of Judges xix. 3.
ARRIVAL AT HADDADA.
On our entering the Fort of Haddada, Mokeem Khan, escorted by his whole train of servants, came out to meet me, and gave me a welcome, brought me to a comfortable room, and was delighted that I spoke Persian. I spoke to them about the efficacy of prayer.
The Mehmundar,* who was sent with me to Haddada, had orders from Bahman Mirza, to kill the horses of Mohammed Ali Khan of Dawlat-Abad, if he should ever meet with one of his horsemen. When staying with Hakeem Khan, one of the horsemen of Mohammed Ali Khan was there, but was concealed by Mokeem Khan.
KHANS OF KHOROSSAUN.
In order to give a distinct idea of those Khans (Lords) in Khorossaun, I think it well to mention, that these hereditary and feudal Lords of Khorossaun, exactly resemble the feudal Lords of Germany in ancient times. They pay a yearly tribute, consisting of horses, to the Shah of Persia; but every Khan governs in his own city, and has power of life and death over his subjects. They are continually at war among themselves. The neighbduring Turkomans take advantage of this, to invade Khorossaun, and carry away slaves to Khiva and Bokhara. The following are the names
* Mchmumlar, is a servant of the Governor, sent with a foreigner to prepare lodgings. Such servants are given particularly to European travellers.
of the principal Khans in Khorossaun. Resa Koole Khan, a Curd of the tribe Elkare; he resides at Cochan, and is a great enemy to the present dynasty of Persia. Mohammed Ishak Khan Kerahe of Torbad Hydarea, a cruel tyrant and robber, who is an inveterate enemy to Resa Koole Khan of Cochan. He sends his people round Khorossaun to make slaves of the Khorossaun and Persian people, whom he sells to the Turkomauns. He is styled the Rostam of Khorossaun. Mohammed Takee Khan of Tursheesh, an enemy to Mohammed Ishak Khan Kerahe of Torbad Hydarea. Nujuf Ali Khan of Bujnurd, an enemy to Yellantoosh Khan of Nadir Kelaat. Yellantoosh Khan of Nadir Kelaat, a great enemy to Nujaf Ali Khan, and therefore sells the subjects of the latter to the Turkomans. Emeer Ali Nakee Khan at Tabas, a just and peaceable man. Ameer Assaad Ullah Khan of Burjund Kayan, friendly with all of them. Resa Koole Khan Turk at Daragass. Ibrahim Khan at Rad-Khan. Rostam Khan at Tsholaye. Nasir Ullah Khan at Teemor Khaf. Mohammed Zeman Khan at ShahrNow, or Bakhars, a great enemy to Mohammed Ishak Khan at Torbad Hydarea. Ibraheem Khan at Baam. Mohammed Khan at Juweyn. Ali Moorad Khan at Juweyn. Dost Mohammed Khan Timoore at Goskoon, in secret understanding with the Turkomans. Mokeem Khan of Haddada, my present host.
There are, however, a great many more petty Khans. These Khans, as Resa Koole Khan of Cochran, Assaad Ullah Khan of Burjund, Mohammed Takee Khan of Tursheesh, have Russian deserters as Tobtshees, i. e. cannoneers, in their service.
Oct. 4.—I arrived at Boostaun, and delivered my letters of introduction from the Sille Sultan, Khosroe Khan, and Bahman Mirza, to His Royal Highness, Ismael Mirza. The plague was then raging at Boostaun. I desired H. R. H. to send me on with Turkomans to Bokhara, via Orgauntsh (Khiva). He answered that he would do it willingly, if I could give him a written promise, that the King of England would give him after my safe arrival 10000 Tomauns (which amount to £6000 Ster.) per ann. I, smiling, replied, that I could easily give him such a written paper, but the King of England would not acknowledge the bill. He told me, "Then you may go to the Devil." He sent me to Sharoot, to the house of a veteran soldier of Abbas Mirza. After we left Dawlat-Abad, we rode on before the caravan, in hopes that the Prince of Boostaun would send me on to Bokhara: being disappointed in my expectations, I returned with treacherous and wicked servants towards Deh Mullah, in order to rejoin the caravan at Heraut, and my friend Haje Sheikh Mohammed. What awful darkness is" in all these places! No Christian will be welcomed now from Boostaun, and throughout Khorossaun, with a smile. Nothing but the knowledge of Jesus Christ will ever heal those people.
On our way to Deh-Mullah, we met with a gang of gypsies, called by the Persians of Teheraun, Cowley-burband; at Tabreez they are called Garatshee; in Khorossaun, Kerishmaal.
ORIGIN OF GYPSIES.
The common people of Khorossaun give the following account of their origin: "Nimrod commanded Abraham to be cast into a fiery furnace; but two angels appeared, to hinder the execution of it. The Devil said to Nimrod, that he should place near Abraham a brother and sister, who should make the angels blush to such a degree, that they would turn away their faces, and consequently their protection from Abraham. During this time, he was cast into a fiery furnace, but came out from it unhurt. The brother's name was Cow, that of the sister Ly; the gypsies are their children, and therefore called Cowly-bur-band, i. e. the band of Cowly."
We arrived at Deh-Mullah; the inhabitants thereof treated us with the greatest unkindness, and asked my servant, how he could wait on such an infidel, who was unclean.
Oct. 8.—We left Deh-Mullah, and arrived at Detshe, 20 English miles from Deh-Mullah.
At Detshe the danger begins, and the reason of it is this, the Mullahs of Bokhara, who are followers of Omar, i. e. Sunnee, issue every year a kind of bull, promising to the Turkomauns of Sarakhs, Mowr and Khiva, the blessings of paradise, if they go and make slaves of the Sheah, or followers of Ali, and bring them to Bokhara for sale. The Turkomauns therefore, encouraged by the Mullahs of Bokhara, which city is emphatically styled the "strength of Islam," annually make Tshapow, i. e. plundering excursions to Khorossaun, and sometimes take whole caravans, and whole villages as slaves. As far as Boostaun, there is little danger; but from Boostaun towards Astarabad, Meshed, Tursheesh, Burjund,and as far as Heraut, their Tshapow extends, and this month of October is just the time in which they make their appearance. Besides, in this part of the world, they never saw a Christian before; those Russian deserters who came here, instantly apostatized from the faith; therefore I was surrounded by them: they were watching every motion of mine; in eating, and drinking, and sleeping; and making observations, how I rose, and how I sat down; I however made them sometimes laugh, by asking them, whether I was not a beautiful man. My servant amused me however by telling me of the miracles of Imam Resa; I spoke to him about Jesus Christ. I examined the words of the AfTghaun language, to see whether I could find any traces of the Hebrew in it, but in vain.
Mohammed Hussein was disquieted this night, by the following dream. He told me, that he had seen himself attacked by a tiger, which he was not able to kill, and as the dream was in the afternoon, all considered it to be ominous, and he supposed that the Turkomauns were meant by the tiger.
Oct. 10 We left Detshe, and went towards the south-east. Our
situation became now more dangerous, particularly on account of the Belooj; for these people do not make slaves, but they plunder every one.
Abd-Alreheem, one of my Persian servants, desired me to pray