Imagens das páginas

poets, constitute the principal portion of altogether dissimilar. A version in a foreign lanthe production. In these imitations we

guage will often please, by the different turn which

t gives to a passage, while the most obvious and have several quaint expressions, which are

necessary emendations of the received text are most inexcusably affected in an author of

resented by the ear, if not by the judgment." the present period. What can we make of the following vulgarity ?

These statements will, we imagine, be “They fight! but what the issue will be, is sufficient to convince the most orthodox I know not:"

Christian, that he will find nothing which There is something ambiguous in the fol

can be in the slightest degree detrimental lowing passage :

to the soundness of his belief, in the work

before us. But this is not a sufficient “He sent a herald even with the dawn, And asked the king of Ammon wherefore war,

commendation. It is not merely the When peace invited him to gentler terms, avoiding of what is injurious, but the comTo leave our heritage, himself unshent." munication of actual good, which should There are blemishes of this nature in form the chief object of a writer in entering every scene, and a want of animation upon such a task. How far this end has through the whole drama ; but a vein of been attained in the present instance, the pure piety and strong faith is seen also in reader will easily judge, when he considers every part, which seems occasionally to

of what vital importance it is that one of sanctify the poetry, and to absolve it from the strongest combinations of argument by criticism,

which the christian religion is defended, should be properly understood, and then

attentively examines how much has been Review.— The Epistle to the Hebrews ; done in furtherance of such a result, by the

a New Translation. Holdsworth and clear and connected diction of the pages Ball. London. 1834.

devoted to this object. The writings of the

inspired apostle St. Paul are distinguished In order to obviate those objections which above all others in that volume, which may at first sight be made to a retranslation shews so many and such varied examples of any part of the Scriptures, we state from of christian excellence, by an exhibition of the author's own words in the preface to the utmost fervour of feeling, together with his work, the end he has had in view in the highest intellectual strength. In him, rendering this sublime epistle into language indeed, we perceive, to an extent of which somewhat different from that of the author. there is no similar instance, how far the ised version, and the reasons which have noblest energies of the mind, and the keeninduced him, instead of confining himself est sensibilities of the heart, may be made to a translation comprising only the more dependent upon each other for their mutual difficult, or apparently less connected pas- development and growth, and wrought into sages, to extend his labours to the apostle's an harmonious union of active service to whole discourse. For this purpose we first God, and extensive benefit to man, by the call the reader's attention to the following overruling presence of that Spirit, before the paragraphs

reception of whose influence both the “This translation is designed, not for public, but

powers of intellect, and the emotions of private use, as a companion to the authorised ver- sentient existence, are but the willing and sion, not a substitute for it.

perverted instruments of evil. He is the " It has been the author's aim to give the literal

great representative of reason on behalf of sense rather than the literal phrase of the original, revelation, and, armed with the full force of without having recourse to the awkward expedient demonstrative truth in addition to that of of diffuse paraphrase: “Should he be thought to have departed in any

the most glowing eloquence, converts the places arbitrarily, or without necessity, from the regions of abstruse theological discussion unexceptionable terms of the authorised version, into graceful fields of freshness and delight, where the sense given is identical, he begs that it and, with a power allied to the miraculous may be borne in mind—that an advantage is some- authority of the great prophet of the Mosaic times gained by presenting the same idea under a dispensation, elicits from the threatening varied phraseology, although the new expression rocks of Sinai the healing streams of gospel itself be more forcible. The mind is

gentleness and peace. According to the thus roused to the more distinct consideration of the sentiment which the familiar phrase had but

various subjects embraced by this inspired obscurely presented. Another reason which has

writer, the several characteristics of his guided the author in such variations, is, that slight richly endowed mind are more or less proand occasional deviations from the original text, minently conspicuous. In the epistle to hallowed to the reader by sacred associations, dis- the Hebrews, the strength chiefly put forth appoint the ear more, perhaps, than a rendering is essentially argumentative, and the se!

