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178.–CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS,

TROM THE ACCESSION OF EDWARD I. TO THE DEATH OF ELIZABETH.

A.D.

1272 Nov. 20. Edward I. proclaimed by the barons at the New Temple, and a regency

appointed. 1273 Feb. Edward goes to Paris and does homage to Philip III. for the lands in France. 1274 Aug. 19. He is crowned with his queen at Westminster.

Alexander III., king of Scots, does homage to Edward for his English possessions. 1277 Edward invades Wales. 1282 Llewellyn, prince of Wales, takes several places ; Nov. 6. Edward is defeated ;

Llewellyn is slain. 1286 March 16. Alexander, king of Scotland, is killed. 1291 May 10. The Scotch barons appear at Norham, and Edward claims to be lord para

mount of Scotland, when the several competitors for the crown of Scotland admit

Edward's claim. 1292 Nov. 6 and 17. Edward adjudges the kingdom of Scotland to Baliol, who is crowned

at Scone, and does homage to Edward for his kingdom at Newcastle. 1296 March. A Scottish army invade Cumberland.

March 30, Edward takes Berwick and massacres the inhabitants.

July. The coronation stone is removed from Scone to Westminster. 1297 Wallace heads a revolt and takes Scone.

Aug. Edward lands at Sluys; gains some towns.
Sept. 4. Wallace gains a victory; the castles of Edinburgh, Dunbar, Roxburgh, and

Berwick surrender; he is made guardian of the kingdom. 1299 July 22. The battle of Falkirk; Edward ravages Scotland. 1290 Sept. Edward marries Margaret of France; the Prince of Wales is contracted to

Isabella of France.

The pope claims Scotland. 1301 Parliament denies the authority of the pope in temporal matters.

Edward marches against Scotland. 1304 Wallace is captured and brought to London. 1305 Aug. 23. Wallace is executed as a traitor. 1306 Feb. 10. Robert Bruce the younger slays Comyn.

March 27. He is crowned king of Scotland at Scone.

June 19. Battle of Methven; Bruce is defeated and flies to Ireland. 1307 May 10. Battle of Loudon Hill; Bruce defeats the Earl of Pembroke and the Earl

of Gloucester.
July 7. Edward dies at Burgh-upon Sands.
July 8. Edward II. is acknowledged king at Carlisle.
July 27. Edward I. is buried at Westminster.

Gaveston is made Earl of Cornwall.
1308 Jan. 25. Edward marries Isabella of France at Boulogne.

Gaveston is expelled, but made governor of Ireland. 1309 Gaveston returns.

The Templars of England are tried and condemned, and the order suppressed. 1311 August. Parliament recalls the grants made by Edward to Gaveston; he is banished;

parliament to be holden once every year.

Dec. Gaveston again returns. 1312 May 19. Gaveston surrenders at Scarborough, and is beheaded at Blacklow Hill. 1313 June 11. Edward marches into Scotland.

June 23. Battle of Bannockburn; the English are driven out of Scotland. 1318 Bruce makes two invasions of England. 1319 Edward marches an army into Scotland; the Scotch invade England. 1321 Aug. The Despencers are banished by parliament.

Oct. They return to England.

A.D.

1322 The Earl of Lancaster is defeated and taken prisoner at Boroughbridge. Ha

is condemned and executed for treason. 1323 May 30. A suspension of arms for thirteen years agreed upon between England and

Scotland.

Roger Mortimer escapes from the Tower. 1325 Sept. 24. Queen Isabella and the Prince of Wales land at Orweil; she is joined by

the barons. Sept. 26. The Prince of Wales declared by the barons guardian of the kingdom. Edward and the younger Despencer are captured; Despencer is executed at IIereford

as a traitor. 1327 Jan. 8. Edward is deposed and the Prince of Wales proclaimed king.

Sept. Edward II. is murdered at Berkeley Castle, and buried in the abbey at

Gloucester. 1328 Jan. 24. Edward marries Philippa of Hainault, at York.

Peace is concluded with the Scots; the independence of Scotland recognised. 1330 June. Edward the Black Prince is born at Woodstock.

Nov. 26. Parliament is assembled ; Mortimer is impeached of murder and other

crimes; found guilty.

