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opposition amounted, declining lieved, distributed 50,000 ducats their attendance. After the re- among those whom he imagined of newal of the oath, with solemn sufficient weight and influence to thanks and addresses to Heaven for impede the measures in agitation. the prosperity of the new constitu-' But the patriotic party were too tion, it was announced to the public vigilant to be taken by surprize. It by a discharge of all the artillery in discovered his intrigues, and obthe metropolis. The minority in viated them, to his great disapthe mean time, though unable to pointment and mortification. oppose these proceedings, resolved

A confirmation took place on the to discountenance them to the ut- 5th of May, of what had been most of their power. They drew transacted on the third. The conup a protest against them, which stitution was again read over to the they published in the form of a ma- diet, and received the signatures of nifesto.' But their conduct ex- all the members present, after every cited universal dissatisfaction; and sentence had been solemnly revised though, through the moderation and examined with the strictest atof the patriotic party, no insult was tention. By this constitution, the offered to their persons, yet the sovereignty was formally recogpeople could not forbear to view nized to reside in the nation, acting ihem with an eye of indignation." by its supreme will, expressed by

Great and unfeigned was the joy its representatives. The governexpressed by all orders of men at ment consisted of three distinct this change in the constitution. It powers, the legislative, the judicial, evidently tended to meliorate the and the executive. The first exercondition of all classes indiscrimi- cised by the diet, which was to be nately, and to place the nation on elected every two years out of the such a prosperous footing, as in a order of nobles, and divided into short time to command the respect two houses, the one of Nuncios, or of their neighbours, and to bid de- deputies, and the other of senators. fiance to their secret machinations The former of these houses to posto disturb the internal peace of the sess the pre-eminent prerogative of kingdom, as well as to their open framing laws, which, when acceptattempts to tyrannize over it. Ited by the latter, became valid and was not, therefore, without the most binding: but if negatived, reincessant and indefatigable strug. mained suspended till re-enacted by gles to prevent this alteration in the the house of nuncios at the next Polish system, that those who had diet; when, without consent of so much benefited by the divisions the senate, they became of force. they had fomented in that country, The crown was declared heredibeheld its deliverance from their tary respecting individuals, but ruinous interference. So keen and elective as to families. That of persevering had their efforts been Saxony was elected to the succesto obstruct the plans of the patriotic sion, at the demise of the reigning party, that on the very eve of the monarch. The execution of the memorable third of May, a foreign laws was assigned to the King and minister at the court of Warsaw his council. The royal person to had, it was reported, and firmly be be inviolable. He was vested with

the

the Polish constitution on its actual equal obstinacy, that they would footing, and that he could not le- not depart till it was abandoned. gally comply with their request, This was the critical moment. unless he was previously absolved Both parties appeared ready to proby-the formal consent of the diet, ceed to immediate violence. In of the obligation then imposed the mean time, the King sat in upon him. A majority of the diet silent suspense how to act, and in immediately arose, and after dis- anxious expectation how this sudcharging him, in a regular and so- den contest would terminate ; when lemn manner, from the observance the deputy from Livonia, Mr. Zaof that article in his coronation biello, suggested, that a decree to contract, which made the crown decide all questions by a plurality elective, they also bound them- of votes, having passed at the openselves not to adjourn till the pro- ing of the present diet, the most posal before them was finally proper method to settle the dispute adopted.

between both parties, would be by The marshal of the diet was, in referring to their respective numconsequence, ordered by the King bers. Those who approved of the to collect individually the opinion plan proposed, being more than ten of all the members, that the sense to one comparatively to those that and will of the nation, assembled in opposed it, the King, he said, its representatives, might thus be ought not to hesitate in giving bis made a matter of indisputable no- sanction to the constitution. Ani. toriety. But that part of the new mated by this deputy's words and constitution which rendered the example, the majority rose incrown hereditary, met with a vio- stantly from their seats, and surlent opposition, even from those rounding the throne, requested the who approved of all the others. king formally to accept and to Mr. Sucherzewski, one of the most swear to the observance of the zealous promoters of all the popular constitution, so willingly and zeaplans, earnestly besought the King lously received by an incomparable to recede from this point; asserting majority. The King readily seized with great warmth, that hereditary this auspicious opportunity. He succession was the tomb of public called to him the bishop of Cracow, liberty. The deputies from Vol- officially to witness what he swore, hinia and Podolia, objected altoge. and mounting on the throne, the ther to the new constitution, and better to be heard and seen, he others pleaded the instructions of pronounced with a loud voice the their constituents for referring the oath requested of him; and the decision to a future day, and a majority holding up their hands longer deliberation. But the ma