may not

ject to which the argument relates must be those of the weakest perceptions able proacknowledged to be one of the most im- perly to appreciate their power. It is far portant in the contemplation of which from our intention to speak lightly of the human reason can be directed. Now, in general impression in favour of the transfollowing a course of reasoning, in which lation of Scripture at present in use. It the process is composed of many succes- has been consecrated by the lapse of censive parts, and into which frequent paren- turies, and not more so by this adventitious thetic digressions are admitted as auxiliary circumstance, than by its own intrinsic merit. to separate inferences, it is beyond all doubt Yet, although we would mention it revenecessary that we should be able to discern rently, and with all that due respect which the perfect connexion between the various is justly bestowed on such excellence as propositions and their consequences, and to time has proved, and found uninjured by ascertain precisely in what manner the esta- its powerful test, it cannot be said that blishment of separate : points conduces to plainness of meaning at all times constitutes the determination of the great question at the chief merit of the translation of the issue. When considered in this relation, epistles. Many passages are unintelligible every particle which connects one sentence to an ordinary reader, and many links with another becomes of no common im- appear wanting to the connectedness of portance, and it is evident that too much

various arguments, either because the nepains cannot be taken in the position of cessary words which are implied merely, in expressions and phrases, to render the the original Greek, have also been left whole subject as nearly as possible a con- unexpressed in the English version, or nected and harmonious system.

We do because many peculiarities of expression, not intend by this to commend that vain well understood in the time of our ancesand superfluous scholarship, which wastes tors, have since become obsolete, or energies, designed for far better purposes, assumed a very different meaning. Assumin battling over inessential terminations and ing this to be the fact, the only question letters, nor that microscopic investigation in which remains to be determined is, whewhich narrower intellecis are delighted to ther this inconvenience may be best obviindulge, the greatest of whose pompouslyated by the usual mode of commentaries, announced discoveries can scarcely alter by or by a free translation to be used in con. a single shade the value of any given pas

nexion with the first version. Much, as we sage with which its laborious trifling bap- have seen, may be said for the latter, and pens to be connected, but rather the dis. we would add this especially, that the criminative and judicious exercise of learn- attention is distracted from the whole drift ing as an aid, and not an impediment, to the of a discourse, by the necessity of frereflective powers; as the subordinate agent, quently turning to marginal or separate rather than the despotic mistress of reason; explanations, and the mind fatigued by a as an instrument which, however capable, succession of alternate difficulties and soluif properly managed, of producing great tions long before it arrives at the end of its results, must depend for its real worth labours; an objection to which the other entirely upon the faculties of those who method is not in any degree liable. We make use of it. The chief merit of the shall, however, proceed, in illustration of new translation consists in this—that the this general observation, to extract a few author, although fully equal to the task of paragraphs from the translation we are converbal criticism, when required, devotes his sidering, since we are aware that a single chief attention to placing before the reader instance in point is worth more than a the full scope and meaning of the argu- dozen unsupported assertions. The reader ments of the apostle in such a consistent will easily perceive how much such clear and intelligible form, that the least informed and connected writing is preferable to dismay be capable of understanding them, and jointed notes and scattered observations AUTHORISED VERSION.

NEW TRANSLATION. (CAP. VII.) Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Therefore leaving behind the initiary elements of Christ, let us go on to perfection ; not laying again the Christian doctrine, let us advance to perfect the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of kpowledge ; not again laying the foundation in the

doctrines of repentance from deadly deeds, and faith Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of in God, - the instruction belonging to baptismal hands, and of the resurrection of the dead, and of rites, and of imposition of hands; or of a resurreceternal judgment,

tion of the dead, and of eternal judgment. And this will we do, if God permit.

And this we will do if God permit. For it is impossible for those who were once en- For it is impossible for those who have once been lightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and enlightened, and have experienced the heavenly were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,

benefit, and have been made partakers of the Holy

faith towards God.