Nov. 29. He is hanged at the Elms, and Queen Isabella is committed to custody. 1332 Sept. 24. Edward Baliol is crowned king of Scotland at Scone. 1333 July 13. Battle of Halidon Hill; Edward Baliol is reinstated as king, does homage,

and surrenders Berwick and other places to Edward. 1338 Baliol is again expelled from Scotland. 1339 Sept. Edward assumes the title of king of France, and quarters the French arms. 1340 June 24. Destroys the French fleet off Sluys. 1346 July. Edward lands at Cape La Hogue with an army of English, Welsh, and Irish;

he takes several towns; forces the passage of Blanche-Taque.
Aug. 26. Battle of Crecy gained by the Black Prince.
Aug. 31. Edward begins the siege of Calais.
Sept. David of Scotland invades England; takes several places.

Oct. 17. Battle of Nevil's Cross; King David is taken prisoner, and sent to London, 1317 Aug. 3. Calais is surrendered to Edward. 1355 Edward opens the campaign in France; he ravages a great part of the country. The

Scots retake Berwick. Edward returns to England. 1356 Sept. 19. Battle of Poictiers; King John and his son Philip are taken prisoners. 1357 April 24. The Black Prince, King John, and Prince Philip enter London. 1359 Edward goes to France with a great army; lays siege to Rheims. 1360 May. The peace of Bretigny concluded; Edward renounces his pretensions to the

crown of France. 1366 Richard of Bordeaux, son of the Black Prince, is born. 1367 April 3. The Black Prince, the Duke of Lancaster, and Peter the Cruel, defeat Don

Enrique, and Peter is reinstated on the throne.

Edward reassumes his title of king of France. 1369 Queen Philippa dies.

The Black Prince besieges Limoges and massacres the inhabitants; he returns to

England. 1371 David, king of Scotland, dies.

Accession of Robert II. 137€ June 8. The Black Prince dies. 1377 The Duke of Lancaster supports Wycliffe, and causes a riot in London; the Savoy

Palace is plundered.
June 21. King Edward dies.

June 22. Accession of Richard II.
1378 Jack Straw raises an insurrection in Essex, Kent, Suffolk, and Norfolk.

A tax-gatherer killed by Wat Tyler. 1381 June 11. The rebels encamp at Blackheath.

June 14. Wat Tyler is slain in Smithfield; the rebellion is repressed, and a general

pardon is granted.

A.D.

* 1382 Richard is married to Anne of Bohemia, daughter of the Emperor Charles IV. 1385 The French prepare to invade England ; several of their ships are taken. 1389 May. Richard assumes the government. 1397 Bolingbroke is created Duke of Hereford; the Earl of Nottingham and John Hol

land are created Dukes of Norfolk and Exeter. 1398 Jan. Norfolk challenges Hereford.

Sept. 16. Norfolk is banished for life, and Hereford for ten years. 1399 July. Hereford lands at Ravenspur; Richard is captured and taken to Flint; is

carried prisoner to Chester, and subsequently sent to the Tower. Sept. 30. Parliament meets; Richard renounces the crown ; an act of deposition is

passed ; Hereford is acknowledged king.

Oct. 13. Henry IV. is crowned in Westminster Abbey. 1400 King Richard is murdered at Pontefract Castle.

Henry collects an army; demands of the King of Scots to do him homage; he

marches to Edinburgh, but is repulsed by the Duke of Rothsay.

Owen Glendower heads an insurrection in Wales. 1402 Sept. 14. Battle of Homildon Hill; Douglas is captured. 1403 Insurrection of the Percies of Northumberland.

July 21. Battle of Shrewsbury; Hotspur is killed.

The Prince of Wales defeats Glendower in some skirmishes. 1405 An insurrection again breaks out in the north ; the Archbishop of York, the Earl of

Nottingham, and others, captured at Shipton-on-the-Moor; are beheaded at Pontefract.

The Prince of Wales subdues South Wales. 1408 The Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph take several castles in Northum

berland.

Feb. 28. They are defeated and slain at Branham Moor. 1413 March 20. Henry dies in the Jerusalem Chamber.

March 21. Accession of Henry V.

