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he was prompted, he said, by his tion the decrees of the legislature ; natural feelings to seek refuge in but having quitted his post, it was some place where he might per- the nation's right to supply it. form, without control, the duties Herein, it was affirmed, they were of his station, and consult with due warranted by the laws relating to propriety the welfare of his people. cases that required a regency, and He finally admonished his subjects, which empowered them to assume the citizens of Paris especially, to the exercise of the executive power be on their guard against the sug- until a regent was appointed. The gestions of his enemies, and to re- public, in the meanwhile, might store him to their confidence and rest secure that good order was duly loyalty :- they would find him
their provided for within the kingdom, best friend as well as their King. and that in case of danger from He pledged himself for the pre- without, an addition of 300,000 servation of religion, an equitable men were in readiness for the argovernment, and the security of my: a strength that would comnational freedom and liberty. pletely enable France to oppose all
This manifesto was received with its enemies. The National Assemgreat applause by the royal party, bly had indeed, in the warmth of its and as violently censured by the zeal for the public welfare, asserted other. The former contended that such rights, and published such it contained a fair and impartial truths as ought to be known for representation of the actual state of the benefit of mankind. True it affairs; the latter, that it aimed at was, that disorders had accompanied distorting facts, and misguiding the the revolution that had ensued ; unwary and inattentive.
but those who brought it about he Assembly did not fail to were not to be accused of promotmake a circumstantial reply to all ing confusions, which, in the nathe preceding charges, and to pub- ture of things, they could not poslish it as an appeal to the nation at sibly obviate, and the authors of large. It stated, that the enemies which had remained concealed, in to the liberty of France, irritated the turbulence and tempestuousness at the prosperous issue of the la- of the times. They reminded the bours undergone to procure a free King of the solemn oath he had constitution, had resolved to frus- taken on the day of the Confederatrate them by the attempt that had tion, to maintain the constitution; been made. But the Assembly adding, that it was incumbent on would shew itself equal to the trust him in order to clear himself from reposed in their courage and fide- the charge of perjury, to declare lity, and would maintain against all that he had been deceived and misattempts to overthrow them, the Jed in the step he had now taken. principles of liberty established by They animadverted on the reproach the revolution : it was necessary, of factiousness, by demanding whethey said, to adapt the exercise of ther the adherence of more than government to the situation of the twenty-four millions of men, and kingdom. The King was ap- their open protestations of fidelity pointed by the constitution, head of and obedience to the decrees of the the executive power, and to sanc- National Assembly, could in com
mon reason be terined a faction? they were committed, rendered Were the representatives of such such an interposition necessary. The a nation to sacrifice its interest clubs and societies of which the to that of a single family? Royalty, King complained, had, it was althey asserted, was instituted for the leged, proved the faithful supsole good of the people. When porters of the revolution; and had nations adopted it, they acted from deservedly obtained a good opinion a persuasion of its utility. But ab- of the people. But would any one solute monarchy was oppression; it presume to say, that because they considered the state as a mere fa spoke the sense of the public, they mily inheritance, and converted the were the deliberative powers of the revenues of the public into a pri state? vate patrimony: The National The appeal concluded, by exAssembly had obviated this abuse, horting the nation to confide in the but it had also consulted the dig- diligence and zeal of the Assembly nity of the crown, by a most ample in detecting and defeating the maand splendid provision: thirty mil- chinations of the enemies to lions of livres had been appro- the constitution. Notwithstanding priated to that purpose ; and yet their efforts and inveteracy, they the King complained of the me must finally yield to the spirit and diocrity of such a sum. The King, perseverance of so mighty a people they said, lamented the loss of that as 'the French, if they continued prerogative which placed in his faithful and unanimous in their hands the power of making peace own defence. The preservation and war: but was it a hardship to of liberty in France now chiefly consult the inclination of those depended on the steady maintewho were to sacrifice their for
nance of good order. The maletunes and expose their lives? Could volent would strive to introduce he be better acquainted with their confusion; it was their last and opinions and their interests than only resource; and if they failed in their representatives, elected out this attempt, little was to be dreaded of their own body? The ambition from their enmity. of Kings and of ministers was too This reply to the King's charges well known to trust them with so was by the popular party consifatal a power. Respecting the dered as a complete refutation of administration of justice, they af- them. The Assembly were indeed firmed, that a King ought to inter so persuaded of the national prefere no otherwise than by causing possession in favour of what they alit to be strictly executed. Expe- leged, that they closed their reply, rience had long shewn in what by explicitly avowing their belief
, manner the right of forgiving cri that to reduce France to its former minals had been exercised, both by yoke, the nation itself must be first Kings and those who used their destroyed. So powerful in fact, at name. The National Assembly this time, was the attachment of had occasionally interposed in the the French to the Assembly, and execution of the executive admin so little their regard for the King, nistration of affairs; but the tardi- that they scrupled not to call his ness and neglect of those to whom flight from Paris a desertion of go
'vernment, and to assert that the a national representation; and who Assembly were thereby duly au- wished therefore to save the King, thorized to provide for the safety whose natural bent and way of and welfare of the people without thinking, they believed to coincide consulting him, and in defiance of perfectly with their own.
