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CO N T E N T S.*

*

HISTORY OF EUROPE. .

CHAP. I.

Prepossession of the Turks in favour of their own Military Character. Hassan Ali

appointed Grand Vizier. His Character. Situation of the Ottoman Empire. Conduct of Selim. Treaty between the Porte and the King of Prussia. Continued Preparations for War between the Porte on the one Part, and the Russians and Austrians on the other. Death and Character of the Emperor Joseph. Succeeded by his Brother Leopold. Character and Conduct of Leopold on the Commencement of his Reign. His arduous Situation internal and external. Discontents and Disturbances in Hungary, the Milanese, and Tuscany, and Insurrection and Revolt of the Netherlands. Political State of Europe. Sextuple Alliance in opposition to the Confederation between Austria and Russia. Hostility and Animosity between the Courts of Berlin and Vienna ;-yet both these Powers inclined to Peace. A Congress for that Purpose proposed by Leopold. State and position of the Austrian and Prussian Armies. Eugerness of the Divan for a Continuation of the War. Progress of the Austrian Arms, on the Side of Turkey. Cessation of Hostilities and Armistice between the Turks and Austrians. Death and Character of Field Marshal Laudhon. Conferences and Convention at Reichenbach for the Purpose of a Pacification between Austria and Turkey, and for a Restoration of the Netherlands to the Dominion of Austria. Prudent Conduct of Leopold, with regard to the Hungarians. Dissentions, Contests, and State of Parties in Hungary. Leopole elected King of the Romans, and crowned Emperor. Grants, as by free-will, to the Hungarians, what he had refused to their importunate Solicitations. Settlement of his Family, and Intermarriages. Various Acts of his Imperial Majesty's prudent Condescension and Favour. Peace concluded between the Court of Vienna und the Ottoman Porte at Sistovia.

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CHAP. II.

Progress of the Spirit of Freedom. Modified by the different Characters of Nations.

Singular Combination of a Spirit of Liberty with Aristocratical Pride and Religious Bigotry: Political Constitution of the Austrian Netherlands. Analogous to that of England. Arbitrary Government of the Emperor. Discontents of the People.

Suppression

• The reader is requested to observe, that two distinct series of pages have been followed in the present Volume, which commence respectively at the portions allotted to the “History of Europe," and the “Chronicle."

a

Suppression of Monasteries. Subversion of the Constitution. Imprisonments and Emigrations. Emigrants from Brabant assemble at Breda. Sequestration of all the Abbeys of Brabant. Efforts for the Prevention of Insurrection. Conspiracy against the Austrian Government discovered. Attempt to check Emigration in vuin. Declaration of the States of Brabant from Breda. Letter from the Cardinal Archbishop of Malines to the Pope respecting the Conduct of the Emperor, and State of the Country. Insurrections. Valour and Success of the Insurgents. Engagement at Turnhout und at_Tirlemont. Action between the Austrians and Patriots in the open Field. The Patriots become Masters of the Town and Citadel of Ghent. Relaxation of Discipline in the Austriun Armies. Advantages arising to the Patriots from the Reduction of Ghent. The Emperor endeavours to reconcile the Provinces to his Government by fair Promises. Daring Attempt of a Band of Patriots in the Capital of Brabant. Succeeds. The Austrians driven out of Brussels. Rejoicings at Brussels. The States assume the Reins of Government. Confederation between the States of Brabunt and those of Flanders. Acceded to by all the other Provinces, except Limbourg. The United Belgic States provide for their Security, by raising an Army. The Austrian Netherlands at this Time the principal Object of Political Attention. Reflections on the usual State of weaker, when united to stronger States. Splendid Hopes from the Emancipation of the Provinces from the Yoke of Austria.

25

CHAP. III.

