Imagens das páginas

This was,

persuaded the New York Indians to open breast the assurance, that his people would a negociation with the American government now have a locality, where, undisturbed, for a settlement in the North-West Territory. they might become a Christian nation, and That territory is of immense extent, and was might gradually adapt themselves to that then inhabited principally by Indians almost knowledge of which they had received the wholly unacquainted with either the benefits rudiments, and of which they had in some or the corruptions of European civilization. degree, cultivated the habits. This district was considered by Dr. Morse, indeed, an exhilarating prospect to a man even at a period so recent, to be sufficiently in his interesting position; to an Indian of remote from the settlements of white men, benevolent heart and comprehensive mind; particularly as the great lakes intervened, a warm patriot, a zealous Christian. Was and formed its boundary. In consequence of it not a prospect, in itself, for its own beauty this advice which was given in the pure spirit and philanthropy, even without reference to of benevolence, the New York tribes under- the engagement respecting it, in which the took the proposed negociation, by the suc- American republic had placed itself, cess of which they hoped to be enabled to worthy of being fostered, and, by every withdraw themselves from their restricted, possible means, realized, by the government painful, and actually destructive situation; of a great and liberal confederacy of indeand to secure a retreat, to which they might pendent states ? convey their families, and enjoy, with the But what has been the result of these exChristian religion, to which they are piously pectations? Is it possible that a prospect of devoted, the rights denied them among a such promise, to the injured and long-sufferpeople who so proudly boast of their own ing Indian, should have been clouded and freedom. The rev. Mr. Williams himself, an destroyed, and that by a free and mighty Indian by birth, highly intellectual, the priest people, who are indebted to these very Inand chief of his tribe, negociated, under the dians for the land on which they have raised authority of the president of the United States, their greatness ? Alas, the North-West Ter. with the tribes of the North-West district. ritory, where the New York Indians had A treaty was made, in which the government taken, as they hoped, their permanent abode, of the United States became a party, and became, in a very few years, desirable for the New York Indians immediately began the white settlers from the eastern states. their removal. “ A new and interesting The peninsula of Michigan, lying near Lake field of Indian society and of Indian em- Huron, rapidly became the resort of a white pire,” says Mr. Colton, “remote from the

population, sufficiently numerous to aspire encroachments and defended from the in- to a rank among the states of the Union. cursions of the white man, and under all Already have the pre-emption companies the improvements of civilization and ad- begin, in anticipation of the farther removal vantages of Christianity, opened before them. of the Indians, to calculate the value of the The government of the United States was lands on which those unhappy beings, with pledged to maintain the engagements be. exertions thus paralyzed in the midst of tween the tribes themselves, to defend their their newly founded hopes, have scarcely rights against the cupidity of citizens from had time to settle themselves; and already the States, and to lend all convenient aid have the wbite intruders, according to their in promoting their general improvement. customary practice, fomented quarrels beIt was, indeed, an interesting and a hope tween the peaceable tribes from New York, ful vision.” To the Indians of the state and the less cultivated tribes of that district, of New York, who had so long felt their in order to facilitate and hasten their reexistence entangled amid the existences of moval. “ Commissions of investigation,” the strangers, the invaders of their native says Mr. Colton,

“ clothed with authority soil, who had actually rendered them, the to institute new and final arrangements, original possessors, the strangers upon it; to have been sent upon the ground, which disthese unhappy people it seemed like taking regarded and trampled upon the rights of possession of some long foretold, some the Indians, and their reports and recomlong desired “land of promise! They mendations have been respected. And now, began to establish themselves in their new another president and a new administration settlements with emotions of joy, and mu- have come to power, whose avowed policy tual congratulations, under the guidance of is, to remove all the Indian tribes west of their rev. chieftain, Mr. Williams, who the Mississippi ; and who are using all ventured to encourage himself to believe, possible endeavours to accomplish it !" that the fondest wish of his heart was about It is impossible to read this narrative, to be accomplished. With humility, but without perceiving, in the destiny of the with confidence, he ventured to take to his North American Indians, something awful, and, if possible, more inhuman and infa. and, in due time, to be admitted to all mous than in that of the negroes themselves. the privileges common to other territories To these last, England has, however tardily, and states of the Union. Such a course opened the gate of civilized society, and would probably save the Indians." offered the wages of independent labour; but the American Indian is thrust from the limits of civilization, and is forbidden to MEDICAL REFORM ASSOCIATION. rest his foot upon its borders : he is not a slave, but is persecuted and driven from We are requested by the Committee of the vale to vale, from hill to hill, from desert to above Association, to give publicity to the desert: he is not compelled to toil for following notice.another, but he is deprived of all means of Prize Essays,– Proposed by the Medical procuring food for himself: he is not in Reform Association, for the three best chains, but he has no home-a vast conti- Essays on the following subject—three nent is before him, but destruction and

