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1791, frequentlycrossed the Danube, of the garrison, whom the accounts kept the Turks in constant alarm, 'respecting Ismailow had inspired and routed them whenever they with a spirit of revenge and not of came up with them :-and two for. terror, was so well directed, and tresses of considerable importance, did such execution, and the exTulkza and Issatzi, situated on the plosion of a mine in that quarter Danube, fell into their hands with where they began the assault, ocout much resistance.

casioned so much destruction among Prince Repnin, who had now the them, that they were compelled command of the army in the ab (after losing 3,000 of their bravest sence of the General in Chief and

soldiers, and many of their best of Prime Minister Potemkin (whose ficers) to retreat with the utmost presence in the present critical con- precipitation. juncture was thought necessary in Prince Repnin, who had expectthe councils of Petersburg) haded to find the Turks dispirited and taken post, by orders from Potem panic struck, equally disappointed kin, at Galatz in Bessarabia, at the and mortified at bis repulse, reconflux of the Pruth and the Da. solved to repair as expeditiously as nube: whence he might afford possible that disaster, collected the protection to the

Russian conquests best troops from the various bodies on the north of the Danube, and of Russians stationed along the invade the Turkish possessions on banks of the Danube; and at the the south, as opportunities might head of this select body, on the 9th offer.

of July, crossed that river, and atThe Turks had assembled a large tacked the Asiatic division of the force on the side of that river, with Turkish army, encamped on the an intention to enlarge their quar- southern bank, near Maczyn. The ters, by passing over into the pro Turks were not wanting in a very vinces of Moldavia and Wallachia. brave resistance: but through their But their design being observed by inferiority of discipline, they were General Kutuson, an active officer, thrown into such confusion, that was prevented. Passing the Danube they were entirely defeated, with himself, at the head of a chosen the loss of 4,000 killed and taken, body of men, he attacked them on and all their camp-artillery. This the 15th of June, 1791, with such was a critical day for the Russians. vigour, that the Turks, after a Had they not obtained the victory, well-disputed fight, were com the dispositions made by the Grand pletely routed, with the loss of Vizier would have reduced them 1,500 men, a large quantity of am to the greatest straits. The Rusmunition, and an immense maga sians were so conscious of this, that zine of provisions.

from the battle of Maczyn, none of Animated by a constant course their principal officers were absent. of success, Prince Repnin proceeded Besides Prince Repnin, Comnow to attack the strong fortress mander in Chief, Prince Gallitzin, of Brahilow. He approached this General Kutuson, and several place with the flower of his army; others, who, in the course of the hoping to take it, as Ismailow bad present war had acquired a very been taken, by storm. But the fire high reputation, headed the differ

ent

ent corps that were employed on the booty of which they became this occasion in person. The num- the masters, was immense. Among ber of the Turks are stated by the prisoners was the celebrated Prince Repnin to have exceeded Shaik Mansour, whose enthusiasm, 70,000.

whether feigned or real (though As soon as the Grand Vizier most probably real) had, some years was apprized of this important en previous to this event, excited in gagement, he advanced to the suc- those parts considerable commocour of the Asiatics, at the head of tions. 15,000 European infantry. But Anapa being the last place of the extreme disorder into which any importance held by the Turks they had been thrown, added to in Cuban, a road was opened for the unskilfulness of their com. the Russians into the fairest parts manders, frustrated all his efforts to of the Turkish dominions in Asia. renew the combat. He was under The Grand Seignior himself, the necessity of retiring to his for who was the animating soul that tified camp, from the works of had hitherto supported the present which he annoyed the enemy for a contest with Russia under so many time; but on the approach of this, disasters, as well as the Divan, hard he was compelled to abandon it, pressed and menaced with the most and make a speedy retreat. imminent dangers on the side of

