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to eat with were yet a novelty in Italy in about two years since in those seven famous the year 1000. Forks, then, were imported countries-- France, Savoy, Italie, Rhetia, from the east, and were probably invented commonly called the Grisons' countrie, at Constantinople.
Helvetia, alias Swicerland, some parts of Fynes Moryson, in his Itinerary, about High Germanie, and the Netherlands, I the same time with Coryate, speaking of was disposed to turne my microcosme, his bargain with the master of the vessel (a phrase that a certaine learned gentleman which conveyed him from Venice to Con. not long ago made of me,) into eyes, I stantinople, says, “We agreed with the meane to prie into all thinges of chiefest master hiinself, who, for seven golden remarque, that were obvious unto my eyes, crowns by the month, paid by each of us, in every place where I travelled, in soe did courteously admit us to his table, and much that by my incessant industrie, and gave us good diet, serving each man with herculæan toyle, I wrote soe many obserhis knife and spoone, and his forke to hold vations in the foresayed countries, as have the meat while he cuts it, (for they hold it filled very neare four quires of paper, havill-manners that one should touch the meating in the space of five months surveyed with his hand,) and with a glass or cup to forty-seven cities ; and this my itineraire I drink in, peculiar to himself."
have concealed so long, that it seemed Coryate, on his return to England, cum lineis ac blattis rirari, (as eloquent retired to Odcombe, to prepare the nar- Angeleus Politian writeth of certaine of rative of his adventures for the press, in his bookes, in an epistle to Laurentius which labour he employed five months. Medices, Duke of Florence,) determining Having completed his task, he was desirous indeed rather Thetidi aut" Veneris eas of obtaining permission to publish the work, largiri marilo, than to evulge them to the for which purpose, he wrote this letter to Sir light of my countrie, before the consumMichael Hickes, desiring his interest with the mation of my future travels, which I thinke Earl of Salisbury, to obtain a license, whichwas will be very neare ten yeares hence, but granted, and the work soon after appeared. some of my deare friendes, especially a
“ Right worshipful, and generous Sir,- certaine learned gentleman, one Mr. LawThough I feare I shall incur your reprehen- rence Whitaker, hath made such imporsion, for presuming to write unto your tunities of persuasions unto worship ; yet I hope the superficial ac- amongst other things, alleged that excellent quaintance which I had with you lately at proverbiall verse, Mr. Ingram's (where it pleased you, after a Hollà peračù TEMEL KÚTIKOS KAIKEideos āxpe. very debonaire and courteous manner, to take notice of me,) will in some sort dis- I have confidently resolved, by God's grapense with my bouldnesse. I write unto cious permission, to imprint the observayou, partly by way of deprecation for my tions of my past travels, for the benefite of error, committed at that time at Mr. my travelling countriemen, before I goe Ingram's table, which I beseech you to abroad againe, for which cause, determinimpute, not to any voluntarie malipertnesse ing to dedicate them to the Prince, I went of mine, but rather to the merry prompt- lately to his highnesse, pronounced an ing of that jovial black-bearded gentleman, oration unto him, before a great assemblie that sat next unto me, who, you know, is of courtiers, and withal presented unto soe much given to his tapatoya, and him my journall, who soe graciously libertie of speech, that sometimes he will accepted it, that he hath promised to enternot sticke "amicissimum quempiam per- taine the dedication thereof. Since which stringere, even to glaunce with some time I have laboured very much about the exquisite straine of witte, at the dearest licensing of my booke, that it might be freinde he hath ; partly also for that I am printed, first with the late Archbishop of soe bould to insinuate myselfe unto you, Canterbury, whose sudden death hath with a suite, whereunto if it shall please much defeated my designment, after that you to condescend, not onely I myselfe with some of the High Commissioners, and shall be obliged unto you for it, in the the Bishop of London, of whom I cannot strictest bonde of true observance till I get an approbation, seeing it is not in their suffer the fatall dissolution of my bodie power to allowe any bookes to be printed and sowle, but, perhaps, many notable (as they affirme) but theologicall, soe that members of other commonwealths may the whole scope of my suite unto your render no small thankes unto you for the worship doth tend unto this, that you same. Therefore, without any long intro- would vouchsafe to intercede for me unto ductions to discover unto you the summe my Lorde Treasurer, that it would please of the matter, it is thus : having travelled his Lordship to give order that it might 2D. SERIES, NO, 39. – VOL. IV.
