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D I C T 10 N A R Y

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OF

ARTS, SCIENCES,

A N D

MISCELLANEOUS LITERATURE;

Constructed on a PLAN, UM

BY WHICH

THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digested into the Form of Distinct
TRE A TI SE S OR SYSTEMS,

COMPREBENDING

The HISTORY, THEOR Y, and PRACTICE, of each,
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Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, &c.

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Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important 'Topics relative to Religion, Morals,

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:

TOGETHER WITB

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A DescripTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, de.

throughout the WORLD;
A General History, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States ;

AND

An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earliest ages down to the present times.

Compiled from tbe writings of the brf Autbors, in several languages; the most approved Dictionaries, as well of general frience as of its parti-

subor branches ; tbe Tranfuctions, Journals, and Memsirs, of learned Societies, botb at bome and abroad: the Ms. Lectures of
Eminent Professors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materials, furnifbed by an Extensive Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

VOL. V.

INDOCTI DIS CANT, ET A MENT 16 MINISSE PERITI.

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MDCCXCVII.

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С ІС Ciccro.

VICERO (Marcus Tullius), the celebrated Roman of its citizens, and was indeed a general patron. Five Cicero.

orator, was born in the year of Rome 647, about years were almost elapsed since Cicero's election to the
107 years before Christ. His father Marcus Tullius, who questorship, which was the proper interval prescribed
was of the equestrian order, took great care of his edu- by law before he could hold the next office of ædile;
cation, which was directed particularly with a view to which he was now, in his 37th year, elected by the
to the bar. Young Tully, at his first appearance in unanimous suffrages of all the tribes, and preferably to
public, declaimed with such vehemence against Sylla’s all his competitors. After Cicero's election to the
party, that it became expedient for him to retire into ædilethip, but before his entrance upon the office, he
Grecce; where he heard the Athenian orators and undertook the famed profecution of C. Verres, the late
philosophers, and greatly improved both in eloquence prætor of Sicily ; who was charged with many flagrant
and knowledge. Here he met with T. Pomponius, who acts of injustice, rapine, and cruelty, during his tri-
had been his school-fellow ; and who, from his love to ennial government of that island. This was one of the
Athens, and spending a great part of his days in it, mot memorable transactions of his life ; for which he
obtained the suiname of Atticus; and here they revived was greatly and justly celebrated by antiquity, and for
and confirmed that noted friendship which sublisted be which he will, in all ages, be admired and esteemed by
tween them throuzh life with so celebrated a conftancy the friends of mankind. The result was, that, by his
and affection. From Athens he passed into Afia; and diligence and address, he so confounded Hortenfius,
after an excursion of two years came back again into though ihe reigning orator at the bar, and usually
Italy.

fiylcd the king of the forum, that he had nothing to say
Cicero was now arrived' at Rome; and, after one for his client. Verres, despairing of all defence, sub-
year more spent at the bar, obtained, in the next place, mitted immediately, without expeeting the sentence,
the dignity of quæ!tor. Among the causes which he to a voluntary exile ; where he lived many years, for-
pleaded before his questorship, was that of the famous gotten and deserted by all his friends. He is said to
comedian Roscius, whom a fingular murit in his art have been relieved in this miserable situation by the ge-
had recommended to the familiarity and friendfhip of nerofity of Cicero; yer was proferibed and murdered
the greatest men in Rome. The quæstors were the after all by Mark Antony, for the sake of those fine
general receivers or treasurers of the repullic, and ftatues and Corintinian vessels of which he had plunder-
were fent annually into the provinces distributed to ed the Sicilians.
them, as they always were, by lot. The ifland of After the usual interval of two years from the time
Sicily happened to fall to Cicero's fhare; and that of his being chosen ædile, Cicero offered liimteli a can-
part of it, for it was confiderable enough to be di didate for the prætorship; and, in three different as-
vided into two provinces, which was called Lilybæum. semblies convened for the choice of prætors, two of
This office he received, not as a gift, but a trutt; and which were dissolved without effect, he was declared
he acquitted himself so well in it, that he gained the every time the first prætor by the luffrages of all the
love and admiration of all the Sicilians. Before he centuries, He was now in the career of his fortunes;
left Sicily, he made the tour of the island, to fee every and in light, as it were, of the consullhip, the grand
thing that was curious, and especially the city of Sy- object oi' his ambition : and therefore, when his pre-
racute; where he discovered the tomb of Archimedes turship was at an end, he would not accept any foreign
to the magiftrates who were showing him the curiofi- Province, the usual rrward of that magiftracy, and
ties of the place, but who, to his surprise, knew nothing the chief fruit which the generality proposed from it.
of such coub.

