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revenged. Sir, if ye vill not help yourself, who should help you? Sir, take good advice herein.

When the earl heard his councillors so earnestly counsel him, his spirits opened and said : Sirs, I will do as ye will have me, for to have your counsel was the entent that I sent for you. Sir, quoth they, ye say well ; and sir, we counsel you truly to our power, and as the matter requireth. Then as secretly as they could they ordained for their departure ; then it was devised how they might pass the sea, or any knowledge thereof should come into England.

120.—THE CAPTIVITY OF RICHARD.

FROISSART. It was said to the king, when the matter could no longer be hid : Sir, advise you well; ye have need of good counsel shortly, for the Londoners and other cometh against you with great puissance, and hath made the earl of Derby your cousin their chief captain ; they have got him out of France; this hath not been done without great treaty. When the king heard that, he was sore abashed, and wist not what to say, for all his spirits trembled ; for then he saw well the matters were likely to go evil against him, without he could get puissance to resist them. Then the king said : Sirs, make all our men ready, and send throughout my realm for aid, for I will not fly before my subjects. Sir, quoth they, the matter goeth evil, for your men do leave you, and fly away ; ye have lost the one half, and all the rest are sore abashed, and loseth countenance. Why? quoth the king ; what will ye that I shall do ? Sir, leave the field, for ye are not able to keep it, and get you into some strong castle till sir John Holland your brother come, who is advertised of all this matter; and when he is come he shall find some remedy, either by force of arms or else by treaty, at least to bring you into some better case than ye be in at this present time, for if ye keep the field, peradventure some will forsake you and go to him. To this counsel the king agreed. At that time the earl of Salisþury was not with the king ; he was in his country. When he heard how the earl of Derby with the Londoners and great puissance rode agairst the king, he imagined that the matter was in peril for him and for the king, and for such as the king had been counselled by ; so he sat still to hear other tidings ; also the Duke of York was not with the king, but his son the earl of Rutland was always with the king, for two causes ; the one was, king Richard loved him entirely; and another was, because he was constable of England ; therefore by right he ought to be with the king. When the king had supped, new tidings came again to him, saying: sir, it is time to take advice how ye will order yourself ; your puissance is not sufficient against them that cometh against you ; it cannot avail you to make battle against them; it behoveth you to pass this danger by sad advice and good counsel, and by wisdom appease them that be your evil willers, as ye have done or this time, and then correct them after at leisure. There is a castle a twelve mile hence, called the castle of Flint, which is strong; we counsel you to go thither, and close you within it till ye hear other news from the earl of Huntingdon your brother, and from other of your friends, and send into Ireland for succours ; and the French king your father-in-law, when he knoweth of your need, he will comfort you. The king followed that counsel, and appointed them that should ride with him to the castle of Flint ; and he ordained his cousin earl of Rutland to tarry still at Bristow, and that they should be ready to set forward when he sent to them, and that he was of power to fight with his enemies. The next day the king, with such as were of his household, rode to the castle of Flint, and entered in the castle without making

any semblant to make any war, but to abide there and to defend the castle if they were assailed.