printed in London, with some expedition. nity of some of his friends, especially Mr. The Prince not onely approving, yea, Lionel Cranfield, afterwards Earl of Mid. applauding it, together with all those dlesex, and Mr. Laurence Whitaker, Secreselected flowers of gentilitie that flourish in tary to Sir Edward Philips, Master of the his princely courte, but also earnestly Rolls; and in the Introduction to the expecting it, especially since there is not verses made upon him and his book by as much as one line contained in my whole
most of the men of wit and learning of that journall, that maketh against other state, or age, in which they ridicule him in a style any forraine prince confederate with 13, of high panegyric, which he does not seem or against religion or good manners ; my to have been sensible of himself; he pro. booke containing principally the fesses that the greatest part of those verses remarkable antiquities of those cities that I were sent to him voluntarily from divers of have described; yea, and so many of them, his friends, from whom he expected no that I hope you will pardon me, though I such courtesy; and that when he found think that no man of other nation, since the them so numerous, he had resolved to put incarnation of Christ, hath observed more, a thousand of them into an Index Erpurfor the time, in the forsayd countries, which gatorius. But the Prince, who had eviI hope you will not hold to be unlikely, if dently some share in the diversion which you
did but knowe what intolerable paynes the preposterous vanity of our author gave I tooke in my travells, both by day and to the public, laid upon him a strict and night, scarce affording myselfe two hours express command to print all those verses rest, sometimes, of the whole twenty-four, which he had read to his Highness. in the citie of Venice, by reason of my con- Among the numerous writers who con. tinuall writing; whereupon divers English- tributed, by their praises, to the sale of the men that lay in the same house with me, book, which was printed at the expense of observing my extreme watchings, wherewith the author, were Ben Johnson, Sir John I did grievously excruciate my bodie, in- Harrington, Dudley Digges, afterwards stantly desired me to pitie myselfe, and not Master of the Rolls; Richard Martin, to kill myselfe with my inordinate labours. Recorder of London; Lawrence Whitaker; To conclude, if it shall please your worship Hugh Holland, the traveller; John Hosto gratifie me in this my earnest supplica- kyns, Sergeant at Law, and a Welsh Judge; tion, you will add unto me very spurres Inigo Jones ; Christopher Brook, of Linof diligence, and give me wonderful en- coln's Inn; Richard Corbet, afterwards couragement, to observe such thinges in Bishop of Norwich ; Johri Owen, the Epimy future travells as, I doubt not, but shall grammatist ; Thomas Farnaby, the Schoolbe acceptable to the King and Queen master; John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's; themselves, and all their Royal children, as Michael Drayton; Henry Peacham, Author also to the greatest Peers and Nobles of of the Compleat_Gentleman, &c. The this Kingdom ; in hope whereof I will
in English, Latin, French, commend your worship to the gracious Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and even Irish, clientale of the omnipotent Jehova. Appended to the volume are some Latin
From my Chamber Bowe-lane, this poems by the author's father, who appears 15th of November, 1610.
from them to have possessed considerable Your worship’s most suppliant Beadsman, learning and genius. Thomas CORYATE. The author had the honour of presenting
copies of this work to the King, the Queen, His request was granted, and in 1611 Prince Henry, the Duke of York, and the the work appeared under the following Princess Elizabeth, to each of whom he title, “ Coryate's Crudities hastily gobbled made an oration, which he afterwards pubup in Five Months' Travells in France, lished. Savoy, Italy, Rhetia, (commonly called In the same year he published, also, in the Grisons' country,) Helvetia, alias Swit- quarto, “ Coryate's Crambe, or his Colewort zerland, some parts of High Germany, and twice soddin, and now served in with the Netherlands, newly digested in the other Macaronicke Dishes, as the Second hungry aire of Odcombe in the county of Course to his Crudities." Somerset, and now dispersed to the nou- On the 20th of October, 1612, after rishment of the travelling members of this taking leave of his countrymen, by an kingdome.”
