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to Imam Resa, who had received the power of bestowing gifts on 72 denominations of worship. I told him that I only pray to Jesus Christ.

The whole caravan were fervently praying, when I suddenly perceived a most horrid smell; I asked the reason of it, they replied, that it was because the people were in great fear.

Oct. 11 We arrived safely in a depopulated place, called Bagh

gout, 28 English miles from Detshe, and arrived in the morning at Beeyar-Jumand. Here a report spread that I was a Russian; but it was peaceably settled by Haje Sheikh Mohammed, who made them believe that I was an Armenian from Turkey, who was going to see his relations at Cabool.


/. In which Prophet would you have the most confidence: in one who tries to convince people by the sword of the truth of his creed, or one who tries to do the same by persuasion?

Mohammed Hassein. In him who persuades people by arguments.

/. In which would you have the most confidence: in one who tries to promote his doctrine by suffering persecution, or in one who tries to promote his doctrine by inflicting persecution?

M. H. In one who suffers persecution.

I. In whose sincerity of belief would you place most confidence in one who has been forced to make a profession, or one who has been induced by arguments?

M. H. In one who has been induced by arguments.

/. Jesus Christ and his disciples never used the sword, but words, for convincing others. Jesus Christ and his disciples suffered and died for the sake of the truth of the Gospel, which he proclaimed; whilst Mohammed and Ali forced some people by the sword to adopt their religion and put others to death.

M. II. Why are so many miracles performed at the grave of Imam Husseyn at Kerbelay? many a sick camel has been cured at the grave of Imam Resa; many a barren wife has become pregnant there; many a blind man has had his eyes restored, and I myself have a charm with me, such that neither dagger, nor pistol can hurt me.

/. I should not like to see you put to the trial.

The wife of Haje Sheikh Mohammed was taken with a fever, and she desired me to write a charm for her. I told her, that I would pray for her. I prayed for her, and she recovered. I asked to day Haje Sheikh Mohammed the reason of the hatred of the Sheah towards Omar, who was such a strenuous promoter of Islamism? He replied, "You think that you will be able to make all people of one belief; it is quite impossible to effect it." I replied, that Jesus Christ will do it at his second coming. To-day one of the camel drivers turned not his face towards Mecca; another camel driver reproved him for his ignorance, saying, "ignorant fellow, tell me the name of the mother of Imam Resa." He did not know it; her name was Zobeida Khatoon.

Oct. 13 We arrived at Khane-Khode; the inhabitants came out

and asked Haje Sheikh Mohammed who I was; he told them, "An Armenian, who was on a journey to see his relations at Sc bool." We continued our journey through a most dangerous road; for Mohammed Ishak Khan Kerahe of Torbad Hydarea sends his bands about here, to make slaves, and sell them to the Turkomauns.

Oct. 14.—We arrived near a ruined castle, called Hizemee. God be praised, we met with no Turkomauns. God gives protection, they all exclaimed.

Oct. 15.—We arrived at Towroon, a village inhabited by very inhospitable Mohammedans. They took from the caravan the money for victuals, and hesitated to give the victuals. If they had not been afraid of being infected by the plague, they would have come out and searched whether there were no Hindoo or Christian in the caravan, that they might plunder; but as it was, we communicated at a distance. Hereabouts, as the Persians say, they do not know a King.

An old pilgrim, 80 years of age, joined our caravan, to go to Meshed on foot. He lost, 50 miles from this place, a Sahebgeran, a coin of the value of a penny; he remained behind the caravan, and went back fifty miles, to find the Sahebgeran, and reached us safely the next day, "With the favour of Ali and Imam Resa," as he expressed himself.

Oct. 16.—We arrived in the desert place, called Gore Turkomaun, (grave of the Turkomauns) or Jeshme Jehan Shan (well of the king of the world).

Oct. 17.—We arrived at Ain-Abad; here is less danger of being taken by the Turkomauns.

