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with science, knows full well of Mr. Cassin's rare acquirements in this particular department of Natural History.

And we now gladly avail of this opportune occasion to make our public acknowledgments to this gentleman for his many valuable suggestions in reference to the execution of these drawings, the securing of which, by the by, has been by far the most difficult-in fact, we may freely say, the only unpleasant as well as vexatious portion of our task. We also return thanks to Mr. John Krider for his generous aid in supplying us with the skins of several specimens of Birds, which assisted materially in insuring correct Drawings.

This is not the only good service that Mr. Krider has done us as well as the rest of the craft during the last year; for, independent of the many fine Guns that he has turned out from his workshop, he has, with the valuable assistance of his friend, Jr. H. M. Klapp, furnished us with his “Sporting Anecdotes," a book replete not only with amusing but very instructive in. formation regarding the habits of our Game Birds, Sporting Dogs, &c. &c.

Mr. George White, the principal Draughtsman, and I may say pupil of Mr. Cassin's in this particular kind of Drawing, has displayed much taste as well as artistic skill in his delineations of the Birds, and we doubt if he has many, if any, equal on this side of the vasty deep in this special branch of Designing. IIis Chapter Headings and many of the Vignettes are also spirited and characteristic; the Title Page of the Four Seasons, and Frontispiece as well, are very pleasing compositions, and give still further evidences of his talent and genius as an Artist.

With these few comments, we again send our volume forth from the press, trusting, as before, far more to the well-known generosity of the craft for its kind reception, than to any great merit of its own, but at the same time bearing in mind the good old Latin proverb, that—"Frustra laborat qui omnibus placere studet."

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CHAPTER II.

Sensation in Feathers; Necessity of this Sensation; Particularly in Noc-

turnal Birds; How preserved in its highest state of perfection-Provisions
of Nature-Change of Plumage in the Northern Regions; Cause of this
change-Protection afforded from various Animals of Prey-Preserves
the Natural Warmth, and prevents the waste of Heat-Moulting of Birds
-Periods of Moulting-Fowl that procreate in the far North . .

36

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CHAPTER V.

Art of Shooting on the Wing— The first grand desideratum-Possession of a

good Gun-Coolness and deliberation-Shooting Swallows-Wonderful feats
in Shooting-Great difference between shooting at some particular objects
and shooting at Game Birds-Dogs come to a stand-How to approach
the Game-Position of the Gun-Firing at random-Feeling of anxiety-
Discomposure on the Flushing of a Covey-Cross Shooting-Velocity of
Flight of the Partridge-Sighting the Gun--Philosophy of Sighting the
Gun-Crossing to the right-Crossing to the left-Going from you-Going
over your head-Covert Shooting-Beating bushes with the Gun-Both
eyes open-Snap Shot-Poking Shot-Excellency of American Sportsmen

PAGE
as compared with English—Difference between Shooting in our Coverts
and Shooting in the English Preserves-Mr. Fowler's statements as regards
our Game, and American Sporting generally-How erroneous his views-
Killing clean—The advantages of nice Shooting-Distances that Birds
should be killed . . . . . . . . . . . 47

CHAPTER VI.
The Partridge-Their wide dissemination-Where found-Nomenclature-

Description-Habits-When shy and wild-Perching upon trees-They
delight in the open country-Time of feeding-Time of leaving their roost

