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Turks, excited by a sense of their venerable Field-Marshal Laudhon, losses and disgraces to the madness who, after having encountered as of despair, fought with incredible wany dangers in the field as was fury; and after a desperate conflict, ever perlaps braved by any man, in which they broke through the died on a sick bed, full of years and Austrian lines, carried every thing of glory. He departed this life at before them, and in defiance of his head quarters in Moravia, early discipline as well as of valour, na- in July (1790) in the seventy-fifth tural and acquired, absolutely put year of his age; and his death was the Austrians to flight. The head universally and exceedingly lamenof Count Thorn, while he made ted, not only on account of his every possible exertion of personal great military talents and public courage as well as military skill to services, but also for bis amiable resist the impetuosity of his fierce virtues, which shone forth equally and enraged foe, was carried off by in his military conduct, his interthe blow of a janizary's sabre, courses with society, and his doand afterwards exhibited in tri mestic retirement. It was comumph on a pike through the ranks monly said in Germany, that alof the Turkish army: The loss of though the progress of the Austrian the Austrians in this unfortunate as well as Russian armies, was too action, was 700 men killed, and often marked by many unnecessary, upwards of_2,000 desperately unprofitable, and barbarous cruelwounded. The besieging army ties, as well as by devastation, now abandoned their entrench “ Field-Marshal Laudhon madewar ments and works, along with like a gentleman and a Christian.” eighteen pieces of artillery, and Laudhon, was born in Livonia; filed with ihe utmost precipitation, but his father, a Lieutenant in the And thus the war between the Russian army, was a Scotchman, Austrians and Turks was termina- descended from the family of Louted.

don, although the orthography of To the motives above men the name has undergone some altioned that naturally inclined the teration in the lapse of time or mind of Leopold to peace, another the change of country. He emof no light importance was about braced the profession of arms at a this time added, by the death of the very early period of life, not more first General not only in the Aus- from inclination than from necestrianarmies, but at that particularpe. sity; and he actually fought in the riod in Europe. Thiswas the celebra- ranks as a private soldier, under the ted and truly great commander, the imperial generals, during the war of


* It is observed by Mr. Wraxall, from whose interesting Memoirs of the Courts of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw, and Vienna, lately published, chiefly we have extracted these anecdotes of Marshal Laudhon, that “ It reflects no little honour on the Scottish and Irish nations, that they have given so many illustrious commanders to Europe during the course of the present century." Keith, Brown, the Russian Admirals (Elphinston and Greig, Lacy, Laudhon, as well as various others of inferior reputation, are proofs of this

assertion. Memoirs of the Courts of Berlin, &c. Vol. I. page 342.


1799, between the Emperor Charles Generals, but always dreaded the the Sixth and France. At the conclu. battles of Laudhon. sion of peace between these powers, In consequence of the pacific disfinding himself without provision positions, on the part of Austria and of any kind, he walked from Hei. Prussia, as well as the Porte, condelberg in the Palatinate, to the ferences were opened on the 4th of Banks of the Black Sea, with his June, 1790, at Reichenbach in Siknapsack on his shoulder, and en- lesia, forthe purpose of accelerating tered into the service of the Em- a pacification between Austria and press Ann, at war with the Turks, Turkey, and for adjusting at the and therein remained under the same time the differences between command of Count Munich and Leopold and his subjects in the General Lacy, during the whole Netherlands. The ministers who progress of the war, till its ter- met on this occasion, were the mination in 1739. Returning Prince de Reuss and Baron Spiel

more into Germany he man, Plenipotentiaries on the part endeavoured to enter, as a subal- of his Hungarian Majesty; the tern officer, into the Prussian Count Hertsberg, on the part of service, but without success. The bis Prussian Majesty;Joseph Ewart, King of Prussia could not then Esq. on that of his Britannic Maforesee how dear the rejection jesty; and the Baron de Reede, of such an officer would cost him. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Laudhon in 1741 found means to Plenipotentiary, from the States procure an Ensign's commission in General of the United Provinces. the Austrian service, unaided by His Hungarian Majesty agreed to friends or connexions of any kind. open a negotiation for peace with His rise in the army was at first the Ottoman Porte, on the basis of only slow;- he wrought his way the status quo (such as existed beto preferment gradually. The fore the war) under the mediation eminent services which he ren- of the three allied courts, and to dered to Maria Theresa, in the consent to an immediate armistice war between 1757 and 1763, were with that power; declaring his rerewarded by her Imperial Majesty, solution of standing neuter, and after the peace, with an estate in abstaining from taking any part, Moravia: by means of which, and directly or indirectly, in ibe war, his military appointments, he was should the Empress of Russia rein a state of considerable affluence. fuse to accede in this negotiation, The quality by which he was pc. His Hungarian Majesty was to culiarly characterized as a General, keep Chockzim en dépôt ; that forwas, the rapidity and decision of tress having becn conquered by the his movements. A long train of united arms of Austria and Russia. reflection, as he himself declared, But he agreed to restore it to Turonly rendered him irresolute. Af- key on a peace, under the guaranter viewing the ground and recon- tee of the King of Prussia; who noitering the position of the ene. accepted the propositions of the my, he took his resolution in a King of Hungary, under the remoment, and executed it with the striction, that if, in the arrangement velocity of lightning. The great of limits between Austria and the King of Prussia said, that he some Porte the former should obtain any times admired the position of other acquisition on the side of Aluta, Vol. XXXIII.