He had no particular love for money, nor genius for
We have no account of the precise time of Cicero's aims ; so that those governments had no charms for
marriage with Terentia ; but it is supposed to have lim : the glory which he pursued was to ihine in the

bean celebrated immediately after his return from his eyes of the city as the guardian of its laws ; and to
stravels to Italy, when he was about 30 years old. He teach the magillrates how to execute, the citizens how
was now difengaged from his questurhip in Sicily, by to whey, ther.

obey
which first fiep, in the legal gradation and ascent of Being now in his 43 d.year, the proper age required
public honours, he gained an immediate right to the by lusi, le declared himlelf a candidate for the con-
lenate, and an actual admision into it during life; fulfi'p alon; with fix competitors, L. Sculpicius Gal-
end settled again in Rome, where ne employed him- ba, L. Surgius Catilina, C. Antonius, L. Caffius Lon
self constantly in defending the persons and properties gilus, Q. Cornificius, and C. Licinius Sacerdus. The
Vol. V, Part I.

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Cicero. two first were patricians; the two next plebeians, yet ship, took care to send a particular account of his Cicero.

noble; the two last the fons of fathers who had first whole administration to Pompey, who was finishing
imported the public honours into their families : Cin the Mithridatic war in Afia; in hopes to prevent any
cero was the only new man, as he was called, among wrong impressions there from the calumnies of his
them, or one of equestrian rank. These were the enemies, and to draw from him some public declara.
competitors ; and in this competition the practice of tion in praise of what he had been doing. But Pom-
bribing was carried on as openly and as shamefully by pey being informed by Metellus and Cæfar of the ill.
Antonius and Catiline as it usually is at our ele&ions humour that was rising against Cicero in Rome, an.
in Britain. However, as the election approached, swered him with great coldness; and intiead of pay.
Cicero's intereft appeared to be fuperior to that of all 'ing him any compliment, took no notice at all of
the candidates : for the nobles themselves, though al- what had passed in the affair of Catiline : upon which
ways envious and desirous to depress him, yet oui of Cicero expoftulates with him in a letter which is still
regard to the dangers which threatened the city from excant.
many quarters, and seemed ready to burst out into a About this time Cicero bought a house of M. Crassus,
flame, began to think him the only man qualified to on the Palatine-hill, adjoining to that in which he had
preserve the republic, and break the cabals of the de- always lived with his father, and which he is now sup-
sperate by the vigour and prudence of his administra- posed to have given up to his brother Quintius. The
tion. The method of choosing consuls was not by an house cost him near L. 30,000, and Teems to have
open vote ; but by a kind of ballot, or little tickets of been one of the nobleft in Rome. It was built about
wood distributed to the citizens, with the names of 30 years before by the famous tribune M. Livius Dru.
the several candidates inscribed upon each: but in Ci- fus: on which occafion we are told, that when the ar.
cero's case the people were not content with this secret chitect promised to build it for him in such a manner
and filent way; but, before they came to any scrutiny, that none of his neighbours should overlook him ;
loudly and universally proclaimed Cicero the first con- “ But if you have any skill (replied Drufus), contrive

,
ful: so that, as he himself says, “ he was not chosen it rather so that all the world may fee what I amy
by the votes of particular citizens, but the common doing.” The purchase of fo expensive a house railed
suffrage of the city, nor declared by the voice of the fome censure on his vanity; and especially as it was
crier, but of the whole Roman people.”