Haje Sheikh Mohammed tells me, that Aboo Taleb, the uncle of Mohammed, had found out a place, upon which Ishmael stamped marks with his little feet, from whence the water gushed out. This place is now called Zamzam. Meshede Ali Akbar sang today:

"If the fair damsel of Sheeras
Would take my heart in her hand,
I would give

For the mole upon her cheek,
Both Bokhara, and Samarcand."

I told him that he should rather thank God for having delivered us from danger.

I learn that the Sheah, in case of any doubt with regard to a theological question, appeal to Haje Sayd Baker.

I had the following conversation with three Aflfghaun camel drivers; one of them was of Cabool, the other of Candahar, and the third of Heraut.

Affghauns. Mullah Youssuf (so I am called among them), we know, that you are a Mullah; do you know, that our origin is from the Children of Israel?

/. How do you know this?

A. Our Mullahs know it, and Mullah Shams at Heraut can tell you more of it.

I asked them the meaning of some words in the Poshtoo, to determine whether it had any similarity with the Hebrew; the word ijN {Or) light, struck me.

Oct. 19.—We arrived at Fakhr-Abad, a village with a strong castle. I learn by my Affghaun fellow travellers, that some poems are written in the Affghaun (Poshtoo) language. Rahman is the most celebrated poet of the Affghauns.

Oct. 21.—We arrived at Bejistoon, a village surrounded with gardens, and inhabited by a good sort of people, belonging to Mohammed Nakee Khan of Tabas, who is related to Mohammed Ishak Khan of Torbad Hydarea, and therefore the road is safe.

Oct. 22.—We arrived at Toon, but slept outside near the village, called Baghestoon (place of gardens); the whole country around is filled with gardens. I paid a visit to the inhabitants of Toon, who declined speaking to me on account of my being a Kafer (infidel).

Oct. 23.—We arrived at Serayoon, a considerable town.

Oct. 24.—We arrived at Teekho, a miserable village. One of the inhabitants saw that I was afraid of the fire, which fell by chance into the tent. He observed, "This man must be a Jew, for he is afraid of the fire!"

Oct. 25 We arrived at a considerable town, called Hafrees; tho

merchants here trade to Bokhara.

Oct. 26.—We arrived in a desert place. Haje Sheikh Mohammed having declined giving me any of the 20 Tomauns, with which I had entrusted him, I was obliged to leave him, and go myself to Burjund in the province called Kayen or Ghayn. I had a letter from Haje Telah, for Assaad Ullah Khan, the Governor; but he took no notice of it. The town is inhabited by Khorassane, and people of Belujestan, and a few Hindoos.

The camel drivers who had brought me here, having been refused a present, went to Assad Ullah Khan, the Governor of Arjund, and told him that myself and servant had been in the service of Abbas Mirza, and had run away with 12,000 Tomauns.

Oct. 28 I left Burjund, and had reached Sirchah, when two

soldiers of Assaad Ullah Khan came after us, and brought us back, telling us that the Khan demanded all our property, as we had run away from Abbas Mirza, with 12,000 Tomauns. They wanted to put me in chains; but telling them that the Khan would be annoyed on hearing that they had put an Englishman in chains, they soon suffered me to walk, and afterwards to ride; but I walked mostly.


Oct. 28.—I arrived again in this town, where certainly never any Englishman before had been. The two Hindoo merchants gave me kindly every assistance in their power; and thus Abd Resa Khan of Yazd, who had rebelled against the King of Persia, and who had taken asylum with Assaad Ullah Khan, promised me his assistance.

Oct. 29.—I was called before Assaad Ullah Khan; the fort in which he resided, was filled with rough and uncultivated people of Belujestan, soldiers of Khorossaun, and Persians. Entering the dark room, I saw Assaad Ullah Khan upon the floor; around him were seated Mohammed Resa Khan, and several Mullahs; and among them was Mullah Mohammed Jawad, who informed me, that he had accompanied Mr. Morecroft from Cashmeer to Bokhara. I had taken my Hebrew Bible and Testament with me. Assaad Ullah Khan asked me to sit down near him and Abd Resa Khan.