NEW TRANSLATION. And have tasted the good word of God, and the Spirit, and have known the excellency of the divine powers of the world t come;

promise, and the miraculous powers of the future ecoIf they shall fall away, to renew them again unto nomy, (δυναμεις μελλοντος αιώνος,) and, yet repentance : seeing they crucify to themselves the

have apostalized, should a second time be so reSon of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. stored as to be brought to repentance, when they

thus crucify, in themselves, the Sou of God, and For the earth which drinketh in the rain that com

expose him to ignominy. eth oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for

For so, land, that imbibing the raiu frequently them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing from descending upon it, produces vegetation serviceable God :

to those by whom it is cultivated, receives blessings But that which beareth thorns and briars is reject

from God; while that which yields only briars and ed, and is nigh unto cursing, whose end is to be thorns is nigh desecration, and its doom is to be burned.

burned. But, beloved, we are persuaded better things of But we coufidently hope, beloved, that better you, and things that accompany salvation, though things await you, such as are connected with salwe thus speak.

vation, notwithstanding that we thus speak.-For For God is not uprighteous to forget your work God is too faithful, to forget your labour, and the and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward love which ye have displayed towards his name, in bis dame, in that ye have ministered to the saints, having ministered, and in still ministering, to the and do minister.

necessities of the saiuts. Only we are anxious that And we desire that every one of you do show the every one of you should manifest the same dilisame diligence, to the full assurance of hope to the gence, in order to the firm assurance of your hope end.

to the end ; that ye may not become remiss, but be That ye be not slothful, but followers of them imitators of those who, through faith and constancy, who through faith and patience inherit the promises. have realized the promises.

For when God made promise to Abraham, because Now, when God gave the promise to Abraham, he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, inasmuch as he could swear by no superior, He

Saying, Surely, blessing I will bless thee, and sware by Himself, saying, Truly, blessing I will bless multiplying I will multiply thee.

thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. AccordAnd, so, after he had patiently endured for a ingly, after having patiently waited, he obtained the while, he obtained the promise.

promised blessing, For verily men swear by the greater, and an oath Men, indeed, swear by what is superior to them, for confirmation is to them an end of all strife.

and such an oath is an ultimate attestation in all their Wherein God, willing more abundantly to show disputes. In like manner, God being pleased to illusunto the heirs of promise the immutability of his trate the more signally to the inheritors of the procounsel, confirmed it by an oath :

mise, the immutability of his purpose, has interposed That by two immutable things, in which it is im- an oath. So that, by two immutable transactions, possible for God to lie, we might have a strong (the oath to Abraham, and the oath to the Messiah,) consolation who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon in which it is impossible that God should prove unthe hope set before us :

faithful, we may have strong assurance, who have Which hope we have as an anchor to the soul both fled to lay hold of the hope held out to us; which sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that with- we have as a secure and firm refuge of the soul, one in the veil,

that reaches into the interior sanctuary beyond the Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even veil : whither, as our precursor, Jesus has entered, Jesus, made an high-priest for ever, after the order who has become, according to the rank of Melchiseof Melchisedec.

dek, high priest for ever. We need not, after this extract, adduce ment left us by the piety and learning of any additional passages to prove the benefit our ancestors, will at least cause them to which the devout and intelligent reader be considered not unworthy of aiding in its will derive from such an aid to his medita. elucidation. The notes at the conclusion tions. Whoever the author of the present of the work-upon the authenticity of the translation may be, he has conferred no epistle, a subject on which there ought to small benefit upon those who consider the be but one opinion,—and some points of right understanding of the Scriptures a minor importance, are not of a length dismatter of essential moment. He has ap- proportionate to the size of the beautifully proached his subject with reverence and printed little volume they accompany, and caution, with a proper watchfulness against contain the substance of many a lengthened the admission of any interpretation unwar- and learned argument. It is with great ranted by authority or analogy: and, with pleasure that we perceive the announcean attention to the elegance of the original, ment of a new translation of the Epistle to which, although his labours must not be the Romans, by the same hand. considered on a level with the noble monu

Review.-Ladies' Botany: or, a Familiar minds, who yet discover no beauty in

Introduction to the Students of the organic nature, are actuated with no desire Natural System of Botany. By John to see revealed the hidden mysteries of life, Lindley, Ph.D. F.R.S. &c. Professor but who are still ready to join in the sarcasm of Botany in the University of London. of Smith, in his oration at Oxford, against Ridgway.