oration, spoken at the Cross in Odcombe, The volume is in quarto ; and in the Coryate set out on his further travels, in dedication to the Prince of Wales, the which he intended to employ ten years. author takes notice that the publishing of He arrived at Zante on the 13th of January, his book was chiefly owing to the importu- 1613, and there saw, as he says, the
And to old Dium make a new oration.
sepulchre of Marcus Tullius Cicero, and Paul Pindar, the English ambassador, to his wife. From Zante he proceeded to whom he made an oration. On the 1st Scio, and while there made an attempt to of April, 1613, being the day before Good visit the tomb of Homer, in which it is not Friday, he was present at the Monastery of to be wondered that he should prove un
Franciscan Friars, where, after mass, he successful. He then sailed to the Trojan saw several slaves whip themselves for an shore, where he employed several hours in hour and a half without mercy. These searching out the most notable antiquities of wretches were hired by their masters to Ilium, which, says he, one of my compa. undergo this punishment as an atonement nions, Master Robert Rugge observing, for sins confessed by their lords, for which " to yield me some kind of guerdon, or voluntary penance they were rewarded with remuneration for my paines, he, in a merrie their liberty. Coryate continued at Con. humour drew his sword out of the scabbard, stantinople till the 21st of January in the and ascending to one of those great stones year following, when he proceeded on his that lye in the open part of this middle journey to Jerusalem. While he continued gate, knighted me, that kneeled upon at Aleppo, his countryman Haggat, consul another stone on my right knee, by the there, rode with him to the Valley of name of the first English knight of Troy; Salt. On the 15th of March, he, in comand on knighting of me pronounced these pany with Henry Allard, of Kent, went to wittie verses extempore :
Jerusalem, and entered the city on the 12th Coryate no more, but now a Knight of Troy;
of May, 1614.
On Palm Sunday evening Odcombe no more, but henceforth England's joy ; he lay in the Temple in the upper gallery, Brute, Brute, of our best English wits commended
and was roused out of his sleep by the True Trojane, from Æneas' race descended ; Rise top of wit, the honour of our nation,
turbulent cries of the Greeks, “who came
forth from their quire with very clamorous Two Turks that stood but a little way froin noise, having eleven banners of silk, and us, when he drew his naked sword, thought cloth of gold, carried before them, each of verily he meant to have cut off my head for
which had three streamers, and on the top some notorious villany which I had per
of the staff a gilded cross. A world of petrated. These verses I answered extem
lamps was carried before them; while pore. Also, our musketeers discharged men, women, and children, vociferated, two volleys of shot for joy of my knight. “Kyrie Eleison."
On the 28th of the same month Coryate
visited Jordan, then returned on foot to Loe here with prostrate knee I doe embrace The gallant title of a Trojan Knight,
Aleppo, from whence, after three months' In Priam's court, which time shall ne'er deface, stay, he departed, with a caravan, to Persia. A grace unknown to any British knight :
He remained two months at Ispahan, and This noble knighthood shall fame's trump resound, To Odcombe's honour, maugre envy fell,
then proceeded with another caravan to the O'er famous Albion throughout that island round
East Indies, which journey took hirn above Till that my mournfull friends shall ring my knell.
four months. After repeating these verses, standing upon About the middle of the way between a high stone, at the entrance of the great Ispahan and Lahore, says he, “I met Sir gate, he pronounced an oration, which may Robert Shirley and his Lady, travelling be seen in Purchas's Pilgrims. On his from the Court of the Mogul (where they return to the ship, observing Mount Ida, had been very graciously received, and enat the distance of two miles, and seeing a riched with presents of great value,) to the ploughman holding a plough, he with one king of Persia's court; so gallantly furMr. Francis Flyer did the like one after nished with all necessaries for their travells, another, “ in order that if we live to be old that it was a great comfort unto me to see men, we may say, in our old age, we had them in such a flourishing estate. There once holden the plough in the Trojan ter- did he shew me, to my singular contentritory, especially in that part where, as we ment, both my books neatly kept, and hath saw, the citie stood.” With this part of promised to shew them, especially mine his journey, Coryate declared himself so Itineraire, to the Persian king ; and to entirely satisfied, that he would not, for interpret unto him some of the principal five hundred pounds, but have seen those matters in the Turkish tongue, to the end I things which were worthy observation, at may have the more gracious access unto Troy; and had he not seen them then, he him after my return thither. For, through should have taken a journey from England Persia I have determined (by God's helpe)
to return to Aleppo. Both he and his lady We next" find him at Constantinople, used me with singular respect, especially where he received great civilities from Sir his lady, who bestowed forty shillings upon
for the sole purpose.