The earl of Derby and the Londoners had their spies going and coming, who reported to them all the state of the king; and also the earl knew it by such knights and squires as daily came from the king's part to the earl, who had sure knowledge that the king was gone to the castle of Flint, and had no company with him but such as were of his own household, and seemed that he would no war, but to scape that danger by treaty. Then the earl determined to ride thither, and to do so much to have the king either by force or by treaty. Then the earl and all his company rode thither, and within two mile of the castle they found a great village ; there the earl tarried and drank, and determined in himself to ride to the castle of Flint with two hundred horse, and to leave the rest of his company still there : and he said he would do what he could by fair treaty to enter into the castle by love and not perforce, and to bring out the king with fair words, and to assure him from all peril, except going to London, and to promise him that he should have no hurt of his body, and to be mean for him to the Londoners, who were not content with him. The earl's devise seemed good to them that heard it, and they said to him: Sir, beware of dissimulation ; this Richard of Bourdeaux must be taken either quick or dead, and all the other traitors that be about him and of his counsel, and so to be brought to London and set in the tower; the Londoners will not suffer you to do the contrary. Then the earl said : Sirs, fear not, for all that is enterprised shail be accomplished; but if I can get him out of the castle with fair words, I will do it; and if I can not, I shall send you word thereof, and then ye shall come and lay siege about the castle, and then we will do so much by force or by assault, that we will have him quick or dead, for the castle is well pregnable. To those words accorded well the Londoners. So the earl departed from the army, and rode with two hundred men to the castle, where as the king was among his men right sore abashed. The earl came riding to the castle gate, which was fast closed, as the case required : the earl knocked at the gate ; the porters demanded who was there ; the earl answered, I am Henry of Lancaster ; I come to the king to demand mine heritage of the Duchy of Lancaster; shew the king this from me. Sir, quoth they within, we shall do it. Incontinent they went into the hall and into the dungeon where as the king was, and such knights about him as had long time counselled him. Then these news were shewed to the king, and said : Sir, your cousin of Derby is at the gate, who demandeth of you to be set in possession of the Duchy of Lancaster his inheritance. The king then regarded such as were about him, and demanded what was best to do. They said': Sir, in this request is none evil ; ye may let him come into you with twelve** persons in his company, and hear what he will say; he is your cousin, and a great lord of the realm ; he may well make your peace and he will, for he is greatly beloved in the realm, and specially with the Londoners, who sent for him into France ; they be as now the chief that be against you. Sir, ye must dissimule till the matter be appeased, and till the earl of Huntingdon your brother be with you ; and it cometh now evil to pass for you that he is at Calais, for there be many now in England that be risen against you, that and they knew that your brother were about you, they would sit still and durst not displease you : and yet he hath to his wife the earl of Derby's sister : by his means we suppose ye should come to peace and concord. The king agreed to those words, and said: go and let him come in with twelvet with him and no more. Two knights went down to the gate, and opened the wicket and issued out and made reverence to the earl, and received him with gracious words,

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for they knew well that they had no force to resist them, and also they knew well the Londoners were sore displeased with them : therefore they spake fair, and said to the earl: sir, what is your pleasure ? the king is at mass; he hath sent us hither to speak with you. I say, quoth the earl, ye know well I ought to have possession of the Duchy of Lancaster ; I am come in part for that cause, and also for other things that I would speak with the king of. Sir, quoth they, ye be welcome, the king would be glad to see you and to hear you, and hath commanded that ye come to him all only with twelve persons. The earl answered, it pleaseth me well: so he entered into the castle with twelve persons, and then the gate closed again, and the rest of his company tarried without.

Now consider what danger the earl of Derby was in, for the king then might have slain him and such as were with him, as easily as a bird in a cage ; but he feared not the matter, but boldly went to the king, who changed colours when he saw the earl. Then the earl spake aloud, without making of any great honour or reverence, and said : Sir, are ye fasting? The king answered and said, yea, why ask you? It is time, quoth the earl, that ye had dined, for ye have a great journey to ride. Why, whither should I ride ? quoth the king. Ye must ride to London, quoth the earl, wherefore I counsel you eat and drink, that ye may ride with the more mirth. Then the king, who was sore troubled in his mind, and in a manner afraid of those words, said : I am not hungry; I have no lust to eat. Then such as were by, who were as then glad to flatter the earl of Derby, for they saw well the matter was like to go diversely, said to the king : sir, believe your cousin of Lancaster, for he will nothing but good. Then the king said: well, I am content; cover the tables. Then the king washed and sat down and was served. Then the earl was demanded if he would sit down : he said no, for he was not fasting.