Prussia should have an equivalent election, for the imperial throne; on the side of Upper Silesia. The but under the express and indisKing of Prussia declared that no pensable condition that the Emperor hostile engagement subsisted be- of the Romans should never enter tween him and the Belgic pro- into any alliance with Russia: as vinces; and that he would co-ope- in case of such a connexion, he rate with the maritime powers for would be disabled from discharge the purpose of appeasing the trou. ing his duty as head of the Gerbles in those countries, and re- man empire, and resisting any fustoring them to the Austrian domi- ture attack of that power on Gernions, on conditions of the re-es- many. It is unnecessary to mentablishment of their ancient privi- tion that the negotiations at Reichleges and constitution; and the enbach by no means interrupted, English and Dutch ministers en- but rather, as is usual in such gaged, in behalf of their respective cases, accelerated the military courts, to guarantee these condi- preparations on both sides. It is tions. The conferences (the pare in fact the surd eloquence of those ties concerned being all desirous preparations, as it is well known, of tranquillity) were soon brought that gives the greatest weight to to a conclusion. A convention that of political negotiations. The was executed on the 27th of July, conferences

Reichenbach, 1790*, by which, besides the con- though on the whole carried on ditions just mentioned, it was with uncommon harmony and ex agreed that the King of Hungary peditious effect, were at one peshould retain the provinces of riod so nearly broken off, that the Gallicia and Lodomeria, which he King of Prussia had, in expectation already possessed in Poland; that, of immediate hostilities, prohibited should Russia persist in carrying all further intercourse between Sion the war against the Porte and lesia and the Austrian territories; Sweden, his Prussian Majesty and had at the same time signified should be at free liberty to fulfil to the court of Dresden, that he these engagements, without the would not admit of its neutrality; court of Vienna taking any part, but, in case of war, expected that directly or indirectly, in the con- it should explicitly declare in fatest. On the other hand, the King vour of one of the parties. Nor of Prussia engaged to give Leo- was the court of Vienna, in conpold his vote on the approaching junction with its Russian allies, less



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* It be mentioned as a curious fact, that neither the Prussian nor Austrian ministers were friendly, but, on the contrary, averse to the treaty of Reichenbach. Count Hertsberg, bred in the school of Frederic, thought the moment favourable for attacking and weakening Austria, by taking the rest of Silesia. Prince Kaunitz, on the other hand, still meditated plans for the further aggrandizement of the Austrians. The convention was forced on and brought to a speedy conclusion, chiefly by the unremitted exertions of the English minister, Mr. Ewart, seconded and supported by the favourable inclinations of Leopold ; whose mind, we have been well assured, was prepared and well-disposed for pacification and union among the great sovereign powers, by much reflection on the causes and consequences of the convulsed state of Europe: and by long habits of conversation with an English gentleman, of great experience in affairs, as well as intelligence on the nature of assignats, or paper credit under any name, hypothecated on spoliation; and who, after a residence at his court for more than a year, accompanied him in the summer of 1991, to his coronation at Frankfort.

intent on the most active measures. was the first maxim of this humane Large bodies of troops were con and wise prince, in the administratinually approaching the Austrian tion of government, to abstain acquisitions in Poland, which, in from all acts of injustice and opcase of the conferences proving in- pression: and the second, to imeffectual, were expected to become prove the condition of his subjects, the scene of action. By the treaty by voluntarily anticipating their of Reichenbach, the allies made a just complaints; but never yielding very considerable advancement to. to the appearance of combination wards the great object of their in- and importunate solicitation. A terference, the prevention of the remarkable instance of his prudence ruin or dismemberment of the and address, in maintaining the auTurkish empire; and an easy way thority of the crown by avoiding a was opened to Leopold for quiet- contest, in which perhaps he must ing the discontents and disturbances have been constrained to yield to in different \parts of his extensive the popular current, we are about dominions, and the attainment of to relate.. other desirable and dear objects. The Hungarian malcontents were