Miserable Effects of Newfungled and Democratical Principles. Patriotic Assembly

instituted at Brussels. Their Reasonings and Claims. Political Constitution of the Provinces of the Netherlands. The Principles and Pretensions of the Patriotic Assembly offensive to the Nobility and Clergy. Means employed by these Orders for quashing the Doctrines of the Democrats. Effects of these. State of Parties. Preponderating. Influence of the Clergy. Measures taken by the Nobility for the Recovery of their Popularity. Without any considerable Effect. Popular Discontents rise to a Pitch of Restlessness and Commotion. Troops employed for the Preservation of the Peace. Jealousies between the ruling Powers and the Leaders of the Army. General Vandermersch arrests Deputies sent with Orders to the Army from the Congress. Declared Generalissimo by the Officers of the Army. Other Encrouchments in the Power of Congress. Vandermersch suddenly and shamefully abandoned by the Army. Imprisoned in the Citadel of Antwerp. Charges brought against him. Duke of Ursel persecuted by Congress. The Congress becomes unpopular and odious to the Bulk of the People. Imprisonment of Vandermersch resented by his Countrymen the People of Flanders. Declining State of the new Government. Expectations from the Accession of Leopold II. to the Austrian Dominions. Almost, though not entirely disappointed. Memorial of Leopold to the Inhabitants of the Netherlands. Criticisms on that Piece. Conduct of Leopold vindicated. Charucter of Sovereign Princes in general. The Firmness of Leopold revives a Party in his Favour. Quick Increase of the Loyalists, in both Numbers and Courage. Arguments in Favour of a Reunion with the House of Austria, and of Hereditary Monarchy in general. Letter to Congress from the King of Prussia. Blind Ambition, Obstinacy, and Rashness of Con. gress. Notification to Congress of the Terms of Reconciliation between his Imperial Majesty and the Belgic Nation. Consented to by the three allied and mediating Powers. Strange Obstinacy of Congress. A Degree of Reunion among the discordant Parties in the Netherlands brought about by a common Hatred of the Austrian Government. Hustilities renewed with great Animosity. Two of the Provinces that remained in Obedience to the Austrians. A great Resource to the Austrians. Rapid Growth of Ambition. Character of the Brabanters. Wild Schemes of Conquest. Repulse of the Brabanters from Limbourg. Various Encounters

. A large Austrian Army marches against the Low Countries. Attempts of Congress to rouze the Nation

to

to Perseverance in Arms against the Austrians. Made in vain. Various Proposals for Reconciliation. Rejected by the Austrians. The Austrians, under General Bender, enter Brabant. All the Provinces submit aguin, on very favourable Conditions, to the House of Austria, Reflections.

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CHAP. IV.

Peace on the Ground of the Status quo, rejected by the Empress of Russia. Ambitious

Designs of the Empress, opposed by Prussia and Great Britain. Heroic Courage of the King of Sweden, Means for gaining over the Nution at large to his Views, and raising the necessary Supplies for the War. The King puts himself at the Head of his Forces, and enters Russian Savolax. His Successes. Ten Thousand Russians defeated by Three Thousand Swedes at Carnakoski. Reduction of the Russian Fort Valkiala. Other Advantages. The King of Sweden at the Head of his Galleys, takes or destroys the Russian Galley-Fleet, in the Harbour of Frederickshum. Engagements between the Swedish Fleet, under the Duke of Sudermania, and the Russian Fleet. The Swedes prepare to make an Attack on the Town and Harbour of Wybourg. Perilous Situation of the Swedes. Escape with immense Loss to Sweaborg. Defeat of the Russian Fleet, under the Prince of Nassau, by the Swedish Fleet, under the Command of the King. Inclination to Peace on the Part of Russia and Sweden. Peace between these Powers concluded. The King of Sweden prepares to attack the ruli, g Powers, and to restore the Monarchy of France. Meeting at Pilnitz. This the Centre of the Affairs of Europe, 1791. Real Object of the Meeting at Pilnila. Substance of a Circular Letter from the Emperor Leopold to the Sovereign Powers. Russia and Sweden the first Powers that openly declared an Intention to succour the Royal Family of France. Speech of Gustavus to the Swedish Diet. Reflections on the Importance of Hereditary Wealth and Honours in a State. These a Barrier against Monarchical Encroachments, on the one Hand, and the Levity of the People on the other. Plan of the King of Sweden for a Descent on France. Discouraged by the Emperor, but persevered in by the King. Assassination, Illness, Death, and Character of the King of Sweden.

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CHAP. V.