In the mean season while the king sat at dinner, who did eat but little, his heart was so full that he had no lust to eat, all the country about the castle was full of men of war; they within the castle might see them out of the windows, and the king when he rose from the table might see them himself. Then he demanded of his cousin what men they were that appeared so many in the fields. The earl answered and said : the most part of them be Londoners. What would they have ? quoth the king. They will have you, quoth the earl, and bring you to London, and put you into the Tower ; there is none other remedy, ye can scape none otherwise. No, quoth the king, and he was sore afraid of those words, for he knew well the Londoners loved him not, and said ; cousin, can ye not provide for my surety ? I will not gladly put me into their hands, for I know well they hate me, and have done long, though I be their king. Then the earl said : Sir, I see no other remedy but to yield yourself as my prisoner ; and when they know that ye be my prisoner they will do you no hurt ; but ye must so ordain you and your company to ride to London with me, and to be as my prisoner in the Tower of London. The king, who saw himself in a hard case, all his spirits were sore abashed, as he that doubted greatly that the Londoners would slay him. Then he yielded himself prisoner to the early of Derby, and bound himself

, and promised to do all that he would have him to do. In likewise all other knights, squires, and officers yielded to the earl, to eschew the danger and peril that they were in : and the earl then received them as his prisoners, and ordained incontinent horses to be saddled and brought forth into the court and the gates opened, then many men of arms and archers entered ; then the earl of Derby caused a cry to be made ; on pain of death no man to be so hardy to take away any thing within the castle, nor to lay any hands upon any person, for all were under the earl's safeguard and protection ; which cry was kept, no man durst break it. The earl had the king down into the court talking together, and caused all the king's whole household and estate to go forward, as of custom

they had done before, without changing or minishing of any thing. While every thing was a preparing, the king and the earl communed together in the court, and were well regarded by the Londoners; and as it was informed me, king Richard had a greyhound called Mathe, who always waited upon the king, and would know no man else : for whensoever the king did ride, he that kept the greyhound did let him loose, and he would straight run to the king and fawn upon him, and leap with his fore-feet upon the king's shoulders; and as the king and the earl of Derby talked together in the court, the greyhound, who was wont to leap upon the king, left the king and came to the earl of Derby, duke of Lancaster, and made to him

the same friendly countenance and cheer as he was wont to do to the king. The duke, who knew not the greyhound, demanded of the king what the greyhound would do. Cousin, quoth the king, it is a great good token to you, and an evil sign to me. Sir, how know you that ? quoth the duke. I know it well

, quoth the king : tho greyhound maketh you cheer this day as king of England, as ye shall be, and I shall be deposed; the greyhound hath this knowledge naturally ; therefore tako him to you, he will follow you and forsake me. The duke understood well those words, and cherished the greyhound, who would never after follow king Richard, but followed the duke of Lancaster.

121.—THE DEPOSITION OF RICHARD.

FROISSART. When the duke of Lancaster had set his cousin king Richard in the Tower of London, and certain of his councillors, and had set sure keeping on them, the first thing then that the duke did, he sent for the earl of Warwick, who was banished, and commanded to be in the Isle of Wight, and discharged him clean thereof; and secondly, the duke of Lancaster sent to the earl of Northumberland, and to the lord Percy his son, that they should come to him, and so they did : after he enquired and sought out to have the four companions that had strangled his uncle the duke of Gloucester in the castle of Calais ; they were so well sought out, that they were all taken : they were set in prison apart in London. Then the duke of Lancaster and his council took advice what should be done with king Richard, being in the Tower of London ; where as king John of France was kept, while king Edward went into the realm of France : then it was thought that king Richard should be put from all his royalty and joy that he had lived in, for they said, the news of his taking should spread abroad into all realms christened ; he had been king twenty-two year, and as then they determined to keep him in prison : then they regarded what case the realm stood in, and did put all his deeds in articles to the number of twenty-eight. Then the duke of Lancaster and his council went to the Tower of London, and entered into the chamber where king Richard was, and without any reverence making to him, there was openly read all the said articles, to the which the king made pone answer, for he saw well all was true that was laid to his charge, saving he said, all that I have done passed by my council. Then he was demanded what they were that had given counsel, and by whom he was most ruled ; he named them, in trust thereby to have been delivered himself in accusing of them, as he had done beforetime, trusting thereby to scape, and to bring them in the danger and pain, but that was not the mind of them that loved him not. So as at that time they spake no more but departed, and the duke of Lancaster went to his lodging, and suffered the mayor and the men of law to proceed; they went to the Guildhall, where as all the matters of the city were determined, and then much people assembled there. When they saw the governors