As to ridiculous punctilios and absurd the Queen, whatever opinions they injunctions on his part to the con- may have entertained of her Måtrary.
jesty's views, they had no reason to Sentiments of this nature were consider her as formidable; well now so prevalent, and their sup- knowing that she was embroiled in porters so resolute and vehement, disputes and jealousies with the that it was become dangerous to Count d'Artois and the Prince of contradict them.
Condé. Perhaps, too, they might The discontents of France, espe- have been of opinion that the precially of Paris, with the royal fa- mature establishment of a republic, mily, were so great, that it would might have exposed the country to have been very possible to have es- the horrors of a civil war : from tablished a republic. But the lead- which, when it was in fact afterers of the popular party at that wards established, France was saved crisis, consisted of men who were only by the interference of fofriends to a limited monarchy and reigners.
CH A P. IX. M. Bouille's Letter to the French National Assembly. Commissioners
sent to inspect the Frontiers. Violent Feuds in Paris. State of the Public Mind at this Juncture in France, and in other Countries. Foreign Princes deeply interested in the King of France's Situation. Apprehensions entertained by the Emperor and other Sovereigns. Interference of the King of Spain in behalf of the King of France. Slighted by the Assembly. State of Parties at Paris. Progress of Republican Principles in France. Charges against the Royal Party. Conduct of the Assembly. Ill Consequences of the King's Flight to the Royal Cause, and to his Adherents. Deliberations in the Assembly on the Constitutional Code. Decrees against the Emigrants. Insurrection of the Republican Party quelled. Inviolability of the King's Person confirmed. Threats of the German Princes. Rumours of a formidable Combination against France. French Prepurations for Defence. Various Orders of Knighthood abolished. Signature of former Titles prohibited. Decree for appointing a Governor to the King's Son. Expectations of the Popular Party from the Publication of the Constitutional Code. Effects produced by the French Revolution in various parts of Europe. Constitutional Code completed. Endeavours to divide the Assembly into different Houses, after the Model of the English Parliament. Un. successful. Respective Arguments adduced by the Supporters of the Royal Prerogatives, and by their opponents. Ideas entertained by the violent Republicans, and by the Partizans of the old Govern ment. Character and Conduct of the Abbé Maury. Ecelesiastical
Matters. Honours paid to the Memory and the Remains of Voltaire and Rousseau. Scarcity of Specie and Depreciation of Paper Money. French Princes and Emigrants. Plan for the Deliverance of the King-Fails. Divisions in the Assembly. Various Decrees. THE attention of Europe was according to the ancient forms, in fixed upon
these two cele- order to put a stop to the tyranny brated memorials, when a third, of the popular party, and render the still more singular though of less interposition of foreign powers unimportance, made its appearance. necessary. This was a letter written to the This design having miscarried, National Assembly by the Marquis continued M. Bouillé, the destrucof Bouillé, accusing them of de- tion of the French empire would taining and treating the King and certainly be the consequence; the Queen as prisoners; and of having princes of Europe considered themby their detestable maxims, ren selves as threatened by the mondered the French a barbarous and ster which the Assembly had cheinhuman people, and exposed them rished (to use M. Bouillé's own to the scorn and execration of expression) and France would meet mankind. He charged a number with a chastisement that would beof them, particularly M. La Fayette, come a warning to all other nawith a design to establish a republic. tions. He described the King as despoiled The conclusion of this letter of all authority, the army as with was particularly remarkable. M. out subordination, and the state it- Bouillé told the Assembly, that he self as destitute of means to restore equally despised and detested both order to its various parts. In such them and all those who paid them a situation, he thought it his duty obedience ; and on the constitution to invite the King and Queen to they had framed, he bestowed the repair to