About the same time, a party of both Asia and Europe, and alarmed Russians, under the command of by the violence of popular clamour General Goodowitch, invaded the and some symptoms of a spirit of province of Cuban, and attacked a insurrection and revolt in the Asiatic body of Turks and Circassians about provinces, began now to abandon 20,000 strong, entrenched in a for all ideas of continuing the war, and tified camp, at the town of Anapa, to listen to the terms of peace in Circassia, on the borders of Cir- which had been proposed by Prince cassia in Asia. The Turks and Potenikin at the end of the camCircassians made a gallant defence paign 1790, but which had hitherwith great resolution ; but at length, to been rejected, from a confiboth town and camp'were taken on dence in the vigorous and armed the 3rd of July, by an assault, which interposition of the allies, accordlasted for five hours, and in which ing to the treaty of Reichenbach. great numbers were slain on both But Sweden had been detached sides. But it does not appear that from the confederation ; Poland this victory was stained by any of was in an unsettled and even disthose cruelties which so deeply dis. tracted state; Prussia could not graced the Russian arms at Ismailow. act, even had she been more forA great number of Turks, includ- ward to action against Russia withing the commanding Pasha and seve- out the co-operation of the Engral other general officers were made lish navy :-and in England, after prisoners. Seventy-one pieces of all the preparation that had been artillery likewise fell into the hands made, and all the zeal that had of the victors. As the wealth of been displayed by the minister, in the adjacent country had been de. favour of the Turks and in opposiposited at Anapa as a place of safety, tion to the court of St. Petersburg,

the

the clamour of the manufacturers fairs of Russia, that the Empress in and merchants engaged in the Rus. all her plans, whether of negociasian trade was so great, and an aver- tion, alliance, or war, had consion to war, especially with a power stantly in view the expulsion of the that was considered as an old, a na- Turks from Europe, and the restora. tural, and a beneficial friend, so pre- tion of the Greek empire: an idea valent throughout the nation, that that was first conceived by the great though the majorities in favour of and comprehensive mind of the the minister on the questions relat- Czar Peter; and of which the caing to the armament against Russia binet of St. Petersburg has never amounted almost to a hundred, he lost sight during the succeeding thought it prudent to relax, and to reigns, to this day. Her interferpersuade Prussia and Turkey to ac- ence, soon after her accession to commodate all differences with the the throne, in the affairs of Poland, Empress, according to the plan and during the whole course of her which she had proposed. By a reign, was connected with her peace suddenlyconcluded at Galatz, grand plan. It was necessary in her on the Ilth of August, 1791, Russia wars with Turkey, to secure for her retained Oczakow and the country armies the resources which Poland between the Bog and the Dnieper, afforded, and still more, that the which had belonged to Turkey be- Poles should not take part with the fore the war. The latter of these Turks against her. The political rivers was to be the boundary of circumstances and situation of Eu. both powers : each to be equally rope, as we have already noticed, entitled to the free navigation of were so favourable to the ambitious the river ; and each to erect forti- and vast designs of Catherine when fications on its respective shores. she began to make preparations for Concerning the value and import- a war with the Turks, that it is ance of this new acquisition to the probable she did not think at that Russian empire, various and oppo- time of sheathing the sword until site opinions were entertained, at she should be in possession of Conleast various arguments were urged stantinople. The resistance of the on the different sides of this ques. Turks, more vigorous than was aption ; for an account of which, we prehended, contracted her views to refer our readers to our Sketch of the erections of Moldavia, WallaBritish History, and the Debates in chia, and Bessarabia, into an indeParliament.

pendent sovereignty for her great It is a fact well known to all who favourite Prince Potemkin, * who were best acquainted with the af- had become an object of great jea

lousy

• As a consolation to Prince Potemkin under his disappointment of an independent sovereignty, for the present, he was appointed by the Empress, Hetman of the Cossacks, an office of the greatest trust and power in the empire, and which likewise carried in it a shew of sovereignty; and which had never been filled up since the days of the celebrated Mazappa. Potemkin, soon after the peace, died suddenly, by an apopletic stroke, to which, from bis manner of life, he must have been peculiarly predisposed.

lousy and envy to the Russian court, from its value, when balanced with even the Grand Duke and principal the expence and the danger too nobility not excepted; and she per- attending a protraction of even the severed to insist on the retention most successful war, but from the of Oczakow, notwithstanding me. haughtiness and pride of her chamorial on memorial, and remon- racter, which could not brook an strance from the allies, not, it may appearance of constraint in any part be fairly presumed from any idea of her conduct.