of the city go thither, they thought some justice should be done, as there was indeed. I shall shew you how: First, the articles that were made against the king, the which had been read before him in the Tower, were read again there openly; and it was shewed by him that read them, how the king himself denied none of them, but confessed that he did them by the counsel of four knights of his chamber, and how by their counsel he had put to death the duke of Gloucester, and the earl of Arundel, Sir Thomas Corbet, and other, and how they had long encited the king to do those deeds : which deeds, they said, were not to be forgiven, but demanded punition ; for by them and their counsel the justice of right was closed up through all the courts of England, Westminster, and other, whereby many evil deeds followed, and companies and rowts of thieves and murderers rose and assembled together in divers parts of the realm, and robbed merchants by the ways, and poor men in their houses, by which means the realm was in great peril to have been lost without recovery; and it is to be imagined that finally they would have rendered Calais, or Guisnes, or both, into the Frenchmen's hands. These words thus shewed to the people made many to be abashed, and many began to murmur and said : these causes demand punition, that all other may take ensample thereby, and Richard of Bourdeaux to be deposed ; for he is not worthy to bear a crown, but ought to be deprived from all honour, and to be kept all his life in prison with bread and water. Though some of the villains murmured, other said on high: Sir Mayor of London, and ye other that have justice in your hands to minister, execute justice : for we will ye spare no man, for ye see well the case that ye have shewed as demandeth justice incontinent, for they are judges upon their own deeds. Then the mayor and other of the governors of the law went together into the chamber of judgment; then these four knights were judged to die, and were judged to be had to the foot of the Tower, where as king Richard was, that he might see them drawn along by the dyke with horses each after other, through the city into Cheapside, and then their heads stricken off there, and set upon London bridge, and their bodies drawn to the gibbet, and there hanged.

This judgment given they were delivered to execution, for the Mayor of London, and such as were deputed to the matter went from the Guildhall to the Tower, and took out the four knights of the king, whose names were called Sir Bernard Brokas, Sir Marclays, Master John Derby, Receiver of Lincoin, and Master Stell, the king's Steward ; each of them were tied to two horses, in the presence of them that were in the Tower, and the king might well see it out of the windows, wherewith he was sore discomforted, for all other that were there with the king looked to be in the same case, they knew them of London so cruel. Thus these four knights were drawn one after another along through the city till they came into Chepe, and there on a fisher's stall their heads were stricken off and set upon London bridge, and their bodies drawn by the shoulders to the gibbet, and there hanged up. This justice thus done, every man went to their lodgings. King Richard knowing himself taken, and in the danger of the Londoners, was in great sorrow in his heart, and reckoned his puissance nothing: for he saw how every man was against bim, and if there were any that ought him any favour, it lay not in their power to do him any aid, nor they durst not shew it. Such as were with the king said : Sir, we have but small trust in our lives as it may well appear ; for when your cousin of Lancaster came to the castle of Flint, and with your own good will ye yielded you to him, and he promised that you and twelve of yours should be his prisoners and have no hurt, and now of those twelve, four be executed shamefully, we are like to pass the same way; the cause is these Londoners, who hath caused the duke of Lancaster your cousin to do this deed, had him so sore bound to them that they must do as they will have him ; God doth much for us, if he suffer that

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