Sir John Oldcastle is accused of heresy. 1414 Jan. 7. The king takes some of the Lollards in St. Giles's Fields, who are hanged

and burnt. 1415 April 16. Henry announces to a council at Westminster his determination to invade

France.
The Earl of Cambridge, Lord Scrope, and Sir Thomas Masham are executed for

treason.
Henry sails from Southampton.
Aug. 14. lands near Harfleur.
Aug. 17. Besieges Harfleur.
Sept. 22. It is surrendered to him; challenges the dauphin.
Oct. 6. Henry begins his march ; passes through Normandy.

Oct. 25. The battle of Agincourt. 1416 Aug. 15. The Duke of Bedford sails from Rye; gains a victory over the French and

Genoese fleets, and raises the siege of Harfleur. 1417 Aug. Henry lands at Tonque; conquers many places in Normandy; the French sue

for peace.
The Scotch invade England; "the foul raid."

Sir John Oldcastle is captured ; tried; hanged and burnt in St. Giles's Fields.
1418 July. Henry completes the conquest of Lower Normandy.
1419 Jan. 16. He enters Rouen ; completes the conquest of Normandy.

Sept. 10. The Duke of Burgundy is assassinated at Montereau. 1420 The treaty of Troyes is executed.

June 2. Henry is married to the Princess Catherine of France.
1421 Jan. Catherine is crowned queen of England at Westminster.
14:22 June. Henry and Catherine keep their court at the palace of the Louvre.

Aug. 31. Henry dies at Vincennes.
The Duke of Gloucester is appointed protector, and the Duke of Bedford regent of

France.
Oct. Charles VI. of France dies, and is succeeded by Charles VII.

A.D.

1422 The Duke of Bedford proclaims Henry VI. at Paris, and fealty is sworn to him as

king of France: 1424 Feb. 24. James, king of Scotland, marries Lady Johanna Beaufort. 1425 Queen Catherine marries Owen Tudor. 1428 The Duke of Gloucester's marriage with Jacqueline of Holland is declared void; be

marries Eleanor Cobham.

Oct. 12. The siege of Orleans is commenced by the Earl of Salisbury. 1429 Feb. The battle of Herrings fought at Rouvrai.

The Maid of Orleans is introduced to Charles at Chinon.
She carries succours into Orleans.
The English are defeated at the battle of Patay.

July 15. Charles enters Rheims with the Maid of Orleans. 1430 May 25. The Maid relieves Compeigne ; makes a sortie; she is captured by the

troops of the Duke of Burgundy. 1431 The Maid is sent to Rouen; she is tried for heresy, and ultimately burnt in the

market-place.

Nov. Henry is crowned in Notre Dame in Paris. 1434 Sept. 14. The Duke of Bedford dies at Rouen. 1436 The Duke of York is appointed regent of France. 1437 The Duke of York is recalled; the Earl of Warwick is appointed to command. 1439 The Eari of Warwick dies; York is reappointed.

The plague and famine ravage England and France. 1441 The Duchess of Gloucester is accused of treason and sorcery; is condemned to per

petual imprisonment. 1444 Truce agreed on for two years.

Anjou and Maine are agreed to be given up to the Duke of Anjou on the marriage

of his daughter Margaret with King Henry. 1447 Feb. 11. The Duke of Gloucester is arrested for treason, and on the 28th is found

dead in his bed.

April 11. Cardinal Beaufort dies at Walvesey. 1440 Rouen is taken by the Count of Dunois.

The Duke of York suppresses an insurrection in Ireland. 1450 Jan. The Duke of Suffolk is committed to the Tower, impeached, banished, and

beheaded in a boat in the Channel. 1451 Jack Cade raises an insurrection in Kent, encamps on Blackheath, defeats the royal

troops at Sevenoaks, beheads the Lord Say in Cheapside, and is slain by Alexander

Iden.
Aug. The Duke of York returns to England.

Nov. It is proposed in parliament that he shall be declared heir to the throne.
1452 March 10. He makes his submission; retires to Wigmore.
1453 Queen Margaret is delivered of a son, created Prince of Wales.

The Duke of Somerset is sent to the Tower. 1454 Feb. The Duke of York opens parliament as lieutenant for the king; he is elected

protector. The king resumes his authority; liberates the Duke of Somerset. May 22. The Duke of York takes St. Albans, and captures Henry; the Duke of

Somerset and many other nobles are slain.