Assad Ullah Khan. What is your profession?

Myself. (Lifting up my Bible.) This is my profession: the proclamation of the Bible and the Gospel among the Jews, and to converse with all nations about God.

Abd Resa Khan. With what kind of denominations have you converted?

I. With Mohammedan Mullahs at Sheeras, Ispahan, Erivan, Oormia, &c, and the Jews of the Turkish and Persian empires; with Yeseedes, Guebres and Ali Ullahe.

A. R. K. Are the Guebres in the right?

/. No.

A. R. K. Now say the truth, are we in the right?

J. I only consider those in the right, who believe in the Bible and the Gospel.

A. U. K. Why do you not believe in Mohammed?

I. According to the Gospel, none can be as great as Jesus was.

A. U. K. Is Mohammed not predicted in your books?

/. He is predicted as a chastiser of the evil doers: in his time Christians were fallen into idolatry, and God therefore sent Mohammed to chastise them.

A. U. K. Was he no Prophet?

I. No.

A. R. K. Read me some parts of the Gospel.

I read and translated the fifth chapter of Matthew'. He continued, "Read something of the Tawrat, or books of Moses." I read Exodus xv. and translated it into Persian.

They asked me then to write down what I had translated. I then sent to them Arabic Bibles, and Arabic and Persian Testaments. Assaad Ullah Khan promised me his protection, and also to send me on to Meshed.


This fellow, whom I had long regarded as an honest man, turned out to be a most consummate rascal and thief; but I had not yet found him out; and he, in order to give an idea of the honest principles by which he was actuated, related the following story of his Prophet.

A poor man came to Mohammed and said, "From morning to night I am in bitterness, for I am not able to gain so much as to buy bread." The Prophet said, "Perhaps you do not perform prayer?"

Beggar. I perform prayer five times every day.

P. Perhaps you don't fast

B. I fast three months in the year.

P. What is your trade?

B. I am a stone cutter.

P. What has your father been?

B. A thief.

P. Go and steal too.

B. Then I shall be killed.

P. Steal with equity, you must practise the trade of thy father.

The beggar went at night to steal in the house of a merchant, where he found ten purses with money, every purse containing 100 Tomauns: he wanted to take all the money: but then he said to himself, the prophet said, "Steal with equity;" so he left 500 Tomauns. He arrived with the other 500 at the gate; then he said, "Even these 500 are without equity, for the owner has troubled himself much to gain 500 Tomauns;" he took 200, and brought back 300. Coming with them to the gate, he said to himself, "This is also without equity; 100 is only necessary;" he brought back 100, and left a 100. Going to leave the house, he heard the crier upon the Mosque saying, "Prayer is better than money." He went upon the terrace of the house of the owner of the money, left the money behind, and performed the prayer with a loud voice. The owner of the money awoke, and went to the terrace of his house, where he saw the beggar performing his prayer. He asked him, "Who art thou?" he replied, "I am a thief." The owner asked, "What kept you from taking my money? how many years hast thou been a thief? He told him his history. The owner married him to his daughter, and gave him his property.

My rascally servant however did not rob me with equity, which I found out afterwards.


Oct. 30.—Burjund was built by Bijand, the giant, who was killed by the white Dew* in the time of Rostam: nobody was able to draw his head out of the well, except Rostam himself.

Near Burjund is a mountain, called Baghran, where the sons of many Imams are buried; and the saying is current, that it is surrounded by a talisman, so that it cannot be taken by any power in the world. I learned here, that the city of Yazd has likewise such a talisman.

JVbvember 1.—Haje Mullah Mohammed Jawad called on me; he is 38 years of age. Twenty years ago, he went to Meshed, Heraut,

* Dew is a genii, who governed Persia in former times. Query. May not the Latin word Dcus, God, be derived from the Persian word Dew, i. e. Genii.

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