did the same. This ceremony perJority insisted that the system pro- formed, he exclaimed that those posed should be forthwith adopted; who loved their country should nor was the minority less positive in follow him to the cathedral, and refusing its consent. On the for- renew their oath at the altar. He mer declaring they would not quit was accordingly accompanied to the hall until they bad accomplished church by the diet, only thirty or their object, the latter replied with forty of the members, to which the

opposition

opposition amounted, declining lieved, distributed 50,000 ducats their attendance. After the re- among those whom he imagined of newal of the oath, with solemn sufficient weight and influence to thanks and addresses to Heaven for impede the measures in agitation. the prosperity of the new constitu-' But the patriotic party were too tion, it was announced to the public vigilant to be taken by surprize. It by a discharge of all the artillery in discovered his intrigues, and obthe metropolis. . The minority in viated them, to his great disapthe mean time, though unable to pointment and mortification. oppose these proceedings, resolved

A confirmation took place on the to discountenance them to the ut- 5th of May, of what had been most of their power. : They drew transacted on the third. The conup a protest against them, which stitution was again read over to the they published in the form of a ma

diet, and received the signatures of nifesto. But their conduct ex- all the members present, after every cited universal dissatisfaction; and sentence had been solemnly revised though, through the moderation and examined with the strictest atof the patriotic party, no insult was tention. By this constitution, the offered to their persons, yet the sovereignty was formally recogpeople could not forbear to view nized to reside in the nation, acting ihem with an eye of indignation.' by its supreme will, expressed by

Great and unfeigned was the joy its representatives. The governexpressed by all orders of men at ment consisted of three distinct this change in the constitution. It powers, the legislative, the judicial, evidently tended to meliorate the and the executive. The first exer: condition of all classes indiscrimi- cised by the diet, which was to be nately, and to place the nation on elected every two years out of the such a prosperous footing, as in a order of nobles, and divided into short time to command the respect two houses, the one of Nuncios, or of their neighbours, and to bid de- deputies, and the other of senators. fiance to their secret machinations The former of these houses to posto disturb the internal peace of the sess the pre-eminent prerogative of kingdom, as well as to their open framing laws, which, when acceptattempts to tyrannize over it. It ed by the latter, became valid and was not, therefore, without the most binding : but if negatived, reincessant and indefatigable strug- mained suspended till re-enacted by gles to prevent this alteration in the the house of nuncios at the next Polish system, that those who had diet; when, without consent of so much benefited by the divisions the senate, they became of force. they had fomented in that country, The crown was declared heredibeheld its deliverance from their tary respecting individuals, but ruinous interference. So keen and elective as to families. That of persevering had their efforts been Saxony was elected to the succesto obstruct the plans of the patriotic. sion, at the demise of the reigning party, that on the very eve of the monarch. The execution of the memorable third of May, a foreign laws was assigned to the King and minister at the court of Warsaw his council. The royal person to had, it was reported, and firmly be be inviolable. He was vested with

the

the privilege of pardoning all of- opinions, and an entire and comfences but those against the state. plete toleration of every mode of He commanded the military force worship, was permitted to all sects of the kingdom, and appointed the and persuasions. This will appear generals and officers in the army. an act of singular beneficence, when He nominated ministers, bishops, the barbarous zeal of the profesand senators. But no minister or sors of the Romish faith on many senator could be elected a Nun- occasions is duly recollected: it cio.

showed how essentially altered they The judicial power consisted of were at the present, from what they primary courts in every separate had been at a former period, not district, courts of appeal from the very distant; and that the dictates former in each province, and of a of humanity had obtained the assupreme tribunal for the trial of cendant over those of religion ill crimes and misdemeanors commit. understood. ted against the state.