the frontiers, in order to appellation of infernal : he dared concert measures for the preserva- them to do their worst against him, tion of the kingdom: they were either by poison or assassination; both, he said, averse to the pro- he threatened, if any violence were posal ; alleging their engagement offered to the royal personages, that to remain with the Assembly; but not one stone should remain upon M. Bouillé strongly urged the nul- another in Paris ; he would lead lity of a promise extorted by force; against it the armies of the Sovehe was the more earnest in his so- reigns of Europe, who were shortly, Jicitations, as he knew that a com he asserted, to address the Assembination of foreign powers was bly in more decisive language. forming against France, and that This letter, though it occasioned its condition was totally defence- much conversation among the publess. The King, said M. Bouillé, lic, excited very little notice in the was at length overcome by his en- Assembly. It was considered by treaties, and his remonstrances of the popular party, as the effusions the danger that France was in, and of an angry mind, stung with disconsented to withdraw. to Mont- appointment, and hopeless of those medy: here his intention was to ends it had expected so quickly to have convoked a new Assembly, compass. A consciousness of power
is spåring of words ; violent threats They asserted the inviolability of the betray weakness.
King, and that his prerogatives In the mean time, commissaries ought to be held sacred. Yet, in were sent to the frontier towns to contempt of the constitution, his examine the state of those that were authority had been usurped, laws most exposed to the attack of a had been enacted without his assent, foreign enemy. They found the and, that no outrage might be city of Metz, where M. Bouillé omitted, he was now in a state of had commanded, in a neglected imprisonment. They accused the condition : but, contrarily to the Assembly of having invaded the expectations of the royal party, paternal rights of the King, by takthe military expressed the highest ing out of his hands the education resentment at his conduct, and of his son and entrusting it to branded him with the name of others, over whom he was pretraitor. Other towns were left cluded from any authority. They in like manner unprepared; but reproached them with having enthere were no signs of invasion from grossed the whole executive power, any quarter.
exacting oaths and solemn engageIn Paris, though commotions did ments from the people, assuming not arise, the flight of the King the organization of the army, and gave birth to a variety of specula- exercising military command: obtions extremely hostile to monar- literating by such acts the very chy, and tending strongly to re- semblance of monarchy, and concommend republican principles; verting the government into a they met with a great number of Commonwealth. They reprofavourers; and violent contentions bated such a conduct, as manifestly arose between the respective sup- repugnant to the maxims and porters of these tenets and the spirit even of the present constia friends of a monarchical govern- tution. They explicitly avowed ment. These were, by the warm themselves resolved to decline all advocates of a common
onwealth, ac- public business in future with those cused of inclining to arbitrary in the Assembly who participated power, notwithstanding that they in such proceedings, and to adopt insisted strenuously on every limit- the profoundest silence in all deli-' ation of the crown that was re- berations but on those which requisite for the security of free. lated to the rights of the crown. dom.
These alone they would loudly The friends to monarchy in the assert, and disregard whatever else National Assembly took this op. might be proposed. portunity to express their firm de- Such was the purport of this retermination never to relinquish its solute protest, which was signed by defence, and to maintain it at all 290 members of the National hazards against all opposers. They Assembly, Farther : To manifest united in a resolute protest against how averse they were to the prin. those decrees in virtue of which the ciples of the popular party, and Assembly acted independently of how firmly they were determined the crown and against the king's never to submit to them, such of custody, by the Parisian military. those members as bore hereditary