-Basking in the mid-day sun — Ridding themselves of Vermin-Not
strictly migratory-During deep snows—The Running Season—The course
they pursue at this season-Numbers taken in traps-What course the
prudent Sportsman should pursue at this inclement season-Their Fecun-
dity-Period of Pairing—More Male Birds hatched than Females-Battles
resulting from this circumstance—This fact well established in the English
variety—The destruction of the surplus Males-Completion of their Nests;
where placed; how constructed–The Eggs; their number-Fecundity of
the English Partridge-Fecundity of the American--Period of Incubation
-Their Habits while Setting--Strictly Monogamous- When the Young are
able to fly-During inclement weather-Leaving the nest-Actions of
the Young Birds, of the Parents, in time of danger-Their affection for
their Progeny-Battle with Snakes-Snakes “charming Birds ;vulgar
error-Domestication-Their wild nature-Cannot bear close confinement
-The Author's Experience-Two broods in a season; how accounted for-
Full grown--Associated in Coveys-Their Call—Their IIabits at this sea-
son-Roosting; their peculiar mode-Food-Mr. Skinner's opinion as to
Food—Feeding on Mountain Laurel; Cases of Poisoning in consequence;
how treated-old and Young Birds-Those shot in the neighborhood of
the Tapahannock-Fine Birds shot by George D. Wetherill, Esq.- Their
numbers in different localities–Difference between the English and Ameri-
can Bird-Size of the former--American Partridge not a Quail; their
many striking differences-Quails among the ancient Athenians-Running
Season-An immense drove encountered— Their actions at this season-
Causes of these migrations-Flight of the Partridge-Whirring noise;
how produced-Rapidity and force of Flight- Much more hardy than the
English Bird-- Average duration of life-Change of Plumage-Instances
mentioned by Mr. Daniel in the English variety--A pied one in possession
of the Author; another, of Mr. Gratz; another in Academy of Natural
Sciences-Specimens in the British Museum-Buffon's statement-What
to be attributed to-A White Snipe-A Yellow Reed-Bird---A remarkable
Partridge; where shot; description of same-Anecdote-The importance
of studying the Natural History of Game Birds--Pot-Hunters; their
Motto; how to act if in company with such a fellow-Further Hints on
the IIabits of Partridges-Numbers caught in Nets-Numbers of Quails
in the Old World—Horse-hair Nooses-Figure of 4 Trap— The barbarous
practice of eating their eggs—Driving Partridges, as practised in the

PAGE
South–Description from Audubon-Introduction into England; efforts
abortive-Actions of Old and Young Birds—Best to break Dogs on-Coveys
that will not lie-Retaining Scent; a mystery; Dr. Smith's letter on the
subject; the matter fully discussed; the Author's experience--Enemies
of the Partridge; Animals of various kinds; several species of Hawks-
Predictions regarding Game-IIaunts of Partridges—Their movements at
early dawn-Where to look for them-Different states of the weather-
Rainy Spell-Good Weather-Buckwheat Patch--Mid-day-Hints for the
Sportsman-Time for the Shooter to desist from his labors; reasons for-
Pot-Hunters - Early dawn — Mutual congratulations-Why Partridges
seldom or never roost in the field where they feed—Their movements dur-
ing snow-Good Shooting in Delaware-Better still in Virginia-Unusually
plenty in 1851 and 1852; reasons for it-Mr. Phillips kills sixty-one Birds
- Mr. Skinner's Correspondent - The best record of Shooting–The Par-
tridge most difficult of all Game Birds to be shot-Frank Forrester's
opinion—The Field-Properly equipped-A Pointer and Setter; their
respective merits—Arrived at the Tavern or Farm-house-Attention to
Dogs-After Supper-After Breakfast-In the field - A marker-Mode
to hunt Dogs-Half-broke Dogs--Young Dogs; how to manage them
Various dispositions—Fear of punishment-Kicking Dogs—The act of
Pointing Game; among Predatory Animals—Throwing Dogs off-Spoken
to as little as possible in the Field-When at a stand—The Bird Flushed
-Fire at random-Dead Birds-Chance Shots-A Retriever-Our expe-
rience as to Retrieving-A perfect Retriever a great rarity-To make a
Young Dog gentle with Game-Wounded or Dead Birds-An invaluable
Dog-Care not to have a Retriever A Bird marked down-Partridges
most difficult to be found-Not to be discouraged-Close Cover--Sides of
the Fields-English Dogs; not equal to the American-Memoranda . 65

CHAPTER VII.
The Wild-Turkey-Description-Natural History--Localities where found-

Its former abundance-Few or none North or East of Pennsylvania -
Found in Virginia ; in other States—Acknowledgments to Dr. Sargent-
Neighborhood of Natchez-Incubation; an interesting period to study the
Characteristics of this Fowl—The Turkey very salacious—Their battles
at this season-Audubon's remarks-The Nest; where and how formed
The Eggs—The Hen approaching the Nest-Her efforts at concealment-
The Turkey-Cock at this particular period-Several Hens using the same
Nest_The full Period of Incubation-Wet Weather; very destructive to
the Young-Solicitude of the Hen; she feeds her tender offspring on Spice
Wood Bush Buds—The Young take to the Trees-Plumage of the Young
- The Young Cocks—Rears but one Brood— The Males become ema-
ciated; they separate from the Hens; their recovery-Food— Varieties-
Their Migrations-Crossing Rivers-Their Domestication-Their associa-
tions with tame ones-Various notions as regards the appellation of Tur-
key; the Paradoxy explained - When and how introduced into England -
The Turkey the most valuable addition made to the Domestic Fowl-Ac-

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