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From the concurrent testimony of different writers of credit, it sufficiently appears that there are many sovereigns who do not possess revenues equal to those which Potemkin spent; and that his luxury equalled that of an ancient Persian Satrap, or Roman Pro-consul. Few princes gave an audience with more state. Some Livonian gentlemen, of very high rank, who went to Petersburg on affairs of iraportance, found him in an undress, playing at cards with his nieces. When they were announced, he scarcely deigned to look at them; and, continuing his game, dismisssed them without any other compliment or ceremony than an ordinary salute,

When he thought proper to enter into conversation with strangers, they found him both instructive and entertaining. So rapid and so long a career could not indeed have been supported but by a man of great talents and firmness of character.-Having become master of the Russian empire, he increased its internal weakness, while he added to its external glory. We have already seen that he was encouraged by the Empress to aspire to the throne of Moldavia and Wallachia. Disappointed of this, he is said to have formed several other plans of independence, such as being raised to the Duchy of Courland, &c. He died at the age of fifty, leaving to his heirs the rich territory of Simila in Poland, which contains 30,000 serfs. His whole property amounted to about seven millions sterling.-As the repeated use of strong cordials prevents the natural effect of ordinary refreshment, so a satiety of riches, pleasures, honours, power, and almost of great and successful enterprizes, left Prince Potemkin in a state of dissatisfaction, uneasiness, and melancholy, and inspired his mind with longing desires after some gratification yet unknown-somewhat new, vast, and unbounded. The caprices and eccentricities of Potemkin gave credibility to what we read in Suetonius and other ancient writers, of the freaks and extravagancies of so many of the Roman Emperors.

THE

CH A P. VI. Situation of Poland at the Close of 1790. Poland treated with inso

lence by the Courts of Petersburg and Vienna. Sound Policy of an Alliance between Poland and Prussia. Unusual Condescendence of the Courts of Vienna and Petersburg: Awakened Spirit and Patriotism of the Polish Nution. Abolition of the permanent council, and Establishment of a permanent Diet in Poland. Concessions to the Poles by the Russians and Austrians. Augmentation of the Military strength of Poland. Situation of Northern and Eastern Europe at the Commencement of 1790. Sketch of a New Constitution furourableto the Liberty and happiness of all ranks. Excites Jealousy and Alarm in the Courts of Berlin and Petersburg. King of Prussia demands the Cession of Dantzick and Thorn. Character, Circumstances, and Conduct of the King of Poland. Patriotic Ardour of the Poles of all Ranks. Decrees of the Polish Diet in favour of the Commons. The Meeting of the Polish States changed into a Diet of Confederation ; in which all questions are to be decided by a Majority. The Diet opened by the King in Person. The Diet absolves the King from his Coronation Outh. Debates in the Diet. The King and the Diet accept, with the Solemnity of an Oath, the New Constitution'

. THE situation of Poland at the with some confidence of success, to close of the year 1790, was

throw off the yoke of those opbecome extremely critical. The pressors. Polish nation was full of resent- The courts of Petersburg and ment at thethraldom in which it had Vienna had recently exhibited a been held, ever since the dismem- striking proof of the contempt in berment of the kingdom in 1773, which they held the Polish

governby its three neighbouring powers, ment. Without condescending tothe Russia, Austria, and Prussia, and usual formality established between had, from that fatal epocha, been separate states, of requesting perwatching with indefatigable dili- mission, or even giving previous gence for an opportunity to break potice, they had stationed two large the fetters of this ignominious bon- bodies of their respective troops on dage; but near fifteen years elapsed the Polish territory. Such an inbefore the least ray of hope ap- fringement of territorial rights, had peared. It was not until the am

been further aggravated by a probition of the two principal op- posal to assemble a diet, in order to pressors of Poland had involved enter into an alliance against the them in a war with the Turkish Porte with those two powers; empire, that the patriotic party in whose intentions to expel the Turks Poland, long silent and inactive from Europe, had raised no little through the consciousness of its in- alarm in this part of the world, ability to speak or to act to any particularly in Poland: which, for effectual purpose, began at last to

obvious reasons, could not view conceive that the period was come.

without the most serious concern, when an attempt "might be made the depression of a power, of which

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