prizes are offered : death are behind him, and on every side of him! Dr. Morse, when he formed the Medical Science and Practice in the United

Subject.—“On the present state of the plan on which the New York Indians acted, Kingdom, and the most advisable and effihad higher and more philanthropic ideas. cient mode of promoting the advancement He sought to save the Indians from exter

and the improvement of both, in all their mination, and actually to connect them

branches." politically with the United States. There

“ For the best essay will be awarded the is, indeed, no other means of saving that

sum of £50 sterling : for the second, the people from total and certain, although pro

sum of £30: for the third, the sum of £20. tracted, destruction; and, as the question Conditions.—1. The competition is open involves the fate of other people in other

to all persons, whether of the medical procolonies, there needs no apology for con

fession or not, and the award will be made cluding this slight essay, upon a subject so important in point of religion and humanity, in the English, French, or Latin languages,

in public. 2. The essays are to be written with a short passage from Dr. Morse's Re- and these only. 3. They must be transport to Congress. “ The expectation is, that a great part of Bloomsbury, London, on

mitted to Dr. Epps, 89, Great Russell-street,

or before the the Stockbridge Indians, with numbers of 1st day of March, 1834. 4. They must be the St. Regis tribe, of the Six Nations, of the clearly and neatly written, and not in the Munsees, Nanticokes, Delawares, and others, hand-writing of the author. 5. Each essay in the course of the next season, 1822, will is to bear a motto, and to be accompanied emigrate, and plant themselves on this pur- by a sealed letter, with a corresponding chase (in the North-West Territory, which motto to that inscribed upon the essay. had been made pursuant to the Doctor's re- Within the sealed letter must be the name commendation.) Should this take place, a

and the place of residence of the author. colony will be formed at once, and a current

6. None of the letters will be opened by to it created ; and should its foundations be

those connected with the writers of the suc. broad, and laid with wisdom, there is

cessful essays; and the unsuccessful essays little doubt of its gradual increase. Should

will be delivered, upon satisfactory referthe plan be popular with the Indians, (and the prospect is, that it will be,) a large be returned to their accredited authors, who

ence by Dr. Epps. The prize essays will colony, enough perhaps to form a territory, may, if they think proper, publish them for or a State, may be ultimately collected here, their own advantage, or otherwise they will educated together, and received into the

be published by the Association. Union, and to the enjoyment of the pri

Signed, by order of the Association. vileges of citizens. " Let regulations be made to prohibit the

John Epps, M.D. Hon. Sec. introduction of white settlers within the limits of this territory-that is, within limits

N.B.--One hundred pounds, the amount bounded south by Illinois, east by Michi

of the three prizes, are already lodged with gan, north by Šuperior, and west by the

the Treasurer, Joseph Hume, Esq. M.P., Mississippi. Let this territory be reserved who, with the other judges, will publicly exclusively for Indians, in which to make

deliver the several sums, as they shall be the proposed experiment of gathering into

awarded to the successful candidates. The one body as many of the scattered and

names of the other adjudicators will be pubother Indians, as may choose to settle

lished at a future and not distant period. there-to be educated, become citizens,