me in Persian money ; and they seemed to shillings sterling, which countervailed ten exult for joy to see me, having promised to pounds of our English money : this busibring me in good grace with the Persian ness I carried so secretly, by the help of king; and that they will induce him to my Persian, that neither our English Ambestow some princely benefits upon me : bassador, nor any other of my countrymen, this, I hope, will be partly occasioned by (saving one speciall, private, and intrin. my book, for he is such a jocund Prince, sicall friend,) had the least inkling of it, till that he will not be meanly delighted with I had thoroughly accomplished my design: divers of my facetious hieroglyphicks, if for I well knew that our ambassador would they are truly and genuinely expounded have stopped and barricaded all my prounto him."
ceeding therein, if he might have had any From Lahore Coryate had twenty days notice thereof, as, indeed, he signified unto journey to Agra, and ten more to Asmere, me, after I had effected my project, allegwhere the Mogul kept his court. In this ing this, forsooth, for his reason, why he journey, between Jerusalem and Asmere, would have bindered me, because it would he spent fifteen inonths and odd days, tra- redound somewhat to the dishonour of our velling two thousand seven hundred miles, nation, that one of our country should preand all the way on foot. He expended sent himself in that beggarly and poor also in in his ten months' travels, between fashion, to the king, out of an insinuating Aleppo and Asmere, but three pounds ster. humour, to crave money of him. But I ling, yet, says he, “I fared reasonably answered our ambassador in that stout and well every day, victuals being so cheap in resolute manner, after I had ended my busome countries where I travelled, that I siness, that he was contented to cease niboftentimes lived competently for a penny ling at me : never had I more need of a-day: yet, of that three pounds I was money in all my life, than at that time; for cousened of no less than ten shillings by in truth I had but twentie shillings left in my certain lewd christians of the Armenian
purse, by reason of a mischance I had in nation, so that indeed I spent but fifty one of the Turkes cities, called Emert, in shillings in any of my ten months' travels.” the country of Mesopotamia, where a mis
At Asmere he remained fourteen months, creant Turk stripped me of almost all my until he had learned the Turkish, Morisco, monies.” or Arabian languages, with some good In the Indostan language Coryate beknowledge of the Persian and Indostan, came so great a proficient, that “a woman, tongues; in the acquisition of which he dis- a laundress belonging to the Ambassador's played very singular talents, and obtained house, who had such a freedom and liberty such a command over them, as was very of speech, that she would scold, brawl, and useful to him during the remainder of his rail from sun-rising to sun-set, he one day journey. He became, indeed, so well ac- undertook to out-talk her in her own lanquainted with the Persian language, that he guage, and by eight o'clock in the morning obtained, without the knowledge of the Eng- he so silenced her that she had not one lish ambassador, access to the Mogul, to word more to speak.” whom he made an oration. “After I had end- On the 16th of September, 1616, our ed my speech,” says Coryate, “ I had some traveller departed from Asmere to Agra, short discourse with him in the Persian tongue, where he resided six weeks longer. After when, amongst other things, he told me, this, we find him several months with the that concerning my travells to the citie of Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe, living at Samarcand, he was not able to doe me any Mardon, the Mogul's court, many miles up good, because there was no great amity the country ; during which time he expebetwixt the Tartarian princes and himselfe, rienced such mortifications as depressed his so that his commendatory letters would doe spirits. Among other cause of mortificame no good. Also, he added, that the tion he experienced, one was from Mr. Tartars did so decidedly hate all Christians, Steel, a merchant, who, in travelling to that they would certainly kill them when England, met our author, and at his arrival they came into their country. So that he informed King James of it, when the moearnestly dissuaded me from the journey : narch replied, “What, is that fool yet as I loved my life and wellfare ; at last
This trouble he concluded his discourse with me, by ingly, as he expected that the king would giving me a sum of money, that he threw have spoken more and better of him. down from a window, thorow which he At another time, when he was about to looked out, into a sheet tied up by the four depart, the Ambassador gave him a letter, corners, and hanging very near the ground, containing a bill for ten pounds, at Aleppo. a hundred pieces of silver, each worth two The letter was directed to the Consul there,
who was desired to “receive the bearer occasioned by drinking, though moderately, courteously, as he would find him a some sack, which had been brought from honest poor wretch.'' Our pilgrim, England. He died in December 1617, says Terry, who was chaplain to Sir and was buried under a little monument. Thomas Roe, liked the gift well, but the Dr. Fuller and Anthony Wood have language by which he should have received copied nearly the description of Coryate, it did not at all content him;" telling me, drawn originally by his most intimate
that my lord had even spoiled his cour- acquaintance Terry, who has certainly done tesy in the carriage thereof; so that if he justice to his character. Fuller's portrait is had been a very fool indeed, he could have also very whimsical.