the Naturalists of his day:“ Miruntur nihil, It is a matter of surprise, that there should nisi pulices pediculos et seipsos.Ari still exist individuals, of highly cultivated animal life is by them thought unwo 20. SERIES, NO. 44.- VOL. IV,



investigation of men of high intellects, how binations out of which so many various much more degrading do they consider the organs have emanated; of the laws that investigation of vegetable existence. The regulate the dispersion and location of organization of a flower is to their minds a species ; and of the influence that climate subject of no interest; and its study is by exercises upon their development; and, them considered trivial and inutile. We lastly, from botany, as now understood, in must confess we have no sympathy with its most extensive signification, is insepapersons of this class, but have been taught rable the knowledge of various ways

in to “ consider the lilies of the field, how they which the laws of vegetable life are appligrow," and in this pursuit have found plea- cable to the augmentation of the luxuries sures the most refined and exalted. All and comforts, or to the diminution of the nature is redolent with the opulence, the wants and miseries, of mankind;" and thus goodness, and the wisdom of the Creator. it is commended to our diligent attention, To trace the latter, we consider no mean from its scientific interest, and as awakening operation of the intellect ; and, although the best feelings of our nature. some of those minute observations and Indulging these sentiments most fully, we researches, in which the botanist must be rejoice to see the production of any work frequently engaged, may indeed appear calculated to give a popular interest to the trivial in themselves, they are nevertheless study of the Natural System of Botany. needful to the end ; in their aggregate and This is the first effort of the kind, and Dr. combined result, they serve to elucidate and Lindley has succeeded in this little work, to bring out to view those laws which the great compress a vast quantity of information, Author of nature has ordained should regu- physiological and practical, as well as that late the formation and perpetuation of vege- for which the work is more particularly table life. Every true philosopher would designed, as an introduction to a systematic desire to have the “book of nature” fully botany. Perhaps in no branch of natural 'open before him; and if one page is lost, history has there appeared so many popular or one letter obliterated, some of her most Introductions as in botany. “Alphabets," beautiful provisions may be veiled in dark- and “ Catechisms” have been produced, ness and obscurity.

but they have all been founded on a system The science of botany, then, is not a sub- which no longer deserves the attention of ject which interests the feelings alone, as a scientific men, (except as a memento of delightful study, but also as it produces a the genius of its great and accomplished habit of observation and comparison, im- author,) and consequently have tended rather proves the mind, and, by the power of to retard than advance the study which they generalization it affords us, we reduce con- were intended to forward. The artificial fusion into order, and see harmony and system of Linneus was, no doubt, suited to design every where present; expands the the age in which it was propounded, as the intellect, and elevates the soul in wonder, best which was then known; but with the admiration, and gratitude to the great Con- present state of science, it is not fitted to be triver and first Cause of all.

a guide, and deserves only to be mentioned They who decry against pursuits of this in the records of scientific history. In its nature, are found to be those who are igno- more leading features, it presents you with rant of that against which they declaim, are nothing worthy of remembrance, as to first blinded by prejudice, having an overwean- principles : plants totally different in anaing regard for their own peculiar vocations. tomical structure, and physiological characIf botany still remained as it once was, the ter, are indiscriminately arranged together, mode of merely distinguishing one plant and you are presented with a catalogue of from another, then there might be some hard names, distinguished only by their justice in the ridicule which has been thrown being represented as having a certain numupon it. But, to quote the eloquent language ber of staminas and pistils, but which indeed of Dr. Lindley, contained in the preface to are uncertain in their number even in plants the “Introduction to Botany," a work of of the same genus. great merit, and the only one of its kind in It has had that hold on the public mind which the English language; "it now compre- we often see connected with any principles, hends a knowledge, not only of the names however erroneous, which are given to the and uses of plants, but of their external and world by men who are considered the lights internal organization, and of their anatomy of the age. Blinded by prejudice, men will and physiological phenomena; it embraces not renounce a system in which they have a consideration of the law upon which those been educated, and to which they have bemultitudes of vegetable forms that clothe the come attached. earth have been created ; of the skilful com- It appears to us, however, that the little