York is again declared protector. 1456 Henry again resumes his authority.

March 25. The Lancastrians and Yorkists are reconciled. 1459 Sept. The Yorkists gain a great victory at Blore-heath.

Sept. 14. York breaks up his camp and retreats to Ireland.
1460 June. Warwick lands in Kent; enters London with the son of York.

Battle of Northampton; Henry is taken prisoner.
Oct. 16. The Duke of York returns to London; he demands the crown.
Oct. 23. It is agreed in the upper house that Henry shall continue king, and on his

death York shall succeed.
Dec. 31. Battle of Wakefield; York is slain.

A.N.
1461 The Earl of March succeeds his father as Duke of York.

Feb. 1. Battle of Mortimer's Cross; Owen Tudor is taken, and with others is

beheaded. Queen Margaret defeats the Earl of Warwick. Feb. 17. Battle of Barnet; second battle of St. Albans; King Henry is retaken by

the queen. Feb. 25. The Duke of York enters London, and on March 4 is proclaimed king. March 28. Battle of Towton; Henry, Queen Margaret, and the Prince of Wales, fly

to Scotland. June 29. Edward IV. is crowned at Westminster; his brothers, George and Richard,

are created dukes of Clarence and Gloucester.

Nov. 4. Parliament assemble; Edward's title is declared valid. 1464 May 1. Edward marries the widow of Sir John Gray. 1467 The Earl of Warwick goes to Normandy to negotiate a marriage between the son of

Louis XI. of France and the Princess Margaret. 1469 The Duke of Clarence marries Isabella, daughter of Warwick, at Calais.

Warwick returns to England; Edward is confined in Middleham Castle. 1470 Mar. 12. The battle of Erpingham; Edward defeats the Lancastrians; Warwick

and Clarence take refuge in Normandy. The Prince of Wales is married to Anne, the second daughter of Warwick. Sept. 13. Warwick lands on the coast of Devonshire; Edward takes ship and pro

ceeds to the Hague. Oct. 6. Warwick enters London ; releases King Henry from the Tower; Queen

Elizabeth takes refuge in the Sanctuary at Westminster; is there delivered of a son. 147) March 16. Edward lands at Ravenspur, and reaches London.

April 30. Second battle of Barnet; Warwick is slain ; King Henry again sent to the

Tower.
May 4. Battle of Tewkesbury; the queen and prince are taken prisoners; the prince

is murdered.

May 22. King Henry is found dead in the Tower. 1475 June 22. Edward lands at Calais with a great army.

Aug. 22. He meets Louis on a bridge across the Somme, at Picquigny; a treaty is

concluded. 1478 Jan. 16. Clarence is accused of witchcraft and other crimes, is found guilty, and dies,

or is killed, in the Tower, 1483 April 9. King Edward dies; is buried at Windsor.

Gloucester returns from Scotland; places Rivers, Gray, and Sir Thomas Vaughan

under arrest, and on June 14 they are beheaded.
April 23. Queen Elizabeth takes sanctuary with the Duke of York, and her daughters

at Westminster.
May 22. Gloucester is appointed protector.
June 13. Lord Hastings is arrested, and beheaded.
July 6. Gloucester is crowned king of England as Richard III.
Edward V. and the Duke of York are murdered.
Oct. 18. An insurrection in favour of Richmond breaks out, and the Duke of Buck-

ingham is captured and beheaded.
1485 Aug. 7. Richmond lands at Milford Haven.

Aug. 22. Battle of Bosworth Field; Richard is slain; and Henry VII. is crowned on

the field of battle.
Aug. 27. Henry enters London.

Sept. 21. The sweating sickness breaks out in London. 1436 Jan. 18. Henry marries Elizabeth of York; union of the houses of York and Lan

caster. Simnel, with the Earl of Lincoln and others, and an army of Germans and Irish,

land at the Pile of Foudray. 14€7 June 10. Battle of Stoke; the rebels are defeated; Simnel and Simon ato taken;

the Earl of Lincoln is slain.
Nov. 20. The queen is crowned at Westminster.

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