J. E.

In further prosecution of their object they both in the eye of the State and of Society. have addressed a circular to all the Univer- What is the scale of their remuneration for sities on the Continent, of which the follow- professional services, and whether their fees ing is a copy

are recoverable by law? Whether empirics GENTLEMEN—The very imperfect and are tolerated, and nostrums permitted to be dangerous condition of the healing art, in sold; and, if so, under what regulations ? every portion of the British dominions, has also, what penalties are incurred by those at length arrested a degree of attention, persons who practise without being legally which cannot fail to lead to the most bene- qualified ; and by those, who, being qualificial results. With the view of altering fied, may be convicted of mal-practices ? this condition, a most difficult, extensive, Have you any public body, or persons and complicated undertaking, the medical having authority to examine the quality of corporation of the United Kingdom of drugs in the chemists or apothecaries' shops ? Great Britain and Ireland, have already Are there any laws or regulations to secure been called upon by the honourable the to the sick the advantage of genuine mediHouse of Commons, to furnish the House cines, and that these should be properly with all the by - laws, under which the compounded ? practice of physic is regulated in their In conclusion, Gentlemen, should it aprespective jurisdictions.

pear to you that the Committee have been In order still further to promote the desir- guilty of any omissions in their inquiries, able objects connected with this undertak- they will feel themselves particularly obliged ing, and to render the medical profession as by your supplying them in your answer, perfect and useful as possible, several mem- which they shall anxiously expect. bers of the British legislature in conjunc- They have further to request

, that if this tion with some eminent medical practi- address to you be defective or incorrect, tioners, have resolved to call public atten- you will impute it to the true cause, the tion to the defective state of the medical want of proper information, and not to any profession throughout this United Kingdom intentional disrespect. previous to a parliamentary inquiry, which Please to direct your answer to Dr. Epps, has been agreed to take place in the next the Honorary Secretary, 89, Great Russellsession of parliament on that important sub- street, London, under cover to Viscount ject. And, as there cannot exist on their Palmerston, Secretary of State for foreign part the slightest doubt of receiving the affairs, London, and through the British cordial co-operation of all persons who are Minister at engaged in Europe, and in the United I have the honour to subscribe myself States of America, in advancing the interests with the highest consideration, Gentlemen, of medicine, they have not hesitated to Your obedient humble servant, apply to you for such information as it may

Edward Harrison, M.D. be in your power, and consistent with your

Chairman, early convenience, to furnish.

Holles Street, Cavendish Square. It is desired to know the nature and the duration of the preliminary education of medical students; the particular branches of knowledge which are considered essentially necessary, as well as those that are Egede, the Moravian Missionary.-So collateral and usually studied; and the late as the year 1734, the small-pox had ordinary expense of such course. The never made its appearance in Greenland. precise curriculum, in which the medical A young native of the country was the first studies are pursued in your university or who brought the infection, on his return school, particularly as regards the branches from Copenhagen; he died soon after his upon which attendance is prescribed to the arrival, and the disease extended through medical students—the mode in which they the whole settlement. The inhabitants, obtain qualifications or degrees, (and the unacquainted with the nature of the disnature of these degrees) to practise the temper, knew not what remedy to apply, healing art in each of the branches of Phar- and had besides few means of relief during macy, Obstetricity, Surgery, and Me- the severity of the winter; of course, many dicine.

of them died. Out of two hundred In addition to the above information, the families that lived within two or three miles Committee further request to know the of the Danish colony, there were scarcely number of the medical profession, and the thirty left: several Danes also perished. relative numbers of each branch of the pro- Many of the natives, upon discovering the fession, and some account of their situation, first symptoms of the malady, would apply



for assistance and an asylum to a mis- the solution ; and immediately returned to sionary, J. Egede by name, who, since his his labour as a thatcher. arrival in the island, had been very kind 10 them. The priest always received them with more than Christian hospitality, lodg

GLEANINGS. ing them in his own apartments, which Enormous Distance of the Stars.- In the proportion

of 200,000 to 1, then, at least must the distance of the could contain a pretty large number. Many

nearest fixed star from the sun exceed that of the of them died in his house; and he would sun from the earth. The latter distance, as we have

already seen, exceeds the earth's radius in the prooften get up in the night to remove the dead

portion of 24,000 to 1; and, lastly, to descend to orbodies in order to prevent the infection.

dinary standards, the earth's radius is 4,000 of our

miles. The distance of the nearest star, then, cannot Amongst those that expired in his arms, he so small as 4,800,000,000 radii of the earth, or