The thick oval

work before us is calculated to remove this to fruit, and which, therefore, ought to be the prejudice, as it must commend itself, by the

flower ; here, however, you must again be prepared

to meet with natural wonders, elegance of its style and the beauty of its illustrations, to the good taste of every

green body is a hollow box or receptacle ; within

it, in dark obscurity, are reared the flowers, which, reader; yea, more, the student will quickly

like the beggar's children in the caverns of hills, find himself in the midst of the science as it

are so deformed and pallid, as hardly 'to be recogis now understood, when he thinks that he nized. Cut a young fig open, the whole of its inside has scarcely passed the threshhold; and so is bristling with sterile and fertile flowers, the for. delightfully fascinating will be the objects mer having five stamens and the latter a jagged around him, that to retire will be equally calyx, with a little white pistil sticking

up in the undesirable and impracticable, and will be

midst of it. This pistil, when ripe, becomes a flat, led on in the acquisition of knowledge with

sound, brown grain, which is lost among the pulp

of the fleshy and juicy receptacle, where you cut it, so much ease and pleasure, that he will be

and call it in seed. insensible to the difficulty he once anticipated.

The difference, then, between the nettle and the If we mistake not, our author will have

fig-tree, consists, not in the structure of the stem, the satisfaction of having placed the Natural or of the leaves, or of the calyx, or stamens, or System as high in the regard of the popular pistils, or fruit, properly so called, but in the hollow mind, as it is already held in the estimation fleshy receptacle within which the fiowers are of all scientific botanists. A great outcry

forced to pass through their different stages. This has been raised against the Natural System,

kind of difference is, however, of a very unimportant

kind; and not greater than you find between the as totally inadequate for the communication

strawberry and the rose, about whose relation to of a knowledge of botany. Dr. Lindley

each other every one is agreed," &c. has, however, both in his class-room and the work before us, set this question com

There are a few alterations we should pletely at rest. We cannot, however, but like to see in the execution. In some cases add our individual experience, as, having circumlocution might be avoided by a more begun our studies with this system, and copious use of analytical tables. Upon the affirm that nothing can be more easy. And whole, it is admirably adapted to the end may add, as reflecting credit on the philo- proposed,- what is done, is done well. It sophic doctor, as well as support to his

should be in the hands of every one who system, that during the four years that the attempts to teach this branch of natural apothecaries' company have awarded medals history to youth ; unless, indeed, the object to students of botany in London, Dr. Lind- is to store the mind with hard names, and ley's pupils have, in each instance, carried not to communicate solid and useful inforoff the gold medals.

mation, then, indeed, the introduction to the It is our desire to commend this work sexual system will be equally suited.

We most cordially to the attention of all who tender our thanks to Dr. Lindley for having, are interested in the subject, and, if our in this beautiful little work, rendered the limits permitted, we would give specimens study of botany both interesting and easy, of the manner in which the author illustrates without in the least “ sacrificing science.” and compares the Natural Orders. It is in A task, indeed, difficult, and in which we the form of letters, twenty-five in number, know of no writer who has so well succeeded with twenty-five plates, to a lady, for the

as the learned professor. instruction of her children,-hence we suppose, is the title of the work; which, by the bye, we hope, in the next edition, will be

Review.-Memoirs of the Life and Chaaltered, and the quotation from Göethe

racter of the late Rev. John Paul Poromitted, unless, indeed, the author will ter, more than forty years Pastor of the oblige the “ladies” with a translation. We

first Baptist Church in Bath. By Philip insert a short extract as a specimen of the

Cater, Minister of York St. Chapel,Buth. doctor's plan of communicating.

Bath, printed for the Author, 1834.

Memoirs of preachers, of Let us, then, see what a fig-tree is. It is an


every hexagenous plant, with leaves covered with very

denomination, are becoming almost too stiff, short hairs, and with a pair of stipules at the numerous, and, consequently, fail to excite base, as in a nettle. It has flowers with stamens and that general attention to which some of them pistiles separate; so has a nettle; its flowers have are entitled ; but the life of a pastor cannot no corolla, and the pistil is a little simple body, but awaken much interest in the congregawhich changes when ripe to a very small flat grain; tion to whom his labours of piety may have all which is exactly what we find in a nettle. In the essential parts of their structure, the two plants

been long known, and to whom many may then are alike. But where are the flowers of the

be indebted, under the divine blessing, to fig, you will inquire ? You can see nothing but a

him, for their sense of grace, and their thick oval green_body, which, you know, will turn

hopes of mercy. In the present instance

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