Rejoicings at Petersburgh on Account of the Peace with Sweden. An Ambition of Conquest

the ruling Passion of the Empress. The Pacification of Wereluiaa Countermine to the Convention of Reichenbach. Efects of this on the Minds of the Turks. Resentments against the Swedes

. Misplaced. The King of Sweden's Conduct in making Peace with Russia vindicated. The haughty Spirit of the Empress reduced by the Allies within the Bounds of greater Circumspection und Caution. Cessation of Hostilities on the Danube. Vigorous Preparations for Wur on the part of the Ottomans. Naval Engagements. Heroic Achievements of a Greek Squadron, under the Colours and Auspices of Russia, and of a Body of Greeks at Land. A Concert formed between the Czarina and the Greeks, for emancipating that Nation from the Mahomedan Yoke. Deputies from the People of Greece sent to Petersburgh. How received, Great and extensive Plan of the Greeks, for expelling the Turks from Europe. Approved by the Empress, who gives Earnest of future Succours in Case of certain Events. Russian Plan for a Winter Campaign on the Danube. Turkish Army under Batal Bey, on the side of Asia, routed and totally ruined. The strong Fortress and Town of Ismailow tuken by Storm, after a noble Defence, by General Suvarof. Dreadful and unheard of Mussucre there. Various Actions between the Turks and Russians. Tredty of Peace concluded suddenly at Galatz.

85 СНАР.

C H A P. VI.

Situation of Poland at the Close of 1790. Poland treated with Insolence by the Courts

of Petersburgh und Vienna. Sound Policy of an Alliance between Poland and Prussia. Unusual Condescendence of the Courts of Vienna and Petersburgh. Awakened Spirit and Patriotism of the Polish Nation. Abolition of the permanent Council, and Establishment of a permanent Diet in Poland. Concessions to the Poles by the Russians and Austrians. Augmentation of the Military Strength of Poland. Situa ation of Northern and Eastern Europe at the Commencement of 1790. Sketch of a New Constitution favourable to the Liberty and Happiness of all Ranks. Ercites Jealousy and Alarm in the Courts of Berlin and Petersburg!. King of Prussia demands the Cession of Dantzic and Thorn. Character, Circumstances, and Conduct of the King of Poland. Patriotic Ardour of the Poles of all Ranks. Decrees of the Polish Diet in favour of the Commons. The Meeting of the Polish States changed into a Diet of Confederation; in which all Questions are to be decided by a Majority. The Diet opened by the King in Person. The Diet absolves the King from his Coronation Oalh. Debates in the Diet. The King and the Diet accept, with the Solemnity of an Oath, the New Constitution.

108

CHA P. VII. Erultation of the French at the Confederation. Satisfaction of the Assembly at the Ap

plause it meets with from the Popular Clubs and Societies in England. Suspicions occasioned in France by the English Armaments against Spain. Jealousy entertained against the Emperor. Deliberations in the Assembly concerning an Alliance with Spain. Domestic Confusions. Continuation of Disturbances in the Colonies. Several Regulations for the Internal Government of the Kingdom. Disorders in the Navy.

Discontents in the Army. Motion in the Assembly by M. Duval. Its Con. sequences. Critical Situation of the King. Designs imputed to the Heads of the Popular Party. Charges against the Duke of Orleans and M. Mirabeau. Both acquite ted. Coalition of the Parliaments with the Noblesse against the Assembly. Resistance of the Parliament of Toulouse. Compelled to submit. Zeal of the Parisians for the New Constitution. Confirmation of the Decrees relating to the Civic Oath. Refractory dispositions of the Noblesse. Pecuniary Embarrassments. Fabrication of Assignats. Researches into the Civil and Religious Establishments in France. Number of Seminaries and Convents belonging to the English Roman Catholics in that Kingdom. Discovery of the Profusions under the late Government. Efforts of the Court Party to procure a Junction with Spain against England. Debility of that Party. Decrees in favour of the Descendants of French Protestant Refugees in Foreign Parts. Resolute Behaviour of the Adherents to the Noblesse and Clergy. Conspiracy at Lyons. Anxiety of the Court of Rome at the Transactions in France. Decree of the Assembly concerning Episcopal Elections. Opposition of the Court Clergy to this and other Decrees. Address of the University of Paris to the Assembly. Attachment of the French in Foreign Countries to the New Constitution. Zealous Perseverance of its Enemies in opposing it. Duel between M. Lameth and M. Castries. Other Quarrels and violent Proceedings. Reforms in the Administration of Justice. Public Revenues before and since the Revolution. Satisfaction of the Popular Party at the present Situation of Affairs.

126 CHAP. VIII. Dissatisfaction of the European Princes at the Proceedings of the Assembly. Come

plaints of the German Princes. Letter from the Emperor to the King of France. An Augmentation of the French Army voted by the Assembly, Affairs of the King's Aunts.

Tumult

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