19,200,000,000,000 miles! How much larger it may was an old man, who till then had proved

be, we know not. insensible to the exhortations of Egede, Remarkable Change of Diurnal Variation.-On Saturand had only turned them into ridicule;

day, the 31st of August, the south end of the diurnal

variation needle used by Captain Kater, at Limerick, but he now could not but be moved by his made an extraordinary deviation to the westward of

of nearly half a degree. This occurred about seven attention, and the excellence of the religion minutes before 4 p.m. At 3 h. 50 m. p.m. it was he recommended. Before breathing his

15/ 10'/ west of zero, and at 3 h. 55 m. between 404

and 50/ west of zero. Had this remarkable occurlast, he addressed him in the following rence any thing to do with the severe gale of that words :-“ You have done for us what

day? the same gale which was felt on the southeast coast of England so severely, but scarcely any of it

at Limerick. our own countrymen would hardly have done. You

John Metoxen, the Indian Chief and Preacher.have assisted us, and have The elocution of the New York Indians was unburied our dead to prevent their being

adorned in style, and mild in manner. Resting prin

cipally upon their written communications, they had devoured by the ravens and wild beasts. not much to say. (At the Council held at Green

Bay, between Commissioners of the United You have pointed out to us the road to States and the Indians of New York and the Northhappiness, and a blessed life of felicity Yong dutercourse with the whites had entirely disafter this.” – What an eulogium !

robed them of the native wildness of Indian eloquence, John Metoxen, however, an aged and vene

rable chief of the Stockbridges, (than whom a man of The Quaker's silent Meeting.-A tra- more exalted worth cannot be found on earth,) on

the last day of the council, as all attempts at reconveller, having long resided in foreign coun- ciliation and adjustment of differences had failed,

addressed himself sentimentally to his brethren of tries, determined, on his return to England,

the Menomenies and Winnebagoes, and also to the to become religious. On looking round Commissioners, in a strain most sublime and touch

ing; and with a respect and delicacy, towards the among the numerous sects, he at length feelings of all concerned, unrivalled. Metoxen is made choice of the Quakers, and accord

about sixty years old, and head chief of his tribe.

By his language and manner he first brought us into ingly began to attend their meetings ; but the presence of God, so that we felt ourselves to be

there. Even the wild Indians are a most religious unfortunately he found that they were people, and a pattern of piety to many who are begun, continued, and ended, in silence. called Christians ; that is, they always acknowledge

a superintending Providence. They never begin, por This he bore with a becoming degree of eod a speech, without a reference to the Great Spirit.

But John Metoxen is a Christian ; and he has enlightpatience for some time; but his stock was

ened and practical views of the Christian's God; and at length exhausted, and he resolved to on the occasion now under consideration he made us

feel his superiority, not only as a Christian, but as a come no more. On this last occasion, man. He appealed to the solemn engagements of the

New York Indians on the one hand, and of the Mefinding the meeting likely once more to

nomenies and Winnebagoes on the other, as the oriterminate in silence, he stood up, and ginal contracting parties, now at variance'; he called

on the Commissioners to witness the "repeated and exclaimed, in a tone of passion,--" Well, solemn pledges of government, to secure the fulfilthis is enough to tire the devil.” — We are

ment of these engagements; he depicted the anxious

progress and unfortunate result of the present counglad to hear it, (gravely replied a vene- cil; with inimitable delicacy and becoming manli. rable old Friend,) it is for this very pur

ness, he freely confessed his diffidence in the present

measures of government, relating to this affair; he pose that we sit in silence.'

solemnly declared, that his only confidence now rested in the God of nations, who had propounded

himself the guardian of the oppressed, and the Emerson, the Mathematician. - The

avenger of their wrongs; and, whatever might be

come of himself, of his family, or of his people, he celebrated Emerson was a very communi

felt, that it was now his last and only prerogative, to

surrender their cause into the hands of their God. cative person, but felt impatient if the “God is witness,” said he, lifting up his eyes to

heaven : Brothers, I have no more to say,

"- Colton's ferson he was instructing did not readily

Tour of the American Lakes. comprehend him. A neighbouring geome- Mr. Wilberforce.-A contemporary, speaking of this trician once called upon him, to request

truly Christian philanthropist, says-He was an ho

pour, not to this or that denomination of Christians, the solution of a problem of Euclid. but to human nature; having for above thirty years Emerson was at the time on the roof of his

been unceasing in his efforts to improve the social and

moral condition of humanity in all parts of the globe. house, repairing the thatch.

