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Sir To. Then he's a rogue,
passy-measures pavin "?; I hate a drunken rogue.
Oli. Away with him: Who hath made this havock with them?
Sir And. I'll help you, Sir Toby, because we'll be dressed together.
Sir To. Will you help ?-An ass-head, and a concomb, and a knave? a thin-faced knave, a gull ?
Oli. Get him to bed, and let his hurt be look’d to. [Exeunt Clown, Sir Toby, and SIR ANDREW.
kinsman; But, had it been the brother of my blood, I must have done no less, with wit and safety. You throw a strange regard upon me, and By that I do perceive it hath offended you; Pardon me, sweet one, even for the vows We made each other but so late ago. Duke. One face, one voice, one habit, and two
persons; A natural perspective 13, that is, and is not.
12 The pavin was a grave Spanish dance. Sir John Hawkins derives it from pavo a peacock, and says that every pavin had its galliard, a lighter kind of air formed ont of the former. Thus, in Middleton's More Dissemblers beside Women:
• I can dance nothing but ill favour’dly,
A strain or two of passe measures galliard.' By which it appears that the passy-measure pavan, and the passy measure galliard were only two different measures of one dance. Sir Toby therefore means by this quaint expression that the surgeon is a rogue and a grave solemn coxcomb. In the first act of the play he has shown himself well acquainted with the various kinds of dance. Shakspeare's characters are always consistent, and even in drunkenness preserve the traits of character which distinguished them when sober.
13 A perspective formerly meant a glass that assisted the sight in any way. The several kinds in use in Shakspeare's time are
Seb. Antonio! 0, my dear Antonio,
Ant. Sebastian are you?
Fear’st thou that, Antonio?
Oli. Most wonderful !
Seb. Do I stand there? I never had a brother; Nor can there be that deity in my nature, Of here and
where. I had a sister, Whom the blind waves and surges have devour'd:Of charity 14, what kin are you to me? [T. VIOLA. What countryman? what name? what parentage?
Vio. Of Messaline: Sebastian was my father;
A spirit I am, indeed;
enumerated in Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, b. xiii. c. 19, where that alluded to by the Duke is thus described,
There be glasses also wherein one man may see another man's image and not his own'—that optical illusion may be meant, which is called anamorphosis :
—where that which is, is not,' or appears, in a different position, another thing. This may also explain a passage in Henry V. Act v. Sc. 2: “Yes, my lord, you see them perspectively, the cities turned into a maid. Vide also K. Richard II. Act ii. Sc. I, and note there
· Like perspectives which rightly gazed upon
I should my tears let fall upon your cheek,
his brow. Seb. And so had mine.
Vio. And died that day when Viola from her birth Had number'd thirteen
years. Seb. (), that record is lively in my
soul! He finished, indeed, his mortal act, That day that made my
sister thirteen years.. Vio. If nothing lets 15 to make us happy both, But this my masculine usurp'd attire, Do not embrace me, till each circumstance Of place, time, fortune, do cohere, and jump, That I am Viola : which to confirm, I'll bring you to a captain in this town, Where lie my maiden weeds; by whose gentle help I was presery'd, to serve this noble count: All the occurrence of my fortune since Hath been between this lady, and this lord. Seb. So comes it, lady, you have been mistook:
Duke. Be not amaz’d; right noble is his blood.
[To VIOLA. Thou never should'șt love woman like to me.
Vio. And all those sayings will I over-swear;
Give me thy hand;
Vio. The captain, that did bring me first on shore,
Re-enter Clown, with a letter.
my remembrance clearly banish'd his.-
Clo. Truly, madam, he holds Belzebub at the stave's end, as well as a man in his case may do; he has here writ a letter to you, I should have given it you, to-day morning ; but as a madman's epistles are no gospels, so it skills not much when they are delivered.
Oli. Open it, and read it.
Clo. Look then to be well edified, when the fool delivers the madman :-By the lord, madam,
Oli. How now! art thou mad?
Clo. No, madam, I do but read madness : an your ladyship will have it as it ought to be, you must allow vox 17.,
Oli. Prythee, read i'thy right wits.
Clo. So I do, madonna; but to read his right wits, is to read thus: therefore perpend 18, my princess, and give ear.
16 i. e. a frenzy that drew me away from every thing but its object.
17 This may be explained : “ If you would have the letter read in character, you must allow me to assume the voice or frantic tone of a madman.'
Oli. Read it
(To FABIAN. Fab. [Reads.] By the Lord, madam, you wrong me, and the world shall know it : though you have put me into darkness, and given your drunken cousin rule over me, yet have I the benefit of my senses as well as your ladyship. I have your own letter that induced me to the semblance I put on; with the which I doubt not but to do myself much right, or you much shame. Think of me as you please. I leave my duty a little unthought of, and speak out of my injury.
The madly-used Malvolio.
[Exit FABIAN. My lord, so please you, these things further thought
service done him,
shall from this time be
A sister ?---you are she.
Re-enter FABIAN, with MALVOLIO.
Ay, my lord, this same:
19 Frame and constitution.