The happiest circumstance atEstates and possessions in land tending this revolution, was the were purchasable by all citizens in- peaceable manner in which it was discriminately; and whoever pur- effected. The dismemberment of chased a village or township, pay- the British colonies in America ing two hundred florins land-tax, from their parent state, was accomwas ennobled. Thirty citizens were panied with great bloodshed and to receive the same honour at devastation ; and the subversion of every new diet: and all citizens, despotism in France has been folwithout exception, were admissible lowed by the most sanguinary and to all preferments in the law, the, lamentable consequences. Poland church, and the army. Foreigners had the honour, and seemed to were allowed to settle in any part have the felicity, of attaining the of the kingdom without restraint, end it proposed, without the loss and with the fullest security to their of a single life.

Whether the persons and property; and the constitution it embraced was the same liberty was extended to those best that could be framed, has natives who had emigrated. been a matter of doubt and dispute

The peasants were declared en- among politicians; but this was titled to every benefit of the law, certain, that on a retrospect of and to claim the punctual perform- the situation of the Poles, anteance of every contract between cedently to this constitution, it them and the proprietors of the wrought a most advantageous and lands which they cultivated :_and desirable change in their circumthey were no longer to be consi. stances, and was calculated, if fodered or treated as in a state of reign violence had not intervened, slavish subjection to the will of the gradually to produce most of those lords of the manor, and owners' national improvements and benefits of the estates where they resided. that can only be expected from the

A perfect freedom of religious progress of time.

CHAP

CH A P. VII.

Exultation of the French at the Confederation. Satisfaction of the Assembly at the Applause it meets with from the Popular Clubs

and Societies in England. Suspicions occasioned in France by the Enge lish Armaments against Spain. Jealousy entertained against the Emperor. Deliberations in the Assembly concerning an Alliance with Spain. Domestic confusions. Continuation of Disturbances in the Colonies. Several Regulations for the Internal Government of the Kingdom. Disorders in the Navy. Discontents in the Army. Motion in the Assembly by Mr. Duval. Its Consequences. Critical Situation of the King. Designs imputed to the Heads of the Popular Party. Charges against the Duke of Orleans and M. Mirabeau. Both acquitted. Coalition of the Parliaments with the Noblesse against the Assembly. Resistance of the Parliament of

Toulouse. Compelled to submit. Zeal of the Parisians for the New Constitution. Confirmation of the Decrees relating to the Civic Oath. Refractory Disposition of the Noblesse. Pecuniary Embarrassments. Fabrication of Assignats. Researches into the Civil and Religious Establishments in France. Number of Seminaries and Convents belonging to the English Roman Catholics in that Kingdom. Discovery of the Profusions under the late Government. Efforts of the Court-Party to procure a Junction with Spain against England. Debility of that Party. Decrees in favour of the Descendants of French Protestant Refugees in Foreign Paris. Resolute Behaviour of the Adherents to the Noblesse and Clergy. Conspiracy at Lyons. Anxiety of the Court of Rome at the Transactions in France. Decree of ihe Assembly concerning Episcopal Elections. Opposition of the Court Clergy to this and other Decrees. Address of the University of Paris to the Assembly. Attachment of the French in Foreign countries to the New Constitution. Zealous Perseverance of its Enemies in opposing it. Duel between M. Lameth and M. Castries. Other Quarrels and violent Proceedings. Reforms in the Administration of Justice. Public Revenues before and since the Revolution. Satisfaction of the Popular Party at the

present situation of Affairs. NO

O event in the French history genius of the nation was set free;

was ever attended with so and the French might indulge the much exultation in every part of hope of becoming as flourishing a the kingdom as the National Confe- people as any recorded in ancient deration of the 14th of July 1790. or modern ages. It seemed to the generality of peo

England, it was now said, would ple, an epoch from whence they no longer boast its pre-eminence were to date uninterrupted happi- over its ancient rival, France, in ness. France was now represented asserting the cause of human freeas perfectly regenerated; the fet- dom, and teaching nations their ters by which it had so long been just rights. The French, after a bound were entirely broken; the long period of ignorance and sla

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