He came

His philanthropy was conducted on the most magni

ficent and comprehensive scale ; and was religious in down immediately, and with a piece of the noblest sense of the term.-How different the fame

His chalk solved the problem on his hat.

of such a man, from that noisy. potoriety which at

tends the conqueror! The one lights up the memory neighbour not readily understanding it,

with an instant stream of sunshine upon the heart,

purifying and elevating the spirit with happy and Emerson bade him take the hat home with peaceful images ; the other beclouds the mind with him, and return it when he had discovered

scenes of despairing sorrow, ruin, and wholesale carbage.

The name of Wilberforce is written with

question aro still unexplored. Mr. Madden supports his theory by some ingenious arguments, and expresses his astonishment that, amidst all the expenditure lavished on antiquarian research, it never occurred to any of the learned and opulent of Europe, that the riches of the Pyramids still remain concealed.-Mr. Madden is of opinion that a sum of five or six thousand pounds would be, fully adequate to the task of laying open the greatest pyramid, and exploring its most secret recesses.

Anecdote of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.“ Once there happened a sudden rumour among the people, that he should die by a day certain, which fell pot indeed, but by mean thereof his cook dressed him that day no dioner, whereof when he missed at his ordinary houre, which was always ten of the clocke, he reproved him for the same, asking why he did so. The cooke answered, that he and all others looked for his execution. Well, sayd he, then take this for a general rule : make ready my dinner always at my due houre, and if thou see me dead before, then eat it thyself. If myself be alive, I will never eat one bitt the less."-Harl. M.S. 7047.

Literary Notices.

Just Published. " Part 57 of the National Portrait Gallery, with Me. moirs of Admiral Lord Rodney ; Muzio Clementi; and David Wilkie, Esq., R. A.

Part VIII. of a new edition of the National Portrait Gallery, with Memoirs of the Duke of York ;, Adini. ral Lord Collingwood ; and Thomas Campbell, Esq.

Baines's Iristory of Lancashire, Part XXXV.

Wilberforce's Practical View of the prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, in the higher and middle Classes in this Country; contrasted with Real Christianity. With a Memoir of the Author, by the Rey, Thomas Price, 18mo. Melchisedek. By the Author of Balaam.

Memoir of James Brainard Taylor. By Dr. J. H. and B. H. Rice, of New York.

Sunday Lessons for Little Children ; with a Frontispiece. By Mrs. Barwell,

The Value of Money. By Mrs. Barwell.
The Teacher's Offering for 1833.

The Case of the Dissenters; in a Letter addressed to the Lord Chancellor.

Maund's Botanic Garden, Part 9.

Literary Recreation; or, Scenes from Real Life. By Rev. J. Young, Author of Record of Providence, &c. &c. 1 vol. 12mo.

A Second Edition of the History of the Peninsular War. By Lieut.-Col. Leith Hay, M.P. is now published in 2 vols. small 8vo, with' 22 Engravings, at 10s. 6d. cloth, boards.

Dupin's Mathematics practically applied to the Useful and Fine Arts, and adapted to the State of the Arts in England. By Dr. Birkbeck.

In the Press. The Life and Labours of Adam Clarke, L.L. D. to which will be added, an Historical Sketch of the Controversy concerning the Sonship of Christ, particularly as connected with the Proceedings of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference.

The Curate of Marsden ; or, Pastoral Conversations between a Minister and his Parishioners. By E. & M. Attersoll, authors of “Thomas Martin," “ The Contrast," &c.

A new work on Ancient and Modern Egypt, entitled Egypt and Mohammed Ali; or, Travels in the Valley of the Nile. By James Augustus St. John.

A new and much improved edition of Clark's Introduction to Heraldry. By Mr, Washbourne.

The Cabinet Annual Register, and Historical, Political, Biographical, and Miscellaneous Chronicle of 1833.

In Monthly Vols,, (uniform with the works of Byron, Scott, &c.) the publication of Hume and Smollett's History of England ; with a Continuation from the Accession of George (II. to 1835. By the Rev. T. S. Hughes, B.D. Prebendary of Peterborough.

The eleventh edition of Butter's Etymological Spelling Book and Expositor, enlarged.

In two handsome vols. 8vo. a luminous Commentary on the Old and New Testament: with Practical Reflections. By Rev. J. Sutcliffe, A.M.