“ His head," says he, said very little less of him than he did, was misshapen, like that of Thersites, in
Honest poor wretch;' and, furthermore, he Homer, (pošos env kepadov ) but the then told me that when he was formerly un- cone stood in a different position,-the dertaking his voyage to Venice, a person of picked part being before.” Terry's words honour thus wrote in his behalf unto Sir Henry are, in the style of a physiogonomist, or Wotton, then and there ambassador :- rather perhaps that of a phrenologist, “He
“My lord, good wine needs no bush; carried folly, which the charitable call merneither a worthy man, letters commenda- riment, in his very face. The shape of his tory, because whithersoever he comes, he head had no promising form, being like a is his own epistle,” &c. “There,” said he, sugar-loaf inverted, with the little end be. “was some language in my behalf, but fore, as composed of fancy, and memory, now for my lord to write nothing of me by without any common sense. way of commendation, but 'honest poor The same writer, who is followed by the wretch,' is rather to trouble me, than to Oxford historian, gives this accurate repreplease me with his favour.” In conse- sentation of Coryate's mind : “ He was of quence of this, the letter, to pacify him, was a very coveting eye, that could never be altered.
satisfied with seeing, (as Solomon speaks, The chagrin, however, which he endured, Eccles. i. 8.) though he had seen very produced a visible effect upon his conduct, much ; and Í am persuaded that he took and when he was about to depart, the am- as much content in seeing as many others bassador desired him to stay longer, but he in the enjoying of great and rare things. thankfully refused the offer, though appre. He was a man that had got the mastery of hensive that he should not live to reap the many hard languages, in addition to the fruit of his travels. And certainly, says Latin and Greek he brought forth of EngTerry, he was surprised with some such land with him ; and in all which, if he had thoughts and fears, when, upon a time, he obtained wisdom to husband and manage being at Mandon with us, and there stand- them, as he had skill to speak them, he ing in a room against a stone pillar, where would have deserved more fame in his the ambassador was, and myself present generation. But his knowledge and high with them, upon a sudden he fell into such attainments in several languages, made him a swoon that we had very much ado to not a little ignorant of himself, he being so recover him out of it; at last, come to him- covetous, so ambitious of praise, that he self, he told us that some sad thoughts had would hear and endure more of it, than he immediately before presented themselves to could in any measure deserve; being like a his fancy; which, as conceived, put him ship that has too much sail, and too little into that distemper, like Fannius, in Martial ballast. Yet, if he had not fallen into the ne moriare mori, to prevent death by smart hands of the wits of those times, he dying; for he told us that there were great might have passed better. That itch of expectations in England, of the large fame which engaged this man to the accounts he should give of his travels, after undertaking of those very hard, long, and his return home, and that he was now dangerous travels, hath put thousands more shortly to leave us; and he being, at pre- and therefore he was not alone in this) sent, not very well, if he should die in the into strange attempts, only to be talked of. way towards Surat, whither he now in- 'Twas fame, without doubt, that stirred up tended to go, (which place he had not as this man unto these voluntary, but hard yet seen,) he might be buried in obscurity, undertakings, and the hope of that glory and none of his friends ever know what which he should reap, after he had became of him, he travelling now, as he finished his travels, made him not at all to usually did, alone.
take notice of the hardship he found in Though the distance was three hundred them. That hope of name and repute for miles, Coryate reached Surat, where he the time to come, did ever feed and feast ended his pilgrimage, by falling into a flux, him for the time present. And, therefore,