During the conferences at Rei so numerous, and the spirit of disehenbach, deputies from Hungary content, discord, and division, had arriving at Vienna, presented a long risen to such a height, that a motion list of twenty-four articles to the had been made in a full diet or as. King, which they pressed him to sembly of the Hungarian states, sign previously to his coronation after the conclusion of the treaty for that kingdom. The principal of Reichenbach, and strongly supdemands of the Hungarians were, ported, for sending ministers dithat they should have tribunals of rectly from the nation to Constanjustice and other departments, en tinople, without any notice or retirely independent of the imperial gard to the King; who were to ne. courts of the same nature at Vien- gotiate in the name of the diet, and ma: and especially a council of entirely on its own account, a treawar, for the government of their ty with the Ottoman Porte. This army; the officers of wbich should bold and dangerous proposition, thenceforth depend on it alone for which had been for some time extheir promotion; and that no Ger- pected by the court of Vienna, was man troops should enter Hungary eluded by another made by the without the formal consent and re- King's ministers, and supported by quisition of the states. Leopold, all the weight and influence of the foreseeing that the issue of the ne- crown, for an address to the King gotiations would soon put him in for permission to send deputies to possession of the usual ways and the congress that was to meet, for means of governing the Hunga- settling a peace with the Ottomans. Tians, refused to comply with their This motion being carried, not request: considering their demands without very great opposition, a as too importunate and peremptory; letter was sent to the King, in which árid under the conviction that the diet stated, “ Thát, to the great Compliance with requests so made, grief of the states, and contrarily to would tend only to the exaction of the fundamental laws of the kin further and further concessions. It dom, the present war had been

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commenced without their know- importunity of the Hungarians on Jedge ; and that they would be pe- other points to a dangerous height, netrated with still greater grief, if if a coalition had not been made now that they were assembled in between Austria and Prussia. The diet and bent on the establishment Hungarian malcontents had beof their rights, any treaty of peace come so numerous and appeared so should be concluded without their formidable, that Leopold at one concurrence. Essential laws(which time entertained serious apprehen-, they quoted) did not permit a King sions with regard to the security, of Hungary to begin a war in the and even the preserration of the kingdom, nor in the provir.ces kingdom: and it was intended onunited with it, without the know- the conclusion of peace with the ledge and consent of the nation: Porte, to send the Hungarian army and a peace with the Turks could to the low countries, and to replace not be concluded, either wiihin or them in Hungary entirely by Gerwithout the kingdom, but with the man regiments. But the various advice and consent of a Hungarian interests that divided the higher council. Trusting that his Majesty ranks of the nobility from the infewould readily acknowledge the rior; the jealousy entertained by justness of these representations, the popular classes of both these, and the reasonableness of their de- and the difference of religion mands, they proposed deputies, among them all, prevented that men of approved integrity, know- unanimity which would have been ledge, and ability in public affairs, necessary to an effectual resistance to attend the conferences for peace of a long established power, and and other negotiations for the public enabled the court of Vienna to good, in conformity to the spirit of play off the different parties against the Hungarian laws and constitu- one another, and to balance and tion; which they would consider manage the whole. The Proas a particular proof of his Ma- testants hated the Roman Cathojesty's justice, and as a tie which lics, and the Catholics the Proteswould attach still more strongly, tants. The peasants abhorred the that free, faithful, and loyal nation, nobles, and 'the nobles (though to his Majesty's person and govern- divided among themselves) conment.”

curred in despising and oppressing Leopold received the deputation the peasants: and as these parties and application of the states were at enmity among themselves (which he had himself been se- so also they were differently affected cretly instrumental in procuring) towards the sovereign. The Magvery graciously; and empowered nats and Comitats, with the exthe diet to nominate whomsoever ception of those who held great they should think proper, to act offices of the crown, were bent on as representatives of the Hunga- a revolution, and desirous of cerian nation, and to attend to their menting the closest alliance that interests at the congress.

could be formed with the Porte This concession of Leopold, and with Prussia. Many of the however, though made with grace Noblesse, envious and jealous of and as an homage due to justice, the Magnats and great Palatines, might perhaps have encreased the were favourably disposed towards


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