made with borrowed money. This circumstance he
Cicero had no fooner entered upon his office than himself does not diffemble ; but says merrily upon it,
he had occasion to exert himself against P. Servilius that “ he was now plunged so deeply in debt, as to be

fo
Rullus, one of the new tribunes, who had been alarm- ready for a plot, only that the conspirators would not
ing the senate with the promulgation of an Agrarian trust him.”
law; the purpose of which was to create a decemvi- The most remarkable event that happened in this
rate, or ten commiffioners, with absolute power for year, which was the 45th of Cicero's life, was the
five years over all the revenues of the republic, to di- pollution of the mysteries of the bona dea by P. Clo-
ttribute them at pleasure to the citizens, &c. These dius; which, by an unhappy train of confequences,
laws used to be greedily received by the populace, involved Cicero in a great and unexpected calamity.
and were proposed therefore by fa&ious magiftrates Clodius had an intrigue with Cæiar's wife Pom-
as oft as they had any point to carry with the multi- peia, who, according to annual cullum, was now ce-
tude against the public good; fo thai Cicero's first bu- lebrating in her house those awful facrifices of the
finess was to quiet the apprehenfions of the city, and goddess, to which no male creature ever was admitted,
to baffle, if poffible, the intrigues of the tribune. Ac- and where every thing masculine was so scrupulously
cordingly, in an artful and elegant fpeech from the excluded, that even pictures of that fort were covered
roftra, he gave such a turn to the inclination of the during the ceremony. It flattered Clodius's imagina-
people, that they rejected this law with as much eager. tion greatly to gain access to his mistrefs in the midst
ness as they had ever received one. But the grand of her holy miniftry; and with this view he dressed
affair of all, which constituted the glory of his consul- himself in a woman's babit, that by the benefit of
fhip, and has transmitted his name with such luftre to his smooth face, and the introduction of one of the
posterity, was the fkill he showed, and the unwearied maids, he mighi pass without discovery : but by fome
pains he took, in suppressing that horrid confpiracy miftake between him and his guide, he lost his way.
which was formed by Catiline and his accomplices for when he came within the house, and fell in unluckily
The subverfion of the commonwealth. For this great among the other female servants. Here he was detec-
fervice he was honoured with the glorious title of pater ted by his voice, and the servants alarmed the whole
patria, “ the father of his country," which he retained company by their fhrieks, to the great amazement of
for a long time after.

the matrons, who threw a veil over their sacred mys-
Cicero's adminiftration was now at an end; but he teries, while Clodius found means to escape. The
had no sooner quitted his office, than he began to feel ftory was presently fpread abroad, and raised a general
the weight of that envy which is the certain fruit of scandal and horror througłrout the city. The whole
illustrious merit. He was now, therefore, the com- defence which Clodius made when, by order of the le-
mon mark, not only of all the factious, against whom nate, he was brought to a trial, was to prove himself
he had declared perpetual war, but of another party absent at the time of the fact ; for which purpose he
not less dangerous, the envious too: whose united produced two men to swear that he was then at Inter-
spleen never left him from this moment till they had amna, about two or three days journey from the city.
driven him out of that city which he had fo lately pre- Bul Cicero being called upon to give his teftimony, de-
ferved. Cicero, upon the expiration of his conful- posed, that Clodius had been with him that very inorri.

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Cicero. ing at his house in Rome. Irritated by this, Clodius to be demolished, and his goods set up to sale. It can.

formed a scheme of revenge. This was to get himself not be denied, that in this great calamity he did not chosen tribune, and in that office to drive Cicero out behave himself with that firinness which might reason. of the city, by the publication of a law, which, by ably be expected from one who had borne fo glorious a some stratagem or other, he hoped to obtrude upon part in the republic; conscious of his integrity, and the peopie. But as all patricians were incapable of the suffering in the cause of his country: for his letters are tribunate by its original institution, so his first ftep generally filled with such lamentable expressions of was to make himself a plebeian, by the pretence of an grief and despair, that his best friends, and even his adoption into a plebeian house, which could not yet wife, were forced sometimes to admonish him to rouse be done without the suffrage of the people. The first his courage, and remember his former character. Attriumvirate was now formed; which was nothing else in ticus was constantly putting him in mind of it; and reality but a traiterous conspiracy of three of the most sent him word of a report that was brought to Rome powerful citizens of Rome, to extort from their coun. by one of Caffius's freed-men, that his affliction had try by violence what they could not obtain by law. disordered his senses. He was now indeed attacked Pompey's chief motive was to get his acts confirmed in his weakest part ; the only place in which he was by Cæsar in his consulship, which was now coming on; vulnerable. To have been as great in affliction as he Cæfar, by giving way to Pompey's glory, to advance was in prosperity, would have been a perfection not his own ; and Craffus, to gain that ascendence by the given to man: yet this very weakness Howed from a authority of Pompey and Cæsar, which he could not source which rendered him the more amiable in all the sudain alone. Cicero might have made what terms he other parts of his life ; and the same tenderness of difpleased with the triumvirate ; and been admitted even position which made him love his friends, his children, a partner of their power, and a fourth in their league: and his country, more passionately than other men, but he would not enter into any engagements with the