Taxation and Financial Reform. By R, Torrens, Esq., M.P. F.R.S. 1 vol. 8vo.

A Memoir of Richard Hatch, late Student of the Baptist College, Bristol ; interspersed with, Select Remains.

sunbeam upon the heart ; that of Napoleon with a pen“ dipped in the gloom of earthquake and eclipse.' The dazzling halo that once surrounded the heads of despots and conquerors is now fast fading “into the common light of day ;' we are become ashamed of our vulgar adoration ; we have taken down our gods from their lofty pedestals; and if we do homage to our fellow-beings in future, it will be to such as elevate the human character and condition-not to the de. stroyers, but the benefactors of our race.

Medicine Dance of the Indians. When all the other powers of the healing art have failed, and the patient still declines, the Indian's last resource is to the magic influence of the drum and dance. All the family and near relatives gather in a crowd around the suffering victim; the Dearest relative, a mother, a father, a husband or wife, or the eldest child; more commonly a female, when it is convenient, as the tender sex are more susceptible of grief,--begins to weep, and sob, and moan aloud, often howling, with expressions of heart-appealing anguish; the drum sets up its melancholy beat to a dancing jig; the entire circle parade, and move round in solemn order, time-keeping to the summons; the chief mourner sobs and howls; and round they dance, muttering prayers hour after hour, and day after day, till they have drummed and danced and howled the wretched victim into the arms of death. In this extremity all other means, all other medicine, and the common sustenance of nature, are, perhaps, scrupulously withholden. Every thing now depends on the miraculous influence of the charm. The relatives must have faith; the patient must have faith,-all depends on faith. If the patient be an infant, the anxious and agonized mother will every now and then catch it up in her arms, and dance around the circle, weeping and sadly moaning, If the patient be an adult, and have sufficient strength, it is deemed of great importance that he or she should rise, as often as they are able, and join the dance ; and when strength fails, the patient is supported by the arms of relatives. When he is entirely exhausted, he is borne along the dance perfectly passive ; and, gradually, as he languishes, the enthusiasm and anxiety rise to a higher pitch; the drum sounds with more earnest beat; the contagion of sobbing and moaning spreads, and becomes universal ; the circle is enlarged by an accession of friends and neighbours, who soon catch the sad spirit of the occasion ; the poise and tumult aggravate to a storm; and, as might be expected, the patient sinks and expires, under the overwhelming weight of this furions tempest of lugubrious passion. And this is called the medicine-dance. Rarely, the strength of the patient's constitution braves the assault, and he rises and lives notwithstanding; and these instances of recovery prove to a demonstration, in the philosophy of the Indians, the miraculons efficacy of the means.-Colton's Tour of the American Lakes.

Indian Sesquipedalia.-The wild Indians are pot bad in managing the few facts which they have in their possession ; and they are certainly possessed of unri. valled skill in magnifying trifles and digpifying nothings. They will deliver themselves of the fol. lowing sentence, (which, by the bye, is only one word :)–"Yerensetavakarange akowa,"-in a manner to astound all one's senses, and raise the highest expectation. And, lo! when it comes to be interpreted, it reads :-" the greatest fiddle possible;" alias, a “ church organ,

which he had seen in the white man's council-house : and which he wished to de cril

to his own people.--Colton's Tour of the American Lakes.

Pontius Pilate.-In the neighbourhood of Vienne, about twenty miles from Lyons, stand the ruins of a tall square Roman tower, called “Tour de Mauconseil. The legends of the country affirm that this was the abode of Pontius Pilate, and that in a fit of despair and frenzy he threw himself from its windows into the Rhone, where he perished.--This point the good Catholics must settle as they can with the Swiss, who maintain that he drowned himself in a little Alpine lake on the mountain which bears his name; and that the storms by which it is frequently agitated are occasioned by the writhings of his per. turbed spirit.

The Pyramids.- Mr. Madden, in his speculation on the purposes for which the Pyramids of Egypt were erected, seems to be of opinion, contrary to all who have directed their attention to the subject, that they were not intended as general cemeteries, or, as a depository for the bodies of the sovereigns who raised them, but that they were consecrated to the mysteries of the Egyptian religion, and that the chambers which could throw light on that curious


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