made him feel the loss of them more fencibly. When three whose union he and all the friends of the republic he had been gone a little more than two months, a abhorred. Clodius, in the mean time, had been push. motion was made in the senate by one of the tribunes, ing on the business of his adoption: which at last he ef. who was his friend, to recal him, and repeal the laws fected; and began soon after to threaten Cicero with of Clodius ; to which the whole house readily agreed. all the terrors of his tribunate, to which he was now Many obstructions, as may be easily imagined, were advanced without any opposition. Both Cæsar and given to it by the Clodian faction ; but this made the Pompey secretly favoured his scheme: not that they senate only more resolute to effect it. They passed intended to ruin Cicero, but only to keep him under a vote, therefore, that no other business should be done the lafh ; and if they could not draw him into their till Cicero's return was carried : which at last it was; measures, or make him at least keep quiet, to let Clo. and in so splendid and triumphant a manner, that he dius loose upon him. Cæfar, in particular, wanted had reason, he says, to fear, left people should imagine to distress him so far as to force him to a dependence that he himself had contrived his late flight for the lake on himself: for which end, while he was privately en- of fo glorious a restoration. couraging Clodius to pursue him, he was proposing ex. Cicero, now in his goth year, was restored to his pedients to Cicero for his fecurity. But though his former dignity, and soon after to his former fortunes; fortunes seemed now to be in a tottering, condition, satisfaction being made to him for the ruin of his estates and his enemies to gain ground daily upon him; yet and houses; which latt were built up again by hiin. he was unwilling to owe the obligation of his safety to fulf with more magnificence than before. But he had any man, far less to Cæsar, whose designs he always domeitic grievances about this time, which touched tulpected, and whose schemes he never approved. This him very nearly; and which, as he fignisies obscurely Atiffness in Cicero fo exasperated Cæsar, that he resolved to Atticus, were of too delicate a nature to be expresimmediately to affitt Clodius with all his power to op- fed in a letter: They arose chiefly from the petulant press himn ; while Pompey was all the while giving him humour of his wife, which began to give him frequent the strongest affurances that there was no danger, and occafions of chagrin; and, by a series of repeated prothat he would sooner be killed himself than suffer him vocations, confirmed in him that settled disguft which to be hurt.

at last ended in a divorce. Cledius, in the mean time, was obliging the people In the 56th year of his age,

he was made procon. with several new laws, contrived chiefly for their ad- sul of Cilicia; and his administration there gained vantage; the design of all which was only to intro- hin great honour. About this time the expectation duce, with a better grace, the ground.plot of the play, of a breach between Cæfar and Pompey engaged the the banishment of Cicero. In short, having caused a general attention. Crassus had been destroyed with law to be enacted, importing, that any who had con- bis army some years before in the war with the Par. demned a Roman citizen unheard should himself be thians ; and Julia the daughter of Cæsar, whom Pom. banished, he soon after impeached Cicero upon it. It pey married, and who, while she lived, was the ce. was in vain that this great man went up and down ment of their union, was also dead in child-bed. Cæ. the city soliciting his cause in the habit of a suppliant, far had put an end to the Gallic war, and reduced and attended by many of the first young noblemen the whole province to the Roman yoke: but though whom he had taught the rules of eloquence ; those his commission was near expiring, he seemed to have powers of speaking which had so often been success- no thoughts of giving it up and returning to the conful in defending the cause of others, seemed totally to dition of a private subject. He pretended that he forsake his own: he was banished by the votes of the could not possibly be safe if he parted with his army; people 400 miles from Italy; his houses were ordered especially